Annotation of wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn, revision 1.97

1.1       jakllsch    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
1.39      wiki        3: This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi]( All board variants are supported.
1.70      gdt         5: Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2, or the netbsd-7 branch after mid 2018.)
1.39      wiki        6: 
1.3       wiki        7: [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
1.26      wiki        9: [[!toc levels=2]]
1.14      wiki       11: <small>([Raspberry Pi image]( by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
1.3       wiki       12: 
1.54      gdt        13: # What works (and what doesn't yet)
1.53      gdt        14: 
1.92      gdt        15: \todo Add information  on Pi Zero and Pi Zero W.
1.70      gdt        17: ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
1.53      gdt        18: 
1.74      gdt        19:  - RaspberryPi 1, 2, 3 (except Pi 3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
                     20:  - multiple processors on 2/3
                     21:  - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
                     22:  - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
1.53      gdt        23:  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
1.74      gdt        24:  - X11 via HDMI
                     25:  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
                     26:  - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
                     27:  - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
1.53      gdt        28:  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
1.74      gdt        29:  - RNG
1.53      gdt        30:  - Audio: works. man page missing.
1.74      gdt        31:  - GPIO
1.53      gdt        32:  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
                     33:  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
                     35: ## NetBSD current
1.74      gdt        37:  - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin bluetooth
1.53      gdt        38:  - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver
1.54      gdt        40: ## What needs work
1.53      gdt        41: 
                     42:  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
1.74      gdt        43:  - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin WiFi
1.53      gdt        44: 
1.57      gdt        45: # CPU types
1.59      gdt        47:  - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
1.92      gdt        48:  - Raspberry Pi Zero uses "\todo".
1.59      gdt        49:  - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
1.64      gdt        50:  - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
1.92      gdt        51:  - Raspberry Pi Zero W uses "\todo".
1.57      gdt        52: 
1.96      gdt        53: Note that one can run earmv6hf userland code on the 2 and 3.  In theory the code compiled for earmv7hf will be faster. \todo Benchmark and explain.  \todo Explain if one can run the earmv6hf RPI2 kernel on RPI1.  \todo Explain if the earmv6hf rpi.img.gz will run on a RPI2/3.
1.97    ! gdt        55: \todo Explain if one can run "eb" variants.  (However, using eb is likely to find more bugs because almost everyone uses el.  That can either be a reason to run it or not run it.)
        !            56: 
1.96      gdt        57: \todo Explain if systems built with earm or earmv5 will work on RPI or RPI2/3.
                     59: See also [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.
1.70      gdt        60: 
1.7       wiki       61: # Installation
1.53      gdt        62: 
1.62      gdt        63: ## SD card structure
1.86      gdt        65: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 MBR partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
                     66: The NetBSD kernel will then find NetBSD MBR partition and within that the root disklabel partition, and use that FFS partition as the root filesystem.
1.62      gdt        67: 
1.86      gdt        68: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size, and the installation image will fit.  After the first boot, the system resizes the NetBSD root partition to fill the card.  Note that swap is after /boot and before /, and not contained in the NetBSD fdisk partition.  However, if you don't try to change the partition structure, this should not cause you any trouble.
1.63      gdt        69: 
1.91      gdt        70: Note that SD cards generally have limited write tolerance, so you may wish to disable atime updates via the noatime option, as is done by the default installation.
1.62      gdt        72: ## Choosing a version
1.95      gdt        74: First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.2 or 8.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, a recent build of netbsd-8 is probably best, with 8.0 the choice for those who value being at exactly a formal release.
1.65      gdt        75: 
                     76: See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
1.58      gdt        77: 
                     78: ## Getting bits to install
1.96      gdt        80: You can either build a release yourself with, or get a release from the NetBSD HTTPS/FTP servers.  The bits from both sources should match, except for things like  timestamps, or because the sources are from slightly different points along branches.
1.58      gdt        81: 
                     82: ### Building yourself
1.95      gdt        84: Getting sources and building a release with is not special for evbarm.  However, the evbarm port has a very large number of CPU types, compared to i386 and amd64 which have one each.  The standard approach is to use -m to define MACHINE and -a to define MACHINE_ARCH. supports aliases that can be passed as a MACHINE value, but denote both MACHINE and a MACHINE_ARCH.   The third line uses an alias and is equal to the second, for RPI2/3.  Note that the aliases start with "evb" while the MACHINE_ARCH values do not, and that aliases have "-el" or "-eb", while the MACHINE_ARCH values have no suffix or "eb".
