Annotation of wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn, revision 1.95

1.1       jakllsch    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
1.39      wiki        3: This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi]( All board variants are supported.
1.70      gdt         5: Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2, or the netbsd-7 branch after mid 2018.)
1.39      wiki        6: 
1.3       wiki        7: [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
1.26      wiki        9: [[!toc levels=2]]
1.14      wiki       11: <small>([Raspberry Pi image]( by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
1.3       wiki       12: 
1.54      gdt        13: # What works (and what doesn't yet)
1.53      gdt        14: 
1.92      gdt        15: \todo Add information  on Pi Zero and Pi Zero W.
1.70      gdt        17: ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
1.53      gdt        18: 
1.74      gdt        19:  - RaspberryPi 1, 2, 3 (except Pi 3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
                     20:  - multiple processors on 2/3
                     21:  - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
                     22:  - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
1.53      gdt        23:  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
1.74      gdt        24:  - X11 via HDMI
                     25:  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
                     26:  - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
                     27:  - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
1.53      gdt        28:  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
1.74      gdt        29:  - RNG
1.53      gdt        30:  - Audio: works. man page missing.
1.74      gdt        31:  - GPIO
1.53      gdt        32:  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
                     33:  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
                     35: ## NetBSD current
1.74      gdt        37:  - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin bluetooth
1.53      gdt        38:  - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver
1.54      gdt        40: ## What needs work
1.53      gdt        41: 
                     42:  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
1.74      gdt        43:  - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin WiFi
1.53      gdt        44: 
1.57      gdt        45: # CPU types
1.59      gdt        47:  - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
1.92      gdt        48:  - Raspberry Pi Zero uses "\todo".
1.59      gdt        49:  - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
1.64      gdt        50:  - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
1.92      gdt        51:  - Raspberry Pi Zero W uses "\todo".
1.57      gdt        52: 
1.74      gdt        53: Note that one can run earmv6hf code on the 2 and 3.  See also
                     54: [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.
1.70      gdt        55: 
1.7       wiki       56: # Installation
1.53      gdt        57: 
1.62      gdt        58: ## SD card structure
1.86      gdt        60: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 MBR partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
                     61: The NetBSD kernel will then find NetBSD MBR partition and within that the root disklabel partition, and use that FFS partition as the root filesystem.
1.62      gdt        62: 
1.86      gdt        63: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size, and the installation image will fit.  After the first boot, the system resizes the NetBSD root partition to fill the card.  Note that swap is after /boot and before /, and not contained in the NetBSD fdisk partition.  However, if you don't try to change the partition structure, this should not cause you any trouble.
1.63      gdt        64: 
1.91      gdt        65: Note that SD cards generally have limited write tolerance, so you may wish to disable atime updates via the noatime option, as is done by the default installation.
1.62      gdt        67: ## Choosing a version
1.95    ! gdt        69: First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.2 or 8.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, a recent build of netbsd-8 is probably best, with 8.0 the choice for those who value being at exactly a formal release.
1.65      gdt        70: 
                     71: See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
1.58      gdt        72: 
                     73: ## Getting bits to install
1.95    ! gdt        75: You can either build a release yourself with, or get a release from the NetBSD HTTPS/FTP servers.  The bits from both sources should match, except for things like  timestamps, or because the sources are slightly different along branches.
1.58      gdt        76: 
                     77: ### Building yourself
1.95    ! gdt        79: Getting sources and building a release with is not special for evbarm.  However, the evbarm port has a very large number of CPU types, compared to i386 and amd64 which have one each.  The standard approach is to use -m to define MACHINE and -a to define MACHINE_ARCH. supports aliases that can be passed as a MACHINE value, but denote both MACHINE and a MACHINE_ARCH.   The third line uses an alias and is equal to the second, for RPI2/3.  Note that the aliases start with "evb" while the MACHINE_ARCH values do not, and that aliases have "-el" or "-eb", while the MACHINE_ARCH values have no suffix or "eb".
