Annotation of wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn, revision 1.142

1.1       jakllsch    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
                      2: 
1.141     nia         3: This page describes the NetBSD/evbarm port on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org) hardware.  All [board variants](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raspberry_Pi#Specifications) earlier than the RPI4 are believed supported, and specific boards known to work are listed.  We use e.g. "RPI2" to refer to "Raspberry Pi 2" to save precious bytes on this page.
1.39      wiki        4: 
1.141     nia         5: Initial Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0.  NetBSD 7.0 added complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8.  NetBSD 9 supports aarch64, meaning using the newer processors in 64-bit mode.
1.129     gdt         6: 
1.3       wiki        7: [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
                      8: 
1.26      wiki        9: [[!toc levels=2]]
                     10: 
1.14      wiki       11: <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
1.3       wiki       12: 
1.142   ! nia        13: # What works
1.123     gdt        14: 
1.132     gdt        15: ## NetBSD 8
1.53      gdt        16: 
1.102     gdt        17:  - RPI1, RPI2, RPI2-1.2, RPI3, RPI3+ (except RPI3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
                     18:  - RPI0 and RPI0W are expected to work (without WiFi, and one needs fdt files \todo where from?)
1.101     gdt        19:  - multiple processors on RPI2/RPI3
1.74      gdt        20:  - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
                     21:  - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
1.53      gdt        22:  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
1.74      gdt        23:  - X11 via HDMI
                     24:  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
                     25:  - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
1.142   ! nia        26:  - Ethernet - usmsc(4), mue(4)
1.53      gdt        27:  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
1.74      gdt        28:  - RNG
1.53      gdt        29:  - Audio: works. man page missing.
1.74      gdt        30:  - GPIO
1.53      gdt        31:  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
                     32:  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
                     33: 
1.123     gdt        34: ## NetBSD 9
                     35: 
                     36:  - aarch64 support (RPI3, and should work on all supported systems with 64-bit CPUs)
1.126     gdt        37:  - RPI3 new SD host controller driver
1.123     gdt        38: 
1.125     gdt        39: ## NetBSD current
1.53      gdt        40: 
1.142   ! nia        41:  - RPI4 (using EDK2 UEFI firmware)
        !            42:        - RPI4 Ethernet (Broadcom GENETv5) - genet(4)
1.141     nia        43:  - RPI3/RPI4 audio with aarch64 kernels
                     44:        - Previously the driver was only included with 32-bit (ARMv7/ARMv6)
                     45:          kernels and images due to the Broadcom code having 64-bit cleanliness
                     46:          issues.
1.101     gdt        47:  - RPI3 builtin bluetooth
1.142   ! nia        48:  - RPI3 and RPI0W builtin WiFi - bwfm(4)
        !            49:  - Big endian support
1.125     gdt        50: 
1.102     gdt        51: ## What needs documenting if it works
                     52: 
1.133     gdt        53:  - (Everything listed in the previous section.)
1.102     gdt        54:  - CM1
                     55:  - CM3
                     56:  - CM3lite
                     57: 
1.54      gdt        58: ## What needs work
1.53      gdt        59: 
                     60:  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
1.105     gdt        61:  - RPI0W Bluetooth Low Energy (probably)
1.141     nia        62:  - DRM/KMS
1.53      gdt        63: 
1.57      gdt        64: # CPU types
                     65: 
1.101     gdt        66:  - RPI1 uses "earmv6hf".
1.109     gdt        67:  - RPI0 uses "earmv6hf".
                     68:  - RPI0W uses "earmv6hf".
1.101     gdt        69:  - RPI2 uses "earmv7hf".
1.142   ! nia        70:  - RPI2-1.2 uses "earmv7hf" or "aarch64" (ARMv8 CPU hardware)
        !            71:  - RPI3 uses "earmv7hf" or "aarch64" (ARMv8 CPU hardware)
        !            72:  - RPI4 uses "aarch64" (ARMv8 CPU hardware)
1.57      gdt        73: 
1.142   ! nia        74: Note that one can run a build of earmv6hf on the 2 and 3.  There will still be a kernel7, built to use the 2/3 hardware, but with the armv6 instruction set.  In theory the code compiled for earmv7hf will be faster, but anecdotal experience is that it doesn't matter that much.  Builds of NetBSD for earlier revisions of ARM are unsupported.
1.96      gdt        75: 
1.142   ! nia        76: # Installation
1.96      gdt        77: 
1.142   ! nia        78: ## Using standard images
1.141     nia        79: 
                     80: The simplest way is to download the appropriate SD card image from the NetBSD mirrors:
                     81: 
                     82: - The Raspberry Pi 1 requires the ARMv6 [rpi.img.gz](http://nycdn.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-9/latest/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/rpi.img.gz).
