Annotation of wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn, revision 1.143

1.1       jakllsch    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
1.141     nia         3: This page describes the NetBSD/evbarm port on [Raspberry Pi]( hardware.  All [board variants]( earlier than the RPI4 are believed supported, and specific boards known to work are listed.  We use e.g. "RPI2" to refer to "Raspberry Pi 2" to save precious bytes on this page.
1.39      wiki        4: 
1.141     nia         5: Initial Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0.  NetBSD 7.0 added complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8.  NetBSD 9 supports aarch64, meaning using the newer processors in 64-bit mode.
1.129     gdt         6: 
1.3       wiki        7: [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
1.26      wiki        9: [[!toc levels=2]]
1.14      wiki       11: <small>([Raspberry Pi image]( by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
1.3       wiki       12: 
1.142     nia        13: # What works
1.123     gdt        14: 
1.132     gdt        15: ## NetBSD 8
1.53      gdt        16: 
1.102     gdt        17:  - RPI1, RPI2, RPI2-1.2, RPI3, RPI3+ (except RPI3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
                     18:  - RPI0 and RPI0W are expected to work (without WiFi, and one needs fdt files \todo where from?)
1.101     gdt        19:  - multiple processors on RPI2/RPI3
1.74      gdt        20:  - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
                     21:  - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
1.53      gdt        22:  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
1.74      gdt        23:  - X11 via HDMI
                     24:  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
                     25:  - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
1.142     nia        26:  - Ethernet - usmsc(4), mue(4)
1.53      gdt        27:  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
1.74      gdt        28:  - RNG
1.53      gdt        29:  - Audio: works. man page missing.
1.74      gdt        30:  - GPIO
1.53      gdt        31:  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
                     32:  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
1.123     gdt        34: ## NetBSD 9
                     36:  - aarch64 support (RPI3, and should work on all supported systems with 64-bit CPUs)
1.126     gdt        37:  - RPI3 new SD host controller driver
1.123     gdt        38: 
1.125     gdt        39: ## NetBSD current
1.53      gdt        40: 
1.142     nia        41:  - RPI4 (using EDK2 UEFI firmware)
                     42:        - RPI4 Ethernet (Broadcom GENETv5) - genet(4)
1.141     nia        43:  - RPI3/RPI4 audio with aarch64 kernels
                     44:        - Previously the driver was only included with 32-bit (ARMv7/ARMv6)
                     45:          kernels and images due to the Broadcom code having 64-bit cleanliness
                     46:          issues.
1.101     gdt        47:  - RPI3 builtin bluetooth
1.142     nia        48:  - RPI3 and RPI0W builtin WiFi - bwfm(4)
                     49:  - Big endian support
1.125     gdt        50: 
1.102     gdt        51: ## What needs documenting if it works
                     53:  - CM1
                     54:  - CM3
                     55:  - CM3lite
1.54      gdt        57: ## What needs work
1.53      gdt        58: 
                     59:  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
1.105     gdt        60:  - RPI0W Bluetooth Low Energy (probably)
1.141     nia        61:  - DRM/KMS
1.53      gdt        62: 
1.57      gdt        63: # CPU types
1.101     gdt        65:  - RPI1 uses "earmv6hf".
1.109     gdt        66:  - RPI0 uses "earmv6hf".
                     67:  - RPI0W uses "earmv6hf".
1.101     gdt        68:  - RPI2 uses "earmv7hf".
1.142     nia        69:  - RPI2-1.2 uses "earmv7hf" or "aarch64" (ARMv8 CPU hardware)
                     70:  - RPI3 uses "earmv7hf" or "aarch64" (ARMv8 CPU hardware)
                     71:  - RPI4 uses "aarch64" (ARMv8 CPU hardware)
1.57      gdt        72: 
1.142     nia        73: Note that one can run a build of earmv6hf on the 2 and 3.  There will still be a kernel7, built to use the 2/3 hardware, but with the armv6 instruction set.  In theory the code compiled for earmv7hf will be faster, but anecdotal experience is that it doesn't matter that much.  Builds of NetBSD for earlier revisions of ARM are unsupported.
