Annotation of wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn, revision 1.85

1.1       jakllsch    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
                      2: 
1.39      wiki        3: This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org). All board variants are supported.
                      4: 
1.70      gdt         5: Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2, or the netbsd-7 branch after mid 2018.)
1.39      wiki        6: 
1.3       wiki        7: [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
                      8: 
1.26      wiki        9: [[!toc levels=2]]
                     10: 
1.14      wiki       11: <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
1.3       wiki       12: 
1.54      gdt        13: # What works (and what doesn't yet)
1.53      gdt        14: 
1.70      gdt        15: ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
1.53      gdt        16: 
1.74      gdt        17:  - RaspberryPi 1, 2, 3 (except Pi 3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
                     18:  - multiple processors on 2/3
                     19:  - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
                     20:  - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
1.53      gdt        21:  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
1.74      gdt        22:  - X11 via HDMI
                     23:  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
                     24:  - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
                     25:  - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
1.53      gdt        26:  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
1.74      gdt        27:  - RNG
1.53      gdt        28:  - Audio: works. man page missing.
1.74      gdt        29:  - GPIO
1.53      gdt        30:  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
                     31:  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
                     32: 
                     33: ## NetBSD current
                     34: 
1.74      gdt        35:  - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin bluetooth
1.53      gdt        36:  - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver
                     37: 
1.54      gdt        38: ## What needs work
1.53      gdt        39: 
                     40:  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
1.74      gdt        41:  - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin WiFi
1.53      gdt        42: 
1.57      gdt        43: # CPU types
                     44: 
1.59      gdt        45:  - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
1.81      gdt        46:  - Raspberry Pi 0 uses "\todo".
1.59      gdt        47:  - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
1.64      gdt        48:  - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
1.81      gdt        49:  - Raspberry Pi 0W uses "\todo".
1.57      gdt        50: 
1.74      gdt        51: Note that one can run earmv6hf code on the 2 and 3.  See also
                     52: [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.
1.70      gdt        53: 
1.7       wiki       54: # Installation
1.53      gdt        55: 
1.62      gdt        56: ## SD card structure
                     57: 
1.65      gdt        58: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
1.62      gdt        59: 
1.65      gdt        60: The NetBSD kernel will then use the FFS partition as the root filesystem.
                     61: 
                     62: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size.  The NetBSD filesystem will be expanded to fit.
1.63      gdt        63: 
1.62      gdt        64: ## Choosing a version
                     65: 
1.71      gdt        66: First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.2 or 8.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, 8.0 or netbsd-8 is probably best.
1.65      gdt        67: 
                     68: See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
1.58      gdt        69: 
                     70: ## Getting bits to install
                     71: 
                     72: You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get one from the NetBSD FTP servers.
                     73: 
1.65      gdt        74: Both will provide rpi.img.gz and rpi_inst.img.gz.  Each is an image to be written to a uSD card, and has a FAT32 partition for booting.  In rpi.img.gz, there is also an FFS partition for NetBSD.
1.58      gdt        75: 
                     76: ### Building yourself
                     77: 
1.84      gdt        78: Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  However, the evbarm port has a very large number of CPU types, compared to i386 and amd64 which have one.  The standard approach is to use -m to define MACHINE and -a to define MACHINE_ARCH.  build.sh supports aliases that can be passed as a MACHINE value, but denote both MACHINE and a MACHINE_ARCH.   The third line uses an alias and is equal to the second in effect, for RPI2/3.
1.66      gdt        79: 
1.59      gdt        80:  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
                     81:  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
1.81      gdt        82:  - ./build.sh -m earmv7hf-el -u release
                     83: 
                     84: Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if you wish to build multiple MACHINE_ARCH values on the same system; see build.sh.
1.58      gdt        85: 
1.85    ! gdt        86: ### NetBSD autobuild HTTPS/FTP servers
1.58      gdt        87: 
1.85    ! gdt        88: NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](https://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  These are equivalent to building yourself.  The next directory level is the branch being built (netbsd-7, netbsd-8, HEAD, and more), plus optionally things like compiler type.  It is followed by date/time, e.g. "HEAD/201811051650Z"; once a build is complete the symlink "latest" is adjusted to point to it.  The next level is "${MACHINE}-${MACHINE_ARCH}", e.g. "evbarm-earmv7hf", and multiple combinations are provided.
1.58      gdt        89: 
1.85    ! gdt        90:  - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that will run on any of the RPI boards.
        !            91:  - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that uses the armv7 instruction set, and thus can run only on the Raspberry Pi 2/3, but is also faster than rpi.img.
        !            92: 
        !            93: An example URL, arguably the standard approach for beginners, is https://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/latest/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/
1.58      gdt        94: 
1.65      gdt        95: ## Preparing a uSD card
1.10      wiki       96: 
1.65      gdt        97: Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
1.14      wiki       98: 
1.60      gdt        99:  - gunzip rpi.img.gz
1.67      ryoon     100:  - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
1.14      wiki      101: 
1.58      gdt       102: ### Serial Console
                    103: 
                    104: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, first mount the FAT32 partition and then
                    105: edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
1.14      wiki      106: 
1.60      gdt       107:  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters only connect Tx, Rx and ground, and do not connect any flow control lines. An effect of missing flow control is that you see console output, but cannot type anything. If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
1.41      wiki      108: 
1.60      gdt       109:    In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
1.41      wiki      110: 
1.60      gdt       111:    In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no"
1.41      wiki      112: 
1.65      gdt       113: ### Enabling ssh
                    114: 
                    115: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address, you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
                    116: 
1.58      gdt       117: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
                    118: 
1.65      gdt       119: build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
1.53      gdt       120: 
1.61      gdt       121:  - Ensure that you have a lan with a DHCP server.