                     83: - The Raspberry Pi 2-3 can use the standard ARMv7 [armv7.img.gz](https://nycdn.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-9/latest/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/armv7.img.gz) image.
1.142   ! nia        84: - The Raspberry Pi 3 can also use [arm64.img.gz](https://nycdn.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-9/latest/evbarm-aarch64/binary/gzimg/arm64.img.gz).
1.141     nia        85: 
                     86: Decompress it and write it to the SD card:
1.70      gdt        87: 
1.141     nia        88:        $ gunzip armv7.img.gz
                     89:        $ dd if=armv7.img of=/dev/rld0d conv=sync bs=1m progress=1
                     90: 
                     91: If you're not using NetBSD, your operating system's dd command's arguments may vary. On Windows, try [Rawrite32](https://www.netbsd.org/~martin/rawrite32/).
                     92: 
                     93: The Raspberry Pi 4 requires the [UEFI firmware](https://github.com/pftf/RPi4/releases). Write the UEFI firmware to the SD card, and then insert an USB drive with the standard NetBSD `arm64.img` written to it. The Pi will then boot from USB.
                     94: 
                     95: The Raspberry Pi 3 can also [boot NetBSD from UEFI firmware](https://washbear.neocities.org/rpi3-netbsd-uefi.html), but the installation process is currently more complicated. However, there are some advantages, so you might want to try anyway.
1.53      gdt        96: 
1.62      gdt        97: ## SD card structure
                     98: 
1.86      gdt        99: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 MBR partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
                    100: The NetBSD kernel will then find NetBSD MBR partition and within that the root disklabel partition, and use that FFS partition as the root filesystem.
1.62      gdt       101: 
1.130     gutterid  102: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size that the installation image will fit on.  After the first boot, the system resizes the NetBSD root partition to fill the card.  Note that swap is after /boot and before /, and not contained in the NetBSD fdisk partition.  However, if you don't try to change the partition structure, this should not cause you any trouble.
1.63      gdt       103: 
1.91      gdt       104: Note that SD cards generally have limited write tolerance, so you may wish to disable atime updates via the noatime option, as is done by the default installation.
                    105: 
1.141     nia       106: ## Building yourself
1.58      gdt       107: 
1.95      gdt       108: Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  However, the evbarm port has a very large number of CPU types, compared to i386 and amd64 which have one each.  The standard approach is to use -m to define MACHINE and -a to define MACHINE_ARCH.  build.sh supports aliases that can be passed as a MACHINE value, but denote both MACHINE and a MACHINE_ARCH.   The third line uses an alias and is equal to the second, for RPI2/3.  Note that the aliases start with "evb" while the MACHINE_ARCH values do not, and that aliases have "-el" or "-eb", while the MACHINE_ARCH values have no suffix or "eb".
1.66      gdt       109: 
1.59      gdt       110:  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
                    111:  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
1.95      gdt       112:  - ./build.sh -m evbearmv7hf-el -u release
1.81      gdt       113: 
1.94      gdt       114: Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if you wish to build multiple MACHINE_ARCH values for a MACHINE; see build.sh.  Use something like "evbarm-earmv7hf", so that 1) earvm6 and earmv7 don't collide and 2) anita will recognize it as a type of evbarm.
1.58      gdt       115: 
1.89      gdt       116: ## Console approaches
                    117: 
                    118: The standard approach is to use a USB keyboard and an HDMI monitor for installation.
                    119: 
1.58      gdt       120: ### Serial Console
                    121: 
1.89      gdt       122: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, mount the FAT32 partition on another system and edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
1.14      wiki      123: 
1.127     gdt       124:  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters have wires for TX, RX and ground, and not RTS/CTS or other flow control lines.   Thus, your terminal program (or terminal) must be configured to not require flow control; a symptom of misconfiguration is that you see console output, but cannot type anything.  If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".   The serial port is at 115200 baud.
1.41      wiki      125: 
1.127     gdt       126:    - In Kermit, the commands are "set flow none", "set carrier-watch off", "set baud 115200", and, often on NetBSD, "set line /dev/dtyU0".
1.89      gdt       127:    - In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no".
