Annotation of wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn, revision 1.77
1.1 jakllsch 1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
1.39 wiki 3: This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org). All board variants are supported.
1.70 gdt 5: Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board. Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017. (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2, or the netbsd-7 branch after mid 2018.)
1.39 wiki 6:
1.3 wiki 7: [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
1.26 wiki 9: [[!toc levels=2]]
1.14 wiki 11: <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
1.3 wiki 12:
1.54 gdt 13: # What works (and what doesn't yet)
1.53 gdt 14:
1.70 gdt 15: ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
1.53 gdt 16:
1.74 gdt 17: - RaspberryPi 1, 2, 3 (except Pi 3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
18: - multiple processors on 2/3
19: - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
20: - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
1.53 gdt 21: - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
1.74 gdt 22: - X11 via HDMI
23: - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
24: - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
25: - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
1.53 gdt 26: - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
1.74 gdt 27: - RNG
1.53 gdt 28: - Audio: works. man page missing.
1.74 gdt 29: - GPIO
1.53 gdt 30: - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
31: - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
33: ## NetBSD current
1.74 gdt 35: - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin bluetooth
1.53 gdt 36: - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver
1.54 gdt 38: ## What needs work
1.53 gdt 39:
40: - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
1.74 gdt 41: - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin WiFi
1.53 gdt 42:
1.57 gdt 43: # CPU types
1.59 gdt 45: - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
46: - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
1.64 gdt 47: - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
1.57 gdt 48:
1.74 gdt 49: Note that one can run earmv6hf code on the 2 and 3. See also
50: [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.
1.70 gdt 51:
1.7 wiki 52: # Installation
1.53 gdt 53:
1.62 gdt 54: ## SD card structure
1.65 gdt 56: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 partition of the uSD card. A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
1.62 gdt 57:
1.65 gdt 58: The NetBSD kernel will then use the FFS partition as the root filesystem.
60: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size. The NetBSD filesystem will be expanded to fit.
1.63 gdt 61:
1.62 gdt 62: ## Choosing a version
1.71 gdt 64: First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.2 or 8.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current. For people who don't know how to choose among those, 8.0 or netbsd-8 is probably best.
1.65 gdt 65:
66: See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
1.58 gdt 67:
68: ## Getting bits to install
70: You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get one from the NetBSD FTP servers.
1.65 gdt 72: Both will provide rpi.img.gz and rpi_inst.img.gz. Each is an image to be written to a uSD card, and has a FAT32 partition for booting. In rpi.img.gz, there is also an FFS partition for NetBSD.
1.58 gdt 73:
74: ### Building yourself
1.65 gdt 76: Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm. Pick a CPU type alias and pass it to build.sh with -m. Examples (the first two are equivalent):
1.66 gdt 77:
1.59 gdt 78: - ./build.sh -m earmv6hf -u release
79: - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
80: - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
1.58 gdt 81:
82: ### NetBSD FTP servers
84: NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/). These are equivalent to building yourself.
1.59 gdt 86: - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that can be used as a single image for both boards.
1.71 gdt 87: - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that is optimized for Raspberry Pi 2/3.
88: - The old stable build directory will be under netbsd-7/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-7/201710201440Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg)
89: - The stable build directory will be under netbsd-8/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/201710211010Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/)
1.59 gdt 90: - The HEAD/current directory build will be under HEAD/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/201710202210Z/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/)
1.58 gdt 91:
1.65 gdt 92: ## Preparing a uSD card
1.10 wiki 93:
1.65 gdt 94: Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
1.14 wiki 95:
1.60 gdt 96: - gunzip rpi.img.gz
1.67 ryoon 97: - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
1.14 wiki 98:
1.58 gdt 99: ### Serial Console
101: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output. If you wish to use a serial console, first mount the FAT32 partition and then
102: edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
1.14 wiki 103:
1.60 gdt 104: - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters only connect Tx, Rx and ground, and do not connect any flow control lines. An effect of missing flow control is that you see console output, but cannot type anything. If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
1.41 wiki 105:
1.60 gdt 106: In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
1.41 wiki 107:
1.60 gdt 108: In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no"
1.41 wiki 109:
1.65 gdt 110: ### Enabling ssh
112: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf. Besides having to find the IP address, you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
1.58 gdt 114: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
1.65 gdt 116: build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console. Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network. To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
1.53 gdt 117:
1.61 gdt 118: - Ensure that you have a lan with a DHCP server.
