Annotation of wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn, revision 1.79

1.1       jakllsch    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
                      2: 
1.39      wiki        3: This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org). All board variants are supported.
                      4: 
1.70      gdt         5: Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2, or the netbsd-7 branch after mid 2018.)
1.39      wiki        6: 
1.3       wiki        7: [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
                      8: 
1.26      wiki        9: [[!toc levels=2]]
                     10: 
1.14      wiki       11: <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
1.3       wiki       12: 
1.54      gdt        13: # What works (and what doesn't yet)
1.53      gdt        14: 
1.70      gdt        15: ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
1.53      gdt        16: 
1.74      gdt        17:  - RaspberryPi 1, 2, 3 (except Pi 3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
                     18:  - multiple processors on 2/3
                     19:  - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
                     20:  - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
1.53      gdt        21:  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
1.74      gdt        22:  - X11 via HDMI
                     23:  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
                     24:  - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
                     25:  - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
1.53      gdt        26:  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
1.74      gdt        27:  - RNG
1.53      gdt        28:  - Audio: works. man page missing.
1.74      gdt        29:  - GPIO
1.53      gdt        30:  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
                     31:  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
                     32: 
                     33: ## NetBSD current
                     34: 
1.74      gdt        35:  - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin bluetooth
1.53      gdt        36:  - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver
                     37: 
1.54      gdt        38: ## What needs work
1.53      gdt        39: 
                     40:  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
1.74      gdt        41:  - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin WiFi
1.53      gdt        42: 
1.57      gdt        43: # CPU types
                     44: 
1.59      gdt        45:  - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
                     46:  - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
1.64      gdt        47:  - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
1.57      gdt        48: 
1.74      gdt        49: Note that one can run earmv6hf code on the 2 and 3.  See also
                     50: [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.
1.70      gdt        51: 
1.7       wiki       52: # Installation
1.53      gdt        53: 
1.62      gdt        54: ## SD card structure
                     55: 
1.65      gdt        56: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
1.62      gdt        57: 
1.65      gdt        58: The NetBSD kernel will then use the FFS partition as the root filesystem.
                     59: 
                     60: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size.  The NetBSD filesystem will be expanded to fit.
1.63      gdt        61: 
1.62      gdt        62: ## Choosing a version
                     63: 
1.71      gdt        64: First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.2 or 8.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, 8.0 or netbsd-8 is probably best.
1.65      gdt        65: 
                     66: See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
1.58      gdt        67: 
                     68: ## Getting bits to install
                     69: 
                     70: You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get one from the NetBSD FTP servers.
                     71: 
1.65      gdt        72: Both will provide rpi.img.gz and rpi_inst.img.gz.  Each is an image to be written to a uSD card, and has a FAT32 partition for booting.  In rpi.img.gz, there is also an FFS partition for NetBSD.
1.58      gdt        73: 
                     74: ### Building yourself
                     75: 
1.65      gdt        76: Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  Pick a CPU type alias and pass it to build.sh with -m.  Examples (the first two are equivalent):
1.66      gdt        77: 
1.59      gdt        78:  - ./build.sh -m earmv6hf -u release
                     79:  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
                     80:  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
1.58      gdt        81: 
                     82: ### NetBSD FTP servers
                     83: 
                     84: NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  These are equivalent to building yourself.
                     85: 
1.59      gdt        86:  - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that can be used as a single image for both boards.
1.71      gdt        87:  - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that is optimized for Raspberry Pi 2/3.
                     88:  - The old stable build directory will be under netbsd-7/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-7/201710201440Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg)    
                     89:  - The stable build directory will be under netbsd-8/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/201710211010Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/)
1.59      gdt        90:  - The HEAD/current directory build will be under HEAD/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/201710202210Z/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/)
1.58      gdt        91: 
1.65      gdt        92: ## Preparing a uSD card
1.10      wiki       93: 
1.65      gdt        94: Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
1.14      wiki       95: 
1.60      gdt        96:  - gunzip rpi.img.gz
1.67      ryoon      97:  - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
1.14      wiki       98: 
1.58      gdt        99: ### Serial Console
                    100: 
                    101: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, first mount the FAT32 partition and then
                    102: edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
1.14      wiki      103: 
1.60      gdt       104:  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters only connect Tx, Rx and ground, and do not connect any flow control lines. An effect of missing flow control is that you see console output, but cannot type anything. If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
1.41      wiki      105: 
1.60      gdt       106:    In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
1.41      wiki      107: 
1.60      gdt       108:    In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no"
1.41      wiki      109: 
1.65      gdt       110: ### Enabling ssh
                    111: 
                    112: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address, you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
                    113: 
1.58      gdt       114: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
                    115: 
1.65      gdt       116: build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
1.53      gdt       117: 
1.61      gdt       118:  - Ensure that you have a lan with a DHCP server.
