Annotation of wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn, revision 1.90

1.1       jakllsch    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
                      2: 
1.39      wiki        3: This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org). All board variants are supported.
                      4: 
1.70      gdt         5: Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2, or the netbsd-7 branch after mid 2018.)
1.39      wiki        6: 
1.3       wiki        7: [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
                      8: 
1.26      wiki        9: [[!toc levels=2]]
                     10: 
1.14      wiki       11: <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
1.3       wiki       12: 
1.54      gdt        13: # What works (and what doesn't yet)
1.53      gdt        14: 
1.70      gdt        15: ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
1.53      gdt        16: 
1.74      gdt        17:  - RaspberryPi 1, 2, 3 (except Pi 3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
                     18:  - multiple processors on 2/3
                     19:  - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
                     20:  - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
1.53      gdt        21:  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
1.74      gdt        22:  - X11 via HDMI
                     23:  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
                     24:  - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
                     25:  - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
1.53      gdt        26:  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
1.74      gdt        27:  - RNG
1.53      gdt        28:  - Audio: works. man page missing.
1.74      gdt        29:  - GPIO
1.53      gdt        30:  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
                     31:  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
                     32: 
                     33: ## NetBSD current
                     34: 
1.74      gdt        35:  - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin bluetooth
1.53      gdt        36:  - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver
                     37: 
1.54      gdt        38: ## What needs work
1.53      gdt        39: 
                     40:  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
1.74      gdt        41:  - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin WiFi
1.53      gdt        42: 
1.57      gdt        43: # CPU types
                     44: 
1.59      gdt        45:  - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
1.81      gdt        46:  - Raspberry Pi 0 uses "\todo".
1.59      gdt        47:  - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
1.64      gdt        48:  - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
1.81      gdt        49:  - Raspberry Pi 0W uses "\todo".
1.57      gdt        50: 
1.74      gdt        51: Note that one can run earmv6hf code on the 2 and 3.  See also
                     52: [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.
1.70      gdt        53: 
1.7       wiki       54: # Installation
1.53      gdt        55: 
1.62      gdt        56: ## SD card structure
                     57: 
1.86      gdt        58: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 MBR partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
                     59: The NetBSD kernel will then find NetBSD MBR partition and within that the root disklabel partition, and use that FFS partition as the root filesystem.
1.62      gdt        60: 
1.86      gdt        61: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size, and the installation image will fit.  After the first boot, the system resizes the NetBSD root partition to fill the card.  Note that swap is after /boot and before /, and not contained in the NetBSD fdisk partition.  However, if you don't try to change the partition structure, this should not cause you any trouble.
1.63      gdt        62: 
1.62      gdt        63: ## Choosing a version
                     64: 
1.71      gdt        65: First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.2 or 8.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, 8.0 or netbsd-8 is probably best.
1.65      gdt        66: 
                     67: See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
1.58      gdt        68: 
                     69: ## Getting bits to install
                     70: 
                     71: You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get one from the NetBSD FTP servers.
                     72: 
1.65      gdt        73: Both will provide rpi.img.gz and rpi_inst.img.gz.  Each is an image to be written to a uSD card, and has a FAT32 partition for booting.  In rpi.img.gz, there is also an FFS partition for NetBSD.
1.58      gdt        74: 
                     75: ### Building yourself
                     76: 
1.84      gdt        77: Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  However, the evbarm port has a very large number of CPU types, compared to i386 and amd64 which have one.  The standard approach is to use -m to define MACHINE and -a to define MACHINE_ARCH.  build.sh supports aliases that can be passed as a MACHINE value, but denote both MACHINE and a MACHINE_ARCH.   The third line uses an alias and is equal to the second in effect, for RPI2/3.
1.66      gdt        78: 
1.59      gdt        79:  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
                     80:  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
1.81      gdt        81:  - ./build.sh -m earmv7hf-el -u release
                     82: 
                     83: Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if you wish to build multiple MACHINE_ARCH values on the same system; see build.sh.