1.96      gdt        74: 
1.142     nia        75: # Installation
1.96      gdt        76: 
1.142     nia        77: ## Using standard images
1.141     nia        78: 
                     79: The simplest way is to download the appropriate SD card image from the NetBSD mirrors:
                     81: - The Raspberry Pi 1 requires the ARMv6 [rpi.img.gz](
                     82: - The Raspberry Pi 2-3 can use the standard ARMv7 [armv7.img.gz]( image.
1.142     nia        83: - The Raspberry Pi 3 can also use [arm64.img.gz](
1.141     nia        84: 
                     85: Decompress it and write it to the SD card:
1.70      gdt        86: 
1.141     nia        87:        $ gunzip armv7.img.gz
                     88:        $ dd if=armv7.img of=/dev/rld0d conv=sync bs=1m progress=1
                     90: If you're not using NetBSD, your operating system's dd command's arguments may vary. On Windows, try [Rawrite32](
                     92: The Raspberry Pi 4 requires the [UEFI firmware]( Write the UEFI firmware to the SD card, and then insert an USB drive with the standard NetBSD `arm64.img` written to it. The Pi will then boot from USB.
                     94: The Raspberry Pi 3 can also [boot NetBSD from UEFI firmware](, but the installation process is currently more complicated. However, there are some advantages, so you might want to try anyway.
1.53      gdt        95: 
1.62      gdt        96: ## SD card structure
1.86      gdt        98: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 MBR partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
                     99: The NetBSD kernel will then find NetBSD MBR partition and within that the root disklabel partition, and use that FFS partition as the root filesystem.
1.62      gdt       100: 
1.130     gutterid  101: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size that the installation image will fit on.  After the first boot, the system resizes the NetBSD root partition to fill the card.  Note that swap is after /boot and before /, and not contained in the NetBSD fdisk partition.  However, if you don't try to change the partition structure, this should not cause you any trouble.
1.63      gdt       102: 
1.91      gdt       103: Note that SD cards generally have limited write tolerance, so you may wish to disable atime updates via the noatime option, as is done by the default installation.
1.141     nia       105: ## Building yourself
1.58      gdt       106: 
1.95      gdt       107: Getting sources and building a release with is not special for evbarm.  However, the evbarm port has a very large number of CPU types, compared to i386 and amd64 which have one each.  The standard approach is to use -m to define MACHINE and -a to define MACHINE_ARCH. supports aliases that can be passed as a MACHINE value, but denote both MACHINE and a MACHINE_ARCH.   The third line uses an alias and is equal to the second, for RPI2/3.  Note that the aliases start with "evb" while the MACHINE_ARCH values do not, and that aliases have "-el" or "-eb", while the MACHINE_ARCH values have no suffix or "eb".
1.66      gdt       108: 
1.59      gdt       109:  - ./ -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
                    110:  - ./ -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
1.95      gdt       111:  - ./ -m evbearmv7hf-el -u release
1.81      gdt       112: 
1.94      gdt       113: Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if you wish to build multiple MACHINE_ARCH values for a MACHINE; see  Use something like "evbarm-earmv7hf", so that 1) earvm6 and earmv7 don't collide and 2) anita will recognize it as a type of evbarm.
1.58      gdt       114: 
1.89      gdt       115: ## Console approaches
                    117: The standard approach is to use a USB keyboard and an HDMI monitor for installation.
1.58      gdt       119: ### Serial Console
1.89      gdt       121: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, mount the FAT32 partition on another system and edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
1.14      wiki      122: 
1.127     gdt       123:  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters have wires for TX, RX and ground, and not RTS/CTS or other flow control lines.   Thus, your terminal program (or terminal) must be configured to not require flow control; a symptom of misconfiguration is that you see console output, but cannot type anything.  If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".   The serial port is at 115200 baud.
1.41      wiki      124: 
1.127     gdt       125:    - In Kermit, the commands are "set flow none", "set carrier-watch off", "set baud 115200", and, often on NetBSD, "set line /dev/dtyU0".
1.89      gdt       126:    - In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no".