                    119:  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to the LAN.
1.19      wiki      120:  - After starting DHCP client, SSH login to with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
1.17      wiki      121:    - Be careful to note the ip address given during DHCP so you don't lose your connection
                    122:    - Also for after the sysinst is done and the system reboots
                    123:  - sysinst started!
1.16      wiki      124: 
1.55      gdt       125: ## Installation via ebijun's image
                    126: 
1.58      gdt       127: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
                    128: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
                    129: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
                    130: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
                    131: every few weeks.
1.55      gdt       132: 
1.56      gdt       133:  - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)
1.55      gdt       134: 
1.74      gdt       135: # Maintaining a system
                    136: 
1.78      gdt       137: ## vcgencmd
                    138: 
                    139: The program vcgencmd can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
                    140: 
                    141: 
1.53      gdt       142: ## Updating the kernel
1.46      schmonz   143: 
1.42      wiki      144:  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
                    145: 
                    146:          ...
                    147:          Kernels built from RPI2:
                    148:           /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd
                    149:          ...
                    150: 
1.69      rin       151:  - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" (for current) or "netbsd.bin" (for 7 and 8) kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
1.48      sevan     152:  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
1.42      wiki      153:  - reboot
                    154: 
1.73      gdt       155: ## Updating the firmware
                    156: 
                    157: A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
                    158: 
                    159: TODO: Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain any particular cautions.
                    160: 
1.75      gdt       161: ## Booting
                    162: 
1.79    ! gdt       163: The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/) and read all the subpages.
1.75      gdt       164: 
                    165: The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
                    166: 
1.77      gdt       167: One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /.   The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
1.75      gdt       168: 
1.77      gdt       169: An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
1.75      gdt       170: 
1.78      gdt       171: A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support.   \todo Explain if this has been observed to work.
1.79    ! gdt       172: \todo In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/msd.md) will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
1.75      gdt       173: 
                    174: \todo Explain USB enumeration and how to ensure that the correct boot and root devices are found if one has e.g. a small SSD for the system and a big disk.
                    175: 
1.24      wiki      176: # Wireless Networking
1.53      gdt       177: 
1.75      gdt       178: Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.
1.53      gdt       179: 
1.24      wiki      180:  - A Realtek 802.11n USB adaptor configures as urtwn(4).
1.25      wiki      181:    - Configure with wpa_supplicant in /etc/rc.conf -
1.24      wiki      182: 
                    183:            ifconfig_urtwn0=dhcp
                    184:            dhcpcd=YES
                    185:            dhcpcd_flags="-q -b"
                    186:            wpa_supplicant=YES
                    187:            wpa_supplicant_flags="-B -i urtwn0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf"
1.25      wiki      188:    - A sample wpa_supplicant.conf can be found at /usr/share/examples/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
1.24      wiki      189: 
1.27      wiki      190: # GPU
                    191: 
                    192: ## Video playback
1.29      wiki      193: Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/omxplayer) application and through GStreamer with the [omx](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/gst-plugins1-omx) plugin.
1.27      wiki      194: 
                    195: ## OpenGL ES
                    196: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland](http://pkgsrc.se/misc/raspberrypi-userland) package.
                    197: 
1.28      wiki      198: ## Quake 3
1.27      wiki      199: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-raspberrypi) package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
                    200: 
                    201:  - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
1.31      snj       202:  - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-pk3) package
1.27      wiki      203:  - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
                    204: 
1.31      snj       205: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
1.27      wiki      206: 
1.32      wiki      207: ## RetroArch / Libretro
                    208: Using [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch) it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*](http://pkgsrc.se/search.php?so=libretro-) packages. To begin using retroarch:
                    209: 
                    210:  - Install [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch)
                    211:  - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/libretro-gambatte), a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
                    212:  - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
                    213:  - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
                    214: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
1.35      wiki      215: $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
1.32      wiki      216: """]]
                    217:  - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
                    218: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
                    219: $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/gambatte_libretro.so game.gbc
                    220: """]]
                    221: 
1.53      gdt       222: # Developer notes
1.50      gdt       223: 
1.53      gdt       224: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       225: 
1.72      gdt       226: ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
1.50      gdt       227: 
1.72      gdt       228: (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
                    229: be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
1.50      gdt       230: 
1.72      gdt       231: Upstream firmware releases are
                    232: [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).
                    233: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
                    234: 
                    235: New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       236: 
1.53      gdt       237: - Audio
                    238: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
                    239: - Serial/framebuffer console
                    240: - CPU frequency scaling
1.50      gdt       241: 
1.72      gdt       242: Tests shoudl be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
1.1       jakllsch  243: 

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