1.66      gdt        85: 
1.59      gdt        86:  - ./ -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
                     87:  - ./ -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
1.95      gdt        88:  - ./ -m evbearmv7hf-el -u release
1.81      gdt        89: 
1.94      gdt        90: Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if you wish to build multiple MACHINE_ARCH values for a MACHINE; see  Use something like "evbarm-earmv7hf", so that 1) earvm6 and earmv7 don't collide and 2) anita will recognize it as a type of evbarm.
1.58      gdt        91: 
1.85      gdt        92: ### NetBSD autobuild HTTPS/FTP servers
1.58      gdt        93: 
1.96      gdt        94: NetBSD provides nightly builds on [](  The next directory level is the branch being built (netbsd-7, netbsd-8, HEAD, and more), plus optionally things like compiler type.  It is followed by date/time, e.g. "HEAD/201811051650Z"; once a build is complete the symlink "latest" is adjusted to point to it.  The next level is "${MACHINE}-${MACHINE_ARCH}", e.g. "evbarm-earmv7hf", and multiple combinations are provided.
1.58      gdt        95: 
1.96      gdt        96: An example URL, arguably the standard approach for first-time NetBSD/RPI users, is
1.95      gdt        97: 
                     98: ### release layout
1.96      gdt       100: Once you get to the releasedir, self-built and autobuild releases have the same structure.
1.85      gdt       102:  - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that will run on any of the RPI boards.
1.96      gdt       103:  - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that uses the armv7 instruction set, and thus can run only on the Raspberry Pi 2/3.
1.85      gdt       104: 
1.95      gdt       105: \todo Explain why there is no armv7_inst.gz.
1.58      gdt       106: 
1.65      gdt       107: ## Preparing a uSD card
1.10      wiki      108: 
1.65      gdt       109: Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
1.14      wiki      110: 
1.60      gdt       111:  - gunzip rpi.img.gz
1.67      ryoon     112:  - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
1.14      wiki      113: 
1.89      gdt       114: ## Console approaches
                    116: The standard approach is to use a USB keyboard and an HDMI monitor for installation.
1.58      gdt       118: ### Serial Console
1.89      gdt       120: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, mount the FAT32 partition on another system and edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
1.14      wiki      121: 
1.89      gdt       122:  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters have wires for Tx, Rx and ground, and not RTS/CTS or other flow control lines.   Thus, your terminal program (or terminal) must be configured to not require flow control; a symptom of misconfiguration is that you see console output, but cannot type anything.  If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
1.41      wiki      123: 
1.89      gdt       124:    - In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
                    125:    - In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no".
1.41      wiki      126: 
1.89      gdt       127: ### Enabling ssh for installation without any console
1.41      wiki      128: 
1.89      gdt       129: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, you can edit the configuration of a uSD card before booting.   On another computer, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address (e.g. from DHCP server logs), you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
1.65      gdt       130: 
1.89      gdt       131: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
1.65      gdt       132: 
1.89      gdt       133: (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console, when built for earmv6hf.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
1.58      gdt       134: 
1.89      gdt       135:  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to a LAN with a DHCP server, and another host you can use for ssh.
                    136:  - Power on the RPI, and wait.  Watch the logs on the DHCP server, and find the IP address assigned to the RPI.
                    137:  - Use ssh to login to the address you found with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
                    138:  - When installing, ensure that you enable DHCP and ssh, so that you can log in again after the system is installed.
1.53      gdt       139: 
1.89      gdt       140: \todo Verify that the above is accurate and sufficient.
1.16      wiki      141: 
1.55      gdt       142: ## Installation via ebijun's image
1.58      gdt       144: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
                    145: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
                    146: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
                    147: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
                    148: every few weeks.
1.55      gdt       149: 
1.56      gdt       150:  - [](
1.55      gdt       151: 
1.90      gdt       152: ## Links
                    154: The following pages have been published by NetBSD community members.  (Note that some of them are old.)