1.41      wiki      127: 
1.89      gdt       128: ### Enabling ssh for installation without any console
1.41      wiki      129: 
1.89      gdt       130: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, you can edit the configuration of a uSD card before booting.   On another computer, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address (e.g. from DHCP server logs), you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
1.65      gdt       131: 
1.89      gdt       132: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
1.65      gdt       133: 
1.89      gdt       134: (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console, when built for earmv6hf.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
1.58      gdt       135: 
1.89      gdt       136:  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to a LAN with a DHCP server, and another host you can use for ssh.
                    137:  - Power on the RPI, and wait.  Watch the logs on the DHCP server, and find the IP address assigned to the RPI.
1.130     gutterid  138:  - Use ssh to log in to the address you found with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
1.89      gdt       139:  - When installing, ensure that you enable DHCP and ssh, so that you can log in again after the system is installed.
1.53      gdt       140: 
1.107     gdt       141: The rpi_inst.img.gz image will only work for systems that use earmv6hf kernels (so not RPI2/3).  See [this port-arm message]( for details.
1.55      gdt       143: ## Installation via ebijun's image
1.58      gdt       145: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
                    146: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
                    147: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
                    148: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
                    149: every few weeks.
1.55      gdt       150: 
1.121     cnst      151:  - <>
1.55      gdt       152: 
1.137     gdt       153: ## Boot Process
1.138     gdt       157: ### DTBs
1.137     gdt       159: Note that generally, a single dtb is loaded.  On NetBSD 9, the dtb
                    160: file for the system is loaded by the bootloader (in flash).
1.140     gdt       162: The RPI bootloader looks for a magic string in a trailer after the kernel to determine if it should use DTB support (the new normal) or something called ATAG (apparently the old way).  See [upstream commit introducing DTB trailer]( for more information.
1.138     gdt       163: 
1.139     gdt       164: ### Kernel format variants
                    166: In netbsd-8, only the ELF and bin variants of RPI2 are built.  The bin version is used.
                    168: In netbsd-9 releasedir/binary/kernels, the following 4 versions of GENERIC are produced.  (This might be the same in current.)
                    170: #### netbsd-GENERIC.gz
                    172: This is regular ELF and not used on RPI.
                    174: #### netbsd-GENERIC.bin.gz
                    176: It is unclear why this file exists on 9.  It seems to be like img, but without the trailer for DTB; this makes sense for 8.
                    178: #### netbsd-GENERIC.img.gz
                    180: On NetBSD >=9, the kernel with the .img suffix has the trailer to cause the bootloader to load DTB files.
                    182: #### netbsd-GENERIC.ub.gz
                    184: This is for u-boot and not used on RPI.
1.98      gdt       186: ## Configuring 802.11
1.139     gdt       187: 
1.98      gdt       188: After installation, the Ethernet will function as on any other NetBSD system; simply enable dhcpcd or configure a static address.  USB WiFi devices will also function as on any other NetBSD system; in addition to dhcpcd or static, configure and enable wpa_supplicant.
                    190: Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.  In particular, the following are known to work:
                    192:  - urtwn0: Realtek (0xbda) 802.11n WLAN Adapter (0x8176), rev 2.00/2.00, addr 5, MAC/BB RTL8188CUS, RF 6052 1T1R
1.90      gdt       194: ## Links
                    196: The following pages have been published by NetBSD community members.  (Note that some of them are old.)
1.130     gutterid  198:  - <>
1.90      gdt       199: 
1.74      gdt       200: # Maintaining a system
1.127     gdt       202: ## Booting single user
                    204: \todo Describe how to boot single user via the serial console and via the fb console.
1.78      gdt       206: ## vcgencmd
1.80      gdt       208: The program vcgencmd, referenced in the boot section,  can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
1.78      gdt       209: 
1.53      gdt       210: ## Updating the kernel
1.46      schmonz   211: 
1.131     gdt       212:  - Run uname -a to determine the name of the config of your current kernel.  For NetBSD <= 8, one ran RPI or RPI2.  For NetBSD >=9, one uses GENERIC.
                    213:  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using Ideally, run " release" and look in releasedir/binary/kernels.  If building just a kernel, it will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
1.42      wiki      214:          ...