119: - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to the LAN.
1.19 wiki 120: - After starting DHCP client, SSH login to with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
1.17 wiki 121: - Be careful to note the ip address given during DHCP so you don't lose your connection
122: - Also for after the sysinst is done and the system reboots
123: - sysinst started!
1.16 wiki 124:
1.55 gdt 125: ## Installation via ebijun's image
1.58 gdt 127: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
128: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages. It
129: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
130: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3. This image is typically updated
131: every few weeks.
1.55 gdt 132:
1.56 gdt 133: - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)
1.55 gdt 134:
1.74 gdt 135: # Maintaining a system
1.53 gdt 137: ## Updating the kernel
1.46 schmonz 138:
1.42 wiki 139: - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
142: Kernels built from RPI2:
1.69 rin 146: - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" (for current) or "netbsd.bin" (for 7 and 8) kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
1.48 sevan 147: - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
1.42 wiki 148: - reboot
1.73 gdt 150: ## Updating the firmware
152: A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers. This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
154: TODO: Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec). Explain any particular cautions.
1.75 gdt 156: ## Booting
158: The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin". The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive. See the [[upstream documentation on booting|https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/]] and read all the subpages.
160: The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition. The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e). The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
1.77 ! gdt 162: One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /. The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot. It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
1.75 gdt 163:
1.77 ! gdt 164: An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk. This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT). Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
1.75 gdt 165:
1.76 gdt 166: A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+) see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device. In this case the external device must be configured via fdisk because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. \todo Explain if this has been observed to work.
167: \todo Explain if the [[procedure to program USB host boot mode|https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/msd.md]] can function under NetBSD; the examples on the web use Raspbian.
168: \todo Explain if there is any way to run vcgencmd on NetBSD.
1.75 gdt 169:
170: \todo Explain USB enumeration and how to ensure that the correct boot and root devices are found if one has e.g. a small SSD for the system and a big disk.
1.24 wiki 172: # Wireless Networking
1.53 gdt 173:
1.75 gdt 174: Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported. USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.
1.53 gdt 175:
1.24 wiki 176: - A Realtek 802.11n USB adaptor configures as urtwn(4).
1.25 wiki 177: - Configure with wpa_supplicant in /etc/rc.conf -
1.24 wiki 178:
181: dhcpcd_flags="-q -b"
183: wpa_supplicant_flags="-B -i urtwn0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf"
1.25 wiki 184: - A sample wpa_supplicant.conf can be found at /usr/share/examples/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
1.24 wiki 185:
1.27 wiki 186: # GPU
188: ## Video playback
1.29 wiki 189: Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/omxplayer) application and through GStreamer with the [omx](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/gst-plugins1-omx) plugin.
1.27 wiki 190:
191: ## OpenGL ES
192: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland](http://pkgsrc.se/misc/raspberrypi-userland) package.
1.28 wiki 194: ## Quake 3
1.27 wiki 195: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-raspberrypi) package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
197: - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
1.31 snj 198: - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-pk3) package
1.27 wiki 199: - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
1.31 snj 201: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
1.27 wiki 202:
1.32 wiki 203: ## RetroArch / Libretro
204: Using [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch) it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*](http://pkgsrc.se/search.php?so=libretro-) packages. To begin using retroarch:
206: - Install [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch)
207: - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/libretro-gambatte), a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
208: - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
209: - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
210: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
1.35 wiki 211: $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
1.32 wiki 212: """]]
213: - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
214: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
215: $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/gambatte_libretro.so game.gbc
1.53 gdt 218: # Developer notes
1.50 gdt 219:
1.53 gdt 220: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
1.50 gdt 221:
1.72 gdt 222: ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
1.50 gdt 223:
1.72 gdt 224: (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
225: be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
1.50 gdt 226:
1.72 gdt 227: Upstream firmware releases are
228: [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).
229: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
231: New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
1.50 gdt 232:
1.53 gdt 233: - Audio
234: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
235: - Serial/framebuffer console
236: - CPU frequency scaling
1.50 gdt 237:
1.72 gdt 238: Tests shoudl be run on all of `rpi`.
1.1 jakllsch 239:
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