1.58      gdt        84: 
1.85      gdt        85: ### NetBSD autobuild HTTPS/FTP servers
1.58      gdt        86: 
1.85      gdt        87: NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](https://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  These are equivalent to building yourself.  The next directory level is the branch being built (netbsd-7, netbsd-8, HEAD, and more), plus optionally things like compiler type.  It is followed by date/time, e.g. "HEAD/201811051650Z"; once a build is complete the symlink "latest" is adjusted to point to it.  The next level is "${MACHINE}-${MACHINE_ARCH}", e.g. "evbarm-earmv7hf", and multiple combinations are provided.
1.58      gdt        88: 
1.85      gdt        89:  - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that will run on any of the RPI boards.
                     90:  - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that uses the armv7 instruction set, and thus can run only on the Raspberry Pi 2/3, but is also faster than rpi.img.
                     91: 
                     92: An example URL, arguably the standard approach for beginners, is https://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/latest/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/
1.58      gdt        93: 
1.65      gdt        94: ## Preparing a uSD card
1.10      wiki       95: 
1.65      gdt        96: Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
1.14      wiki       97: 
1.60      gdt        98:  - gunzip rpi.img.gz
1.67      ryoon      99:  - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
1.14      wiki      100: 
1.89      gdt       101: ## Console approaches
                    102: 
                    103: The standard approach is to use a USB keyboard and an HDMI monitor for installation.
                    104: 
1.58      gdt       105: ### Serial Console
                    106: 
1.89      gdt       107: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, mount the FAT32 partition on another system and edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
1.14      wiki      108: 
1.89      gdt       109:  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters have wires for Tx, Rx and ground, and not RTS/CTS or other flow control lines.   Thus, your terminal program (or terminal) must be configured to not require flow control; a symptom of misconfiguration is that you see console output, but cannot type anything.  If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
1.41      wiki      110: 
1.89      gdt       111:    - In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
                    112:    - In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no".
1.41      wiki      113: 
1.89      gdt       114: ### Enabling ssh for installation without any console
1.41      wiki      115: 
1.89      gdt       116: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, you can edit the configuration of a uSD card before booting.   On another computer, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address (e.g. from DHCP server logs), you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
1.65      gdt       117: 
1.89      gdt       118: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
1.65      gdt       119: 
1.89      gdt       120: build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console, when built for earmv6hf.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
1.58      gdt       121: 
1.89      gdt       122:  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to a LAN with a DHCP server, and another host you can use for ssh.
                    123:  - Power on the RPI, and wait.  Watch the logs on the DHCP server, and find the IP address assigned to the RPI.
                    124:  - Use ssh to login to the address you found with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
                    125:  - When installing, ensure that you enable DHCP and ssh, so that you can log in again after the system is installed.
1.53      gdt       126: 
1.89      gdt       127: \todo Verify that the above is accurate and sufficient.
1.16      wiki      128: 
1.55      gdt       129: ## Installation via ebijun's image
                    130: 
1.58      gdt       131: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
                    132: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
                    133: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
                    134: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
                    135: every few weeks.
1.55      gdt       136: 
1.56      gdt       137:  - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)
1.55      gdt       138: 
1.90    ! gdt       139: ## Links
        !           140: 
        !           141: The following pages have been published by NetBSD community members.  (Note that some of them are old.)
        !           142: 
        !           143:  - https://www.cambus.net/netbsd-on-the-raspberry-pi/
        !           144: 
1.74      gdt       145: # Maintaining a system
                    146: 
1.78      gdt       147: ## vcgencmd
                    148: 
1.80      gdt       149: The program vcgencmd, referenced in the boot section,  can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
1.78      gdt       150: 
1.53      gdt       151: ## Updating the kernel
1.46      schmonz   152: 
1.42      wiki      153:  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
                    154: 
                    155:          ...