1.66      gdt        80: 
1.59      gdt        81:  - ./ -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
                     82:  - ./ -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
1.95    ! gdt        83:  - ./ -m evbearmv7hf-el -u release
1.81      gdt        84: 
1.94      gdt        85: Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if you wish to build multiple MACHINE_ARCH values for a MACHINE; see  Use something like "evbarm-earmv7hf", so that 1) earvm6 and earmv7 don't collide and 2) anita will recognize it as a type of evbarm.
1.58      gdt        86: 
1.85      gdt        87: ### NetBSD autobuild HTTPS/FTP servers
1.58      gdt        88: 
1.85      gdt        89: NetBSD provides nightly builds on [](  These are equivalent to building yourself.  The next directory level is the branch being built (netbsd-7, netbsd-8, HEAD, and more), plus optionally things like compiler type.  It is followed by date/time, e.g. "HEAD/201811051650Z"; once a build is complete the symlink "latest" is adjusted to point to it.  The next level is "${MACHINE}-${MACHINE_ARCH}", e.g. "evbarm-earmv7hf", and multiple combinations are provided.
1.58      gdt        90: 
1.95    ! gdt        91: An example URL, arguably the standard approach for beginners, is
        !            92: 
        !            93: ### release layout
        !            94: 
1.85      gdt        95:  - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that will run on any of the RPI boards.
                     96:  - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that uses the armv7 instruction set, and thus can run only on the Raspberry Pi 2/3, but is also faster than rpi.img.
1.95    ! gdt        98: \todo Explain why there is no armv7_inst.gz.
1.58      gdt        99: 
1.65      gdt       100: ## Preparing a uSD card
1.10      wiki      101: 
1.65      gdt       102: Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
1.14      wiki      103: 
1.60      gdt       104:  - gunzip rpi.img.gz
1.67      ryoon     105:  - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
1.14      wiki      106: 
1.89      gdt       107: ## Console approaches
                    109: The standard approach is to use a USB keyboard and an HDMI monitor for installation.
1.58      gdt       111: ### Serial Console
1.89      gdt       113: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, mount the FAT32 partition on another system and edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
1.14      wiki      114: 
1.89      gdt       115:  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters have wires for Tx, Rx and ground, and not RTS/CTS or other flow control lines.   Thus, your terminal program (or terminal) must be configured to not require flow control; a symptom of misconfiguration is that you see console output, but cannot type anything.  If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
1.41      wiki      116: 
1.89      gdt       117:    - In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
                    118:    - In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no".
1.41      wiki      119: 
1.89      gdt       120: ### Enabling ssh for installation without any console
1.41      wiki      121: 
1.89      gdt       122: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, you can edit the configuration of a uSD card before booting.   On another computer, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address (e.g. from DHCP server logs), you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
1.65      gdt       123: 
1.89      gdt       124: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
1.65      gdt       125: 
1.89      gdt       126: (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console, when built for earmv6hf.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
1.58      gdt       127: 
1.89      gdt       128:  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to a LAN with a DHCP server, and another host you can use for ssh.
                    129:  - Power on the RPI, and wait.  Watch the logs on the DHCP server, and find the IP address assigned to the RPI.
                    130:  - Use ssh to login to the address you found with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
                    131:  - When installing, ensure that you enable DHCP and ssh, so that you can log in again after the system is installed.
1.53      gdt       132: 
1.89      gdt       133: \todo Verify that the above is accurate and sufficient.
1.16      wiki      134: 
1.55      gdt       135: ## Installation via ebijun's image
1.58      gdt       137: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
                    138: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
                    139: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
                    140: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
                    141: every few weeks.
1.55      gdt       142: 
1.56      gdt       143:  - [](
1.55      gdt       144: 
1.90      gdt       145: ## Links
                    147: The following pages have been published by NetBSD community members.  (Note that some of them are old.)
                    149:  -
1.74      gdt       151: # Maintaining a system
1.78      gdt       153: ## vcgencmd
1.80      gdt       155: The program vcgencmd, referenced in the boot section,  can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
1.78      gdt       156: 
1.53      gdt       157: ## Updating the kernel
1.46      schmonz   158: 
1.42      wiki      159:  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
                    161:          ...