1.131     gdt       215:          Kernels built from GENERIC:
                    216:           /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/GENERIC/netbsd
1.42      wiki      217:          ...
1.131     gdt       218:  - There are multiple kernel formats produced by a release build, for use with different boot loader schemes..  For GENERIC:
                    219:    - netbsd-GENERIC: A normal kernel in ELF format.
                    220:    - netbsd-GENERIC.img: In NetBSD >= 9, formatted for the RPI bootloader.
                    221:    - netbsd-GENERIC.bin: In NetBSD <= 8, formatted for the RPI bootloader.  In NetBSD >= 9, ??????  In NetBSD 9, this kernel WILL NOT boot.
                    222:    - netbsd-GENERIC.ub: A kernel in uboot format.
1.48      sevan     223:  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
1.42      wiki      224:  - reboot
1.127     gdt       226: \todo Explain if updating firmware is necessary when e.g. moving from 8 to 9, or 9 to current.
1.131     gdt       228: ## Updating dtb files
1.137     gdt       230: ### NetBSD 8
1.141     nia       232: On NetBSD 8, dtb files are not used.
1.137     gdt       233: 
                    234: ### NetBSD 9
1.136     gdt       236: Build a release.  gunzip the armv7.img, vnconfig it, and mount the MSDOS partition (e) e.g. on /mnt.  Copy the dtb files from /mnt/foo.dtb to /boot, and from /mnt/dtb/foo.dtb to /boot/dtb.
1.131     gdt       237: 
1.135     gdt       238: It seems that some systems, including RPI, require dtb files in /boot, and some expect them in /boot/dtb.
1.137     gdt       240: ### NetBSD current
                    242: When updating, ensure that /boot is mounted and that you unpack the dtb set.
1.73      gdt       244: ## Updating the firmware
1.135     gdt       246: It is highly likely that running NetBSD from a given branch X with firmware from a branch Y < X will not go well.  It is unclear if firmware from a branch Y > X will work.  It is standard practice to use firmware from the right branch.
1.131     gdt       247: 
1.73      gdt       248: A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
1.131     gdt       250: (Updating the firmware is harder than it should be.)
                    251: Build a release.  gunzip the armv7.img, vnconfig it, and mount the MSDOS partition (e) e.g. on /mnt.  Copy files from that to /boot that have changes, carefully.
                    253: Relevant files include bootcode.bin, start.elf and start_cd.elf.
                    255: Compare cmdline.txt, but beware that just overwriting it will lose customizations like using the serial console instead of the framebuffer.
1.127     gdt       257: \todo Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and note that it is not in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain how to update a system (presumably /boot) from either an installed system's new firmware files, or the source tree.  Explain any particular cautions.
1.101     gdt       258: 
1.99      gdt       259: \todo Explain if using updated firmware from one branch (e.g. netbsd-current) on a system using a different branch (e.g. netbsd-8) is safe.  Explain if pullups are done to release branches with new firmware.
1.75      gdt       261: ## Booting
1.79      gdt       263: The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting]( and read all the subpages.
1.75      gdt       264: 
1.112     gdt       265: The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap partition (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
1.75      gdt       266: 
1.112     gdt       267: One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /, so the swap partition is not within the NetBSD fdisk partition.  The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
1.75      gdt       268: 
1.77      gdt       269: An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
1.75      gdt       270: 
1.130     gutterid  271: A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enabled on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode]( will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
1.80      gdt       272: \todo Confirm that putting program_usb_boot_mode=1 in config.txt and booting works to program the OTP bit.  Confirm that one can then boot NetBSD from external USB.
1.75      gdt       273: 
1.101     gdt       274: There is no well-defined USB enumeration order, so the preferred approach if one has multiple USB mass storage devices is to use named wedges in both fstab and cmdline.txt.
1.75      gdt       275: 
1.113     gdt       276: ## Split-mode aarch32/aarch64
                    278: \todo Verify this, and add any necessary cautions about boot code.
1.130     gutterid  280: The aarch64 kernel can run aarch32 binaries, so one can boot an aarch64 kernel on a system with an aarch32 userland.