                    156:          Kernels built from RPI2:
                    157:           /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd
                    158:          ...
                    159: 
1.69      rin       160:  - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" (for current) or "netbsd.bin" (for 7 and 8) kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
1.48      sevan     161:  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
1.42      wiki      162:  - reboot
                    163: 
1.73      gdt       164: ## Updating the firmware
                    165: 
                    166: A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
                    167: 
1.88      gdt       168: \todo Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain how to update a system (presumably /boot) from either an installed system's new firmware files, or the source tree.  Explain any particular cautions.
1.73      gdt       169: 
1.75      gdt       170: ## Booting
                    171: 
1.79      gdt       172: The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/) and read all the subpages.
1.75      gdt       173: 
                    174: The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
                    175: 
1.77      gdt       176: One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /.   The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
1.75      gdt       177: 
1.77      gdt       178: An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
1.75      gdt       179: 
1.80      gdt       180: A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/msd.md) will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
                    181: \todo Confirm that putting program_usb_boot_mode=1 in config.txt and booting works to program the OTP bit.  Confirm that one can then boot NetBSD from external USB.
1.75      gdt       182: 
                    183: \todo Explain USB enumeration and how to ensure that the correct boot and root devices are found if one has e.g. a small SSD for the system and a big disk.
                    184: 
1.24      wiki      185: # Wireless Networking
1.53      gdt       186: 
1.75      gdt       187: Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.
1.53      gdt       188: 
1.24      wiki      189:  - A Realtek 802.11n USB adaptor configures as urtwn(4).
1.25      wiki      190:    - Configure with wpa_supplicant in /etc/rc.conf -
1.24      wiki      191: 
                    192:            ifconfig_urtwn0=dhcp
                    193:            dhcpcd=YES
                    194:            dhcpcd_flags="-q -b"
                    195:            wpa_supplicant=YES
                    196:            wpa_supplicant_flags="-B -i urtwn0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf"
1.25      wiki      197:    - A sample wpa_supplicant.conf can be found at /usr/share/examples/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
1.24      wiki      198: 
1.27      wiki      199: # GPU
                    200: 
                    201: ## Video playback
1.29      wiki      202: Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/omxplayer) application and through GStreamer with the [omx](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/gst-plugins1-omx) plugin.
1.27      wiki      203: 
                    204: ## OpenGL ES
                    205: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland](http://pkgsrc.se/misc/raspberrypi-userland) package.
                    206: 
1.28      wiki      207: ## Quake 3
1.27      wiki      208: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-raspberrypi) package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
                    209: 
                    210:  - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
1.31      snj       211:  - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-pk3) package
1.27      wiki      212:  - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
                    213: 
1.31      snj       214: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
1.27      wiki      215: 
1.32      wiki      216: ## RetroArch / Libretro
                    217: Using [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch) it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*](http://pkgsrc.se/search.php?so=libretro-) packages. To begin using retroarch:
                    218: 
                    219:  - Install [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch)
                    220:  - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/libretro-gambatte), a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
                    221:  - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
                    222:  - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
                    223: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
1.35      wiki      224: $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
1.32      wiki      225: """]]
                    226:  - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
                    227: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
                    228: $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/gambatte_libretro.so game.gbc
                    229: """]]
                    230: 
1.53      gdt       231: # Developer notes
1.50      gdt       232: 
1.53      gdt       233: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       234: 
1.72      gdt       235: ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
1.50      gdt       236: 
1.72      gdt       237: (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
                    238: be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
1.50      gdt       239: 
1.72      gdt       240: Upstream firmware releases are
                    241: [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).
                    242: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
                    243: 
                    244: New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       245: 
1.53      gdt       246: - Audio
                    247: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
                    248: - Serial/framebuffer console
                    249: - CPU frequency scaling
1.50      gdt       250: 
1.72      gdt       251: Tests shoudl be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
1.1       jakllsch  252: 

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