1.41      wiki      128: 
1.89      gdt       129: ### Enabling ssh for installation without any console
1.41      wiki      130: 
1.89      gdt       131: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, you can edit the configuration of a uSD card before booting.   On another computer, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address (e.g. from DHCP server logs), you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
1.65      gdt       132: 
1.89      gdt       133: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
1.65      gdt       134: 
1.89      gdt       135: build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console, when built for earmv6hf.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
1.58      gdt       136: 
1.89      gdt       137:  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to a LAN with a DHCP server, and another host you can use for ssh.
                    138:  - Power on the RPI, and wait.  Watch the logs on the DHCP server, and find the IP address assigned to the RPI.
1.130     gutterid  139:  - Use ssh to log in to the address you found with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
1.89      gdt       140:  - When installing, ensure that you enable DHCP and ssh, so that you can log in again after the system is installed.
1.53      gdt       141: 
1.107     gdt       142: The rpi_inst.img.gz image will only work for systems that use earmv6hf kernels (so not RPI2/3).  See [this port-arm message](https://mail-index.netbsd.org/port-arm/2017/08/18/msg004374.html) for details.
                    143: 
1.55      gdt       144: ## Installation via ebijun's image
                    145: 
1.58      gdt       146: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
                    147: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
                    148: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
                    149: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
                    150: every few weeks.
1.55      gdt       151: 
1.121     cnst      152:  - <https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README>
1.55      gdt       153: 
1.137     gdt       154: ## Boot Process
                    155: 
                    156: https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/configuration/config-txt/boot.md
                    157: 
1.138     gdt       158: ### DTBs
                    159: 
1.137     gdt       160: Note that generally, a single dtb is loaded.  On NetBSD 9, the dtb
                    161: file for the system is loaded by the bootloader (in flash).
                    162: 
1.140     gdt       163: The RPI bootloader looks for a magic string in a trailer after the kernel to determine if it should use DTB support (the new normal) or something called ATAG (apparently the old way).  See [upstream commit introducing DTB trailer](https://github.com/raspberrypi/linux/commit/2367d8a42e2717d8d15a39a9085cc2909fae033a#diff-8f088aca645d10d79b594d58db4136f3e09caee077fe373bb08f02f2040900a9) for more information.
1.138     gdt       164: 
1.139     gdt       165: ### Kernel format variants
                    166: 
                    167: In netbsd-8, only the ELF and bin variants of RPI2 are built.  The bin version is used.
                    168: 
                    169: In netbsd-9 releasedir/binary/kernels, the following 4 versions of GENERIC are produced.  (This might be the same in current.)
                    170: 
                    171: #### netbsd-GENERIC.gz
                    172: 
                    173: This is regular ELF and not used on RPI.
                    174: 
                    175: #### netbsd-GENERIC.bin.gz
                    176: 
                    177: It is unclear why this file exists on 9.  It seems to be like img, but without the trailer for DTB; this makes sense for 8.
                    178: 
                    179: #### netbsd-GENERIC.img.gz
                    180: 
                    181: On NetBSD >=9, the kernel with the .img suffix has the trailer to cause the bootloader to load DTB files.
                    182: 
                    183: #### netbsd-GENERIC.ub.gz
                    184: 
                    185: This is for u-boot and not used on RPI.
                    186: 
1.98      gdt       187: ## Configuring 802.11
1.139     gdt       188: 
1.98      gdt       189: After installation, the Ethernet will function as on any other NetBSD system; simply enable dhcpcd or configure a static address.  USB WiFi devices will also function as on any other NetBSD system; in addition to dhcpcd or static, configure and enable wpa_supplicant.
                    190: 
                    191: Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.  In particular, the following are known to work:
                    192: 
                    193:  - urtwn0: Realtek (0xbda) 802.11n WLAN Adapter (0x8176), rev 2.00/2.00, addr 5, MAC/BB RTL8188CUS, RF 6052 1T1R
                    194: 
1.90      gdt       195: ## Links
                    196: 
                    197: The following pages have been published by NetBSD community members.  (Note that some of them are old.)
                    198: 
1.130     gutterid  199:  - <https://www.cambus.net/netbsd-on-the-raspberry-pi/>
1.90      gdt       200: 
1.74      gdt       201: # Maintaining a system
                    202: 
1.127     gdt       203: ## Booting single user
                    204: 
                    205: \todo Describe how to boot single user via the serial console and via the fb console.
                    206: 
1.78      gdt       207: ## vcgencmd
                    208: 
1.80      gdt       209: The program vcgencmd, referenced in the boot section,  can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
1.78      gdt       210: 
1.53      gdt       211: ## Updating the kernel
1.46      schmonz   212: 
1.131     gdt       213:  - Run uname -a to determine the name of the config of your current kernel.  For NetBSD <= 8, one ran RPI or RPI2.  For NetBSD >=9, one uses GENERIC.