1.113     gdt       281: 
1.93      gdt       282: # X11 and GPU
1.141     nia       284: Video acceleration currently only works with 32-bit (ARMv7 and ARMv6) kernels due to the Broadcom code not being 64-bit clean.
                    286: Since applications require specialized support for the GPU, only a few applications are normally accelerated.  NetBSD/aarch64 normally uses `llvmpipe` to provide fast parallel CPU-driven support for OpenGL, so should be faster when running normal applications.
                    288: The situation should be improved, ideally by writing a DRM/KMS driver.
1.27      wiki      290: ## Video playback
1.128     gdt       291: 
1.132     gdt       292: Accelerated video playback is supported with the [OMXPlayer]( application and through GStreamer with the [omx]( plugin.
1.27      wiki      293: 
                    294: ## OpenGL ES
1.128     gdt       295: 
1.132     gdt       296: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported.  The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland]( package.
1.27      wiki      297: 
1.28      wiki      298: ## Quake 3
1.128     gdt       299: 
1.27      wiki      300: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi]( package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
                    302:  - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
1.31      snj       303:  - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3]( package
1.27      wiki      304:  - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
1.31      snj       306: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
1.27      wiki      307: 
1.32      wiki      308: ## RetroArch / Libretro
1.128     gdt       309: 
1.32      wiki      310: Using [emulators/retroarch]( it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*]( packages. To begin using retroarch:
                    312:  - Install [emulators/retroarch](
                    313:  - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](, a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
1.118     nia       314:  - Make sure your user has read and write permissions on `/dev/vchiq`.
                    315:  - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D"). Note that since the framebuffer GL driver will not allow for keyboard input in RetroArch, you will have to copy your joypad configuration from another system.
                    316:  - Configure retroarch by editing $HOME/.config/retroarch/retroarch.cfg:
                    317:        video_driver = "gl"
                    318:        input_driver = "null"
                    319:        joypad_driver = "sdl2"
1.116     nia       320:        menu_driver = "rgui"
1.32      wiki      321: 
1.53      gdt       322: # Developer notes
1.50      gdt       323: 
1.53      gdt       324: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       325: 
1.72      gdt       326: ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
1.50      gdt       327: 
1.72      gdt       328: (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
                    329: be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
1.50      gdt       330: 
1.72      gdt       331: Upstream firmware releases are
                    332: [on GitHub](
                    333: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
                    335: New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       336: 
1.53      gdt       337: - Audio
                    338: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
                    339: - Serial/framebuffer console
                    340: - CPU frequency scaling
1.50      gdt       341: 
1.92      gdt       342: Tests should be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
1.94      gdt       343: 
                    344: ## Testing with anita and qemu
1.111     gdt       346: See the anita section in the evbarm page.
1.94      gdt       347: 
1.110     gdt       348: It is not currently known how to emulate a RPI in qemu, and therefore anita does not yet have support for this.  \todo Add a command-line example to run qemu emulating some RPI model.
1.119     leot      349: 
1.128     gdt       350: # Misc notes
1.119     leot      351: 
                    352: Miscellaneous notes about Raspberry PI.
                    354: ## Power supply needed (or: why there is a little rainbow square in the top-right corner?)
1.128     gdt       355: 
1.119     leot      356: Raspberry Pi devices are powered by 5V micro USB and a 2.5A (2500mA)
1.124     gdt       357: power supply is recommended.  For more information please read:
1.119     leot      358: 
                    359:  <>
                    361: Power glitches can also manifest in other ways, e.g. with an USB
                    362: disk plugged:
                    364: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    365: sd0(umass0:0:0:0): generic HBA error
                    366: sd0: cache synchronization failed
                    367: """]]
1.124     gdt       369: Using a recommended power supply avoid such issues.
1.119     leot      370: 
                    371: ## Xenon death flash (Raspberry Pi 2 is camera-shy)
1.128     gdt       372: 
1.119     leot      373: When using laser pointers or xenon flashes in cameras (or other
                    374: flashes of high-intensity long-wave light) against a Raspberry Pi
                    375: 2 the Pi can power itself off.
                    376: For more information please read:
                    378:  <>

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