                    162:          Kernels built from RPI2:
                    163:           /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd
                    164:          ...
1.69      rin       166:  - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" (for current) or "netbsd.bin" (for 7 and 8) kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
1.48      sevan     167:  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
1.42      wiki      168:  - reboot
1.73      gdt       170: ## Updating the firmware
                    172: A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
1.88      gdt       174: \todo Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain how to update a system (presumably /boot) from either an installed system's new firmware files, or the source tree.  Explain any particular cautions.
1.73      gdt       175: 
1.75      gdt       176: ## Booting
1.79      gdt       178: The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting]( and read all the subpages.
1.75      gdt       179: 
                    180: The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
1.77      gdt       182: One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /.   The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
1.75      gdt       183: 
1.77      gdt       184: An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
1.75      gdt       185: 
1.80      gdt       186: A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode]( will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
                    187: \todo Confirm that putting program_usb_boot_mode=1 in config.txt and booting works to program the OTP bit.  Confirm that one can then boot NetBSD from external USB.
1.75      gdt       188: 
                    189: \todo Explain USB enumeration and how to ensure that the correct boot and root devices are found if one has e.g. a small SSD for the system and a big disk.
1.24      wiki      191: # Wireless Networking
1.53      gdt       192: 
1.75      gdt       193: Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.
1.53      gdt       194: 
1.24      wiki      195:  - A Realtek 802.11n USB adaptor configures as urtwn(4).
1.25      wiki      196:    - Configure with wpa_supplicant in /etc/rc.conf -
1.24      wiki      197: 
                    198:            ifconfig_urtwn0=dhcp
                    199:            dhcpcd=YES
                    200:            dhcpcd_flags="-q -b"
                    201:            wpa_supplicant=YES
                    202:            wpa_supplicant_flags="-B -i urtwn0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf"
1.25      wiki      203:    - A sample wpa_supplicant.conf can be found at /usr/share/examples/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
1.24      wiki      204: 
1.93      gdt       205: # X11 and GPU
                    207: ## Console font
                    209: Some find the default font to be too small.  \todo Give a link to the normal instructions on how to change it.
1.27      wiki      210: 
                    211: ## Video playback
1.29      wiki      212: Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer]( application and through GStreamer with the [omx]( plugin.
1.27      wiki      213: 
                    214: ## OpenGL ES
                    215: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland]( package.
1.28      wiki      217: ## Quake 3
1.27      wiki      218: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi]( package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
                    220:  - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
1.31      snj       221:  - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3]( package
1.27      wiki      222:  - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
1.31      snj       224: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
1.27      wiki      225: 
1.32      wiki      226: ## RetroArch / Libretro
                    227: Using [emulators/retroarch]( it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*]( packages. To begin using retroarch:
                    229:  - Install [emulators/retroarch](
                    230:  - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](, a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
                    231:  - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
                    232:  - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
                    233: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
1.35      wiki      234: $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
1.32      wiki      235: """]]
                    236:  - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
                    237: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
                    238: $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/ game.gbc
                    239: """]]
1.53      gdt       241: # Developer notes
1.50      gdt       242: 
1.53      gdt       243: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       244: 
1.72      gdt       245: ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
1.50      gdt       246: 
1.72      gdt       247: (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
                    248: be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
1.50      gdt       249: 
1.72      gdt       250: Upstream firmware releases are
                    251: [on GitHub](
                    252: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
                    254: New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       255: 
1.53      gdt       256: - Audio
                    257: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
                    258: - Serial/framebuffer console
                    259: - CPU frequency scaling
1.50      gdt       260: 
1.92      gdt       261: Tests should be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
1.94      gdt       262: 
                    263: ## Testing with anita and qemu
                    265: anita has support for evbarm.  Install qemu and dtb-arm-vexpress from pkgsrc.  Note that the release subdirectory should be evbarm-earmv6hf or evbarm-earmv7hf.
                    267: \todo Explain how to select various RPI models to emulate.
                    268: \todo Explain about how DTB works.

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