                    214:  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. Ideally, run "build.sh release" and look in releasedir/binary/kernels.  If building just a kernel, it will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
1.42      wiki      215:          ...
1.131     gdt       216:          Kernels built from GENERIC:
                    217:           /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/GENERIC/netbsd
1.42      wiki      218:          ...
1.131     gdt       219:  - There are multiple kernel formats produced by a release build, for use with different boot loader schemes..  For GENERIC:
                    220:    - netbsd-GENERIC: A normal kernel in ELF format.
                    221:    - netbsd-GENERIC.img: In NetBSD >= 9, formatted for the RPI bootloader.
                    222:    - netbsd-GENERIC.bin: In NetBSD <= 8, formatted for the RPI bootloader.  In NetBSD >= 9, ??????  In NetBSD 9, this kernel WILL NOT boot.
                    223:    - netbsd-GENERIC.ub: A kernel in uboot format.
1.48      sevan     224:  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
1.42      wiki      225:  - reboot
                    226: 
1.127     gdt       227: \todo Explain if updating firmware is necessary when e.g. moving from 8 to 9, or 9 to current.
                    228: 
1.131     gdt       229: ## Updating dtb files
                    230: 
1.137     gdt       231: ### NetBSD 8
                    232: 
1.141     nia       233: On NetBSD 8, dtb files are not used.
1.137     gdt       234: 
                    235: ### NetBSD 9
                    236: 
1.136     gdt       237: Build a release.  gunzip the armv7.img, vnconfig it, and mount the MSDOS partition (e) e.g. on /mnt.  Copy the dtb files from /mnt/foo.dtb to /boot, and from /mnt/dtb/foo.dtb to /boot/dtb.
1.131     gdt       238: 
1.135     gdt       239: It seems that some systems, including RPI, require dtb files in /boot, and some expect them in /boot/dtb.
                    240: 
1.137     gdt       241: ### NetBSD current
                    242: 
                    243: When updating, ensure that /boot is mounted and that you unpack the dtb set.
                    244: 
1.73      gdt       245: ## Updating the firmware
                    246: 
1.135     gdt       247: It is highly likely that running NetBSD from a given branch X with firmware from a branch Y < X will not go well.  It is unclear if firmware from a branch Y > X will work.  It is standard practice to use firmware from the right branch.
1.131     gdt       248: 
1.73      gdt       249: A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
                    250: 
1.131     gdt       251: (Updating the firmware is harder than it should be.)
                    252: Build a release.  gunzip the armv7.img, vnconfig it, and mount the MSDOS partition (e) e.g. on /mnt.  Copy files from that to /boot that have changes, carefully.
                    253: 
                    254: Relevant files include bootcode.bin, start.elf and start_cd.elf.
                    255: 
                    256: Compare cmdline.txt, but beware that just overwriting it will lose customizations like using the serial console instead of the framebuffer.
                    257: 
1.127     gdt       258: \todo Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and note that it is not in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain how to update a system (presumably /boot) from either an installed system's new firmware files, or the source tree.  Explain any particular cautions.
1.101     gdt       259: 
1.99      gdt       260: \todo Explain if using updated firmware from one branch (e.g. netbsd-current) on a system using a different branch (e.g. netbsd-8) is safe.  Explain if pullups are done to release branches with new firmware.
                    261: 
1.75      gdt       262: ## Booting
                    263: 
1.79      gdt       264: The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/) and read all the subpages.
1.75      gdt       265: 
1.112     gdt       266: The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap partition (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
1.75      gdt       267: 
1.112     gdt       268: One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /, so the swap partition is not within the NetBSD fdisk partition.  The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
1.75      gdt       269: 
1.77      gdt       270: An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
1.75      gdt       271: 
1.130     gutterid  272: A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enabled on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/msd.md) will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
1.80      gdt       273: \todo Confirm that putting program_usb_boot_mode=1 in config.txt and booting works to program the OTP bit.  Confirm that one can then boot NetBSD from external USB.
1.75      gdt       274: 
1.101     gdt       275: There is no well-defined USB enumeration order, so the preferred approach if one has multiple USB mass storage devices is to use named wedges in both fstab and cmdline.txt.
1.75      gdt       276: 
1.113     gdt       277: ## Split-mode aarch32/aarch64
                    278: 
                    279: \todo Verify this, and add any necessary cautions about boot code.
                    280: 
1.130     gutterid  281: The aarch64 kernel can run aarch32 binaries, so one can boot an aarch64 kernel on a system with an aarch32 userland.