                    156:  -
1.74      gdt       158: # Maintaining a system
1.78      gdt       160: ## vcgencmd
1.80      gdt       162: The program vcgencmd, referenced in the boot section,  can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
1.78      gdt       163: 
1.53      gdt       164: ## Updating the kernel
1.46      schmonz   165: 
1.42      wiki      166:  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
                    168:          ...
                    169:          Kernels built from RPI2:
                    170:           /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd
                    171:          ...
1.69      rin       173:  - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" (for current) or "netbsd.bin" (for 7 and 8) kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
1.48      sevan     174:  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
1.42      wiki      175:  - reboot
1.73      gdt       177: ## Updating the firmware
                    179: A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
1.88      gdt       181: \todo Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain how to update a system (presumably /boot) from either an installed system's new firmware files, or the source tree.  Explain any particular cautions.
1.73      gdt       182: 
1.75      gdt       183: ## Booting
1.79      gdt       185: The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting]( and read all the subpages.
1.75      gdt       186: 
                    187: The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
1.77      gdt       189: One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /.   The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
1.75      gdt       190: 
1.77      gdt       191: An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
1.75      gdt       192: 
1.80      gdt       193: A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode]( will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
                    194: \todo Confirm that putting program_usb_boot_mode=1 in config.txt and booting works to program the OTP bit.  Confirm that one can then boot NetBSD from external USB.
1.75      gdt       195: 
                    196: \todo Explain USB enumeration and how to ensure that the correct boot and root devices are found if one has e.g. a small SSD for the system and a big disk.
1.24      wiki      198: # Wireless Networking
1.53      gdt       199: 
1.75      gdt       200: Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.
1.53      gdt       201: 
1.24      wiki      202:  - A Realtek 802.11n USB adaptor configures as urtwn(4).
1.25      wiki      203:    - Configure with wpa_supplicant in /etc/rc.conf -
1.24      wiki      204: 
                    205:            ifconfig_urtwn0=dhcp
                    206:            dhcpcd=YES
                    207:            dhcpcd_flags="-q -b"
                    208:            wpa_supplicant=YES
                    209:            wpa_supplicant_flags="-B -i urtwn0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf"
1.25      wiki      210:    - A sample wpa_supplicant.conf can be found at /usr/share/examples/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
1.24      wiki      211: 
1.93      gdt       212: # X11 and GPU
                    214: ## Console font
                    216: Some find the default font to be too small.  \todo Give a link to the normal instructions on how to change it.
1.27      wiki      217: 
                    218: ## Video playback
1.29      wiki      219: Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer]( application and through GStreamer with the [omx]( plugin.
1.27      wiki      220: 
                    221: ## OpenGL ES
                    222: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland]( package.
1.28      wiki      224: ## Quake 3
1.27      wiki      225: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi]( package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
                    227:  - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
1.31      snj       228:  - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3]( package
1.27      wiki      229:  - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
1.31      snj       231: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
1.27      wiki      232: 
1.32      wiki      233: ## RetroArch / Libretro
                    234: Using [emulators/retroarch]( it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*]( packages. To begin using retroarch:
                    236:  - Install [emulators/retroarch](
                    237:  - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](, a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
                    238:  - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
                    239:  - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
                    240: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
1.35      wiki      241: $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
1.32      wiki      242: """]]
                    243:  - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
                    244: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
                    245: $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/ game.gbc
                    246: """]]
1.53      gdt       248: # Developer notes
1.50      gdt       249: 
1.53      gdt       250: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       251: 
1.72      gdt       252: ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
1.50      gdt       253: 
1.72      gdt       254: (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
                    255: be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
1.50      gdt       256: 
1.72      gdt       257: Upstream firmware releases are
                    258: [on GitHub](
                    259: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
                    261: New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       262: 
1.53      gdt       263: - Audio
                    264: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
                    265: - Serial/framebuffer console
                    266: - CPU frequency scaling
1.50      gdt       267: 
1.92      gdt       268: Tests should be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
1.94      gdt       269: 
                    270: ## Testing with anita and qemu
                    272: anita has support for evbarm.  Install qemu and dtb-arm-vexpress from pkgsrc.  Note that the release subdirectory should be evbarm-earmv6hf or evbarm-earmv7hf.
                    274: \todo Explain how to select various RPI models to emulate.
                    275: \todo Explain about how DTB works.

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