                    122:  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to the LAN.
1.19      wiki      123:  - After starting DHCP client, SSH login to with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
1.17      wiki      124:    - Be careful to note the ip address given during DHCP so you don't lose your connection
                    125:    - Also for after the sysinst is done and the system reboots
                    126:  - sysinst started!
1.16      wiki      127: 
1.55      gdt       128: ## Installation via ebijun's image
                    129: 
1.58      gdt       130: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
                    131: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
                    132: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
                    133: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
                    134: every few weeks.
1.55      gdt       135: 
1.56      gdt       136:  - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)
1.55      gdt       137: 
1.74      gdt       138: # Maintaining a system
                    139: 
1.78      gdt       140: ## vcgencmd
                    141: 
1.80      gdt       142: The program vcgencmd, referenced in the boot section,  can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
1.78      gdt       143: 
1.53      gdt       144: ## Updating the kernel
1.46      schmonz   145: 
1.42      wiki      146:  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
                    147: 
                    148:          ...
                    149:          Kernels built from RPI2:
                    150:           /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd
                    151:          ...
                    152: 
1.69      rin       153:  - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" (for current) or "netbsd.bin" (for 7 and 8) kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
1.48      sevan     154:  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
1.42      wiki      155:  - reboot
                    156: 
1.73      gdt       157: ## Updating the firmware
                    158: 
                    159: A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
                    160: 
                    161: TODO: Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain any particular cautions.
                    162: 
1.75      gdt       163: ## Booting
                    164: 
1.79      gdt       165: The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/) and read all the subpages.
1.75      gdt       166: 
                    167: The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
                    168: 
1.77      gdt       169: One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /.   The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
1.75      gdt       170: 
1.77      gdt       171: An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
1.75      gdt       172: 
1.80      gdt       173: A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/msd.md) will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
                    174: \todo Confirm that putting program_usb_boot_mode=1 in config.txt and booting works to program the OTP bit.  Confirm that one can then boot NetBSD from external USB.
1.75      gdt       175: 
                    176: \todo Explain USB enumeration and how to ensure that the correct boot and root devices are found if one has e.g. a small SSD for the system and a big disk.
                    177: 
1.24      wiki      178: # Wireless Networking
1.53      gdt       179: 
1.75      gdt       180: Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.
1.53      gdt       181: 
1.24      wiki      182:  - A Realtek 802.11n USB adaptor configures as urtwn(4).
1.25      wiki      183:    - Configure with wpa_supplicant in /etc/rc.conf -
1.24      wiki      184: 
                    185:            ifconfig_urtwn0=dhcp
                    186:            dhcpcd=YES
                    187:            dhcpcd_flags="-q -b"
                    188:            wpa_supplicant=YES
                    189:            wpa_supplicant_flags="-B -i urtwn0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf"
1.25      wiki      190:    - A sample wpa_supplicant.conf can be found at /usr/share/examples/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
1.24      wiki      191: 
1.27      wiki      192: # GPU
                    193: 
                    194: ## Video playback
1.29      wiki      195: Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/omxplayer) application and through GStreamer with the [omx](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/gst-plugins1-omx) plugin.
1.27      wiki      196: 
                    197: ## OpenGL ES
                    198: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland](http://pkgsrc.se/misc/raspberrypi-userland) package.
                    199: 
1.28      wiki      200: ## Quake 3
1.27      wiki      201: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-raspberrypi) package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
                    202: 
                    203:  - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
1.31      snj       204:  - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-pk3) package
1.27      wiki      205:  - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
                    206: 
1.31      snj       207: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
1.27      wiki      208: 
1.32      wiki      209: ## RetroArch / Libretro
                    210: Using [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch) it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*](http://pkgsrc.se/search.php?so=libretro-) packages. To begin using retroarch:
                    211: 
                    212:  - Install [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch)
                    213:  - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/libretro-gambatte), a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
                    214:  - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
                    215:  - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
                    216: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
1.35      wiki      217: $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
1.32      wiki      218: """]]
                    219:  - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
                    220: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
                    221: $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/gambatte_libretro.so game.gbc
                    222: """]]
                    223: 
1.53      gdt       224: # Developer notes
1.50      gdt       225: 
1.53      gdt       226: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       227: 
1.72      gdt       228: ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
1.50      gdt       229: 
1.72      gdt       230: (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
                    231: be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
1.50      gdt       232: 
1.72      gdt       233: Upstream firmware releases are
                    234: [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).
                    235: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
                    236: 
                    237: New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       238: 
1.53      gdt       239: - Audio
                    240: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
                    241: - Serial/framebuffer console
                    242: - CPU frequency scaling
1.50      gdt       243: 
1.72      gdt       244: Tests shoudl be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
1.1       jakllsch  245: 

CVSweb for NetBSD wikisrc <wikimaster@NetBSD.org> software: FreeBSD-CVSweb