1.113     gdt       282: 
1.93      gdt       283: # X11 and GPU
                    284: 
1.141     nia       285: Video acceleration currently only works with 32-bit (ARMv7 and ARMv6) kernels due to the Broadcom code not being 64-bit clean.
                    286: 
                    287: Since applications require specialized support for the GPU, only a few applications are normally accelerated.  NetBSD/aarch64 normally uses `llvmpipe` to provide fast parallel CPU-driven support for OpenGL, so should be faster when running normal applications.
                    288: 
                    289: The situation should be improved, ideally by writing a DRM/KMS driver.
                    290: 
1.27      wiki      291: ## Video playback
1.128     gdt       292: 
1.132     gdt       293: Accelerated video playback is supported with the [OMXPlayer](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/omxplayer) application and through GStreamer with the [omx](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/gst-plugins1-omx) plugin.
1.27      wiki      294: 
                    295: ## OpenGL ES
1.128     gdt       296: 
1.132     gdt       297: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported.  The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland](http://pkgsrc.se/misc/raspberrypi-userland) package.
1.27      wiki      298: 
1.28      wiki      299: ## Quake 3
1.128     gdt       300: 
1.27      wiki      301: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-raspberrypi) package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
                    302: 
                    303:  - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
1.31      snj       304:  - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-pk3) package
1.27      wiki      305:  - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
                    306: 
1.31      snj       307: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
1.27      wiki      308: 
1.32      wiki      309: ## RetroArch / Libretro
1.128     gdt       310: 
1.32      wiki      311: Using [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch) it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*](http://pkgsrc.se/search.php?so=libretro-) packages. To begin using retroarch:
                    312: 
                    313:  - Install [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch)
                    314:  - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/libretro-gambatte), a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
1.118     nia       315:  - Make sure your user has read and write permissions on `/dev/vchiq`.
                    316:  - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D"). Note that since the framebuffer GL driver will not allow for keyboard input in RetroArch, you will have to copy your joypad configuration from another system.
                    317:  - Configure retroarch by editing $HOME/.config/retroarch/retroarch.cfg:
                    318:        video_driver = "gl"
                    319:        input_driver = "null"
                    320:        joypad_driver = "sdl2"
1.116     nia       321:        menu_driver = "rgui"
1.32      wiki      322: 
1.53      gdt       323: # Developer notes
1.50      gdt       324: 
1.53      gdt       325: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       326: 
1.72      gdt       327: ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
1.50      gdt       328: 
1.72      gdt       329: (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
                    330: be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
1.50      gdt       331: 
1.72      gdt       332: Upstream firmware releases are
                    333: [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).
                    334: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
                    335: 
                    336: New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       337: 
1.53      gdt       338: - Audio
                    339: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
                    340: - Serial/framebuffer console
                    341: - CPU frequency scaling
1.50      gdt       342: 
1.92      gdt       343: Tests should be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
1.94      gdt       344: 
                    345: ## Testing with anita and qemu
                    346: 
1.111     gdt       347: See the anita section in the evbarm page.
1.94      gdt       348: 
1.110     gdt       349: It is not currently known how to emulate a RPI in qemu, and therefore anita does not yet have support for this.  \todo Add a command-line example to run qemu emulating some RPI model.
1.119     leot      350: 
1.128     gdt       351: # Misc notes
1.119     leot      352: 
                    353: Miscellaneous notes about Raspberry PI.
                    354: 
                    355: ## Power supply needed (or: why there is a little rainbow square in the top-right corner?)
1.128     gdt       356: 
1.119     leot      357: Raspberry Pi devices are powered by 5V micro USB and a 2.5A (2500mA)
1.124     gdt       358: power supply is recommended.  For more information please read:
1.119     leot      359: 
                    360:  <https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/faqs/#pi-power>
                    361: 
                    362: Power glitches can also manifest in other ways, e.g. with an USB
                    363: disk plugged:
                    364: 
                    365: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    366: sd0(umass0:0:0:0): generic HBA error
                    367: sd0: cache synchronization failed
                    368: """]]
                    369: 
1.124     gdt       370: Using a recommended power supply avoid such issues.
1.119     leot      371: 
                    372: ## Xenon death flash (Raspberry Pi 2 is camera-shy)
1.128     gdt       373: 
1.119     leot      374: When using laser pointers or xenon flashes in cameras (or other
                    375: flashes of high-intensity long-wave light) against a Raspberry Pi
                    376: 2 the Pi can power itself off.
                    377: For more information please read:
                    378: 
                    379:  <https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/xenon-death-flash-a-free-physics-lesson/>

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