Annotation of wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn, revision 1.139

1.1       jakllsch    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
                      2: 
1.130     gutterid    3: This page describes the NetBSD/evbarm port on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org) hardware.  All [board variants](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raspberry_Pi#Specifications) earlier than the RPI4 are believed supported, and specific boards known to work are listed.  We use e.g. "RPI2" to refer to "Raspberry Pi 2" to save precious bytes on this page.  This web page is still 32-bit (aarch32) centric, even though as of mid-2020 aarch64 is also a normal approach.
1.39      wiki        4: 
1.127     gdt         5: Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0.  NetBSD 7.0 added complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8.  NetBSD 9 supports aarch64, meaning using the newer processors in 64-bit mode (via -current in mid 2018).
1.39      wiki        6: 
1.127     gdt         7: Overall, this page takes the view that NetBSD 7 and earlier are obsolete; aside from history, it is written as if those versions don't exist.
1.114     gdt         8: 
1.129     gdt         9: The HOWTO is written for what works on formal releases, release branches (e.g. netbsd-9) and NetBSD-current.  It purposefully does not contain instructions about how to get things to work by installing code that is still being tested and not yet in -current.
                     10: 
1.3       wiki       11: [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
                     12: 
1.26      wiki       13: [[!toc levels=2]]
                     14: 
1.14      wiki       15: <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
1.3       wiki       16: 
1.54      gdt        17: # What works (and what doesn't yet)
1.53      gdt        18: 
1.123     gdt        19: "Works" is primarily relative to the earmv6hf-el and earmv7hf-el CPU targets (32-bit).
                     20: 
1.132     gdt        21: ## NetBSD 8
1.53      gdt        22: 
1.102     gdt        23:  - RPI1, RPI2, RPI2-1.2, RPI3, RPI3+ (except RPI3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
                     24:  - RPI0 and RPI0W are expected to work (without WiFi, and one needs fdt files \todo where from?)
1.101     gdt        25:  - multiple processors on RPI2/RPI3
1.74      gdt        26:  - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
                     27:  - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
1.53      gdt        28:  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
1.74      gdt        29:  - X11 via HDMI
                     30:  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
                     31:  - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
                     32:  - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
1.53      gdt        33:  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
1.74      gdt        34:  - RNG
1.53      gdt        35:  - Audio: works. man page missing.
1.74      gdt        36:  - GPIO
1.53      gdt        37:  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
                     38:  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
                     39: 
1.123     gdt        40: ## NetBSD 9
                     41: 
                     42:  - aarch64 support (RPI3, and should work on all supported systems with 64-bit CPUs)
1.126     gdt        43:  - RPI3 new SD host controller driver
1.123     gdt        44: 
1.125     gdt        45: ## NetBSD current
1.53      gdt        46: 
1.101     gdt        47:  - RPI3 builtin bluetooth
1.53      gdt        48: 
1.125     gdt        49: ## (maybe) NetBSD current, with manual steps
                     50: 
                     51:    These items do not work in the sense that they simply function after a standard install.  Being listed here implies only that there has been list traffic that implies that after taking a bunch of steps (e.g. new firmware, new dtbs, enabling drivers, applying patches), one can end up with the feature working.  The HOWTO explicitly refrains from describing these steps because they are ephemeral.  However, the fact that list traffic indicates success is possible is a clue that proper support is on the horizon, and that is notable.
                     52: 
1.127     gdt        53:  - RPI3 and RPI0W builtin WiFi
1.133     gdt        54:  - RPI4
1.125     gdt        55: 
1.102     gdt        56: ## What needs documenting if it works
                     57: 
1.133     gdt        58:  - (Everything listed in the previous section.)
1.102     gdt        59:  - CM1
                     60:  - CM3
                     61:  - CM3lite
                     62: 
1.54      gdt        63: ## What needs work
1.53      gdt        64: 
                     65:  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
1.105     gdt        66:  - RPI0W Bluetooth Low Energy (probably)
1.53      gdt        67: 
1.57      gdt        68: # CPU types
                     69: 
1.101     gdt        70:  - RPI1 uses "earmv6hf".
1.109     gdt        71:  - RPI0 uses "earmv6hf".
                     72:  - RPI0W uses "earmv6hf".
1.101     gdt        73:  - RPI2 uses "earmv7hf".
1.113     gdt        74:  - RPI2-1.2 uses "earmv7hf" or "aarch64" (armv8 CPU hardware)
                     75:  - RPI3 uses "earmv7hf" or "aarch64" (armv8 CPU hardware)
1.127     gdt        76:  - RPI4 \todo
1.57      gdt        77: 
1.101     gdt        78: Note that one can run a build of earmv6hf on the 2 and 3.  There will still be a kernel7, built to use the 2/3 hardware, but with the armv6 instruction set.
1.96      gdt        79: 
1.127     gdt        80: In theory the code compiled for earmv7hf will be faster, but anecdotal experience is that it doesn't matter that much.  \todo Post a link to a quality benchmark.
1.97      gdt        81: 
1.130     gutterid   82: While the evbarm port has "eb" variants (for big-endian mode), the RPI systems do not support eb and these variants will not work.  Systems built for older CPU architectures (earm, earmv4, earmv5) are not expected to work on RPI.
1.96      gdt        83: 
1.133     gdt        84: The RPI2-1.2, RPI3 and RPI4 have an armv8 CPU that supports aarch64 (64-bit mode) in addition to aarch32 (regular 32-bit ARM).  This is supported, from 9 onwards, by the "aarch64" MACHINE_ARCH of evbarm, also available in build.sh via the alias evbarm64.  This is also referred to as [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]].
1.70      gdt        85: 
1.7       wiki       86: # Installation
1.53      gdt        87: 
1.62      gdt        88: ## SD card structure
                     89: 
1.86      gdt        90: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 MBR partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
                     91: The NetBSD kernel will then find NetBSD MBR partition and within that the root disklabel partition, and use that FFS partition as the root filesystem.
1.62      gdt        92: 
1.130     gutterid   93: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size that the installation image will fit on.  After the first boot, the system resizes the NetBSD root partition to fill the card.  Note that swap is after /boot and before /, and not contained in the NetBSD fdisk partition.  However, if you don't try to change the partition structure, this should not cause you any trouble.
1.63      gdt        94: 
1.91      gdt        95: Note that SD cards generally have limited write tolerance, so you may wish to disable atime updates via the noatime option, as is done by the default installation.
                     96: 
1.62      gdt        97: ## Choosing a version
                     98: 
1.127     gdt        99: First, decide if you want to install a formal release (8.0 or 9.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-8, netbsd-9), or NetBSD-current.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, a recent build of netbsd-9 is probably best, with 9.0 the choice for those who value being at exactly a formal release.
1.65      gdt       100: 
                    101: See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
1.58      gdt       102: 
                    103: ## Getting bits to install
                    104: 
1.96      gdt       105: You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get a release from the NetBSD HTTPS/FTP servers.  The bits from both sources should match, except for things like  timestamps, or because the sources are from slightly different points along branches.
1.58      gdt       106: 
                    107: ### Building yourself
                    108: 
1.95      gdt       109: Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  However, the evbarm port has a very large number of CPU types, compared to i386 and amd64 which have one each.  The standard approach is to use -m to define MACHINE and -a to define MACHINE_ARCH.  build.sh supports aliases that can be passed as a MACHINE value, but denote both MACHINE and a MACHINE_ARCH.   The third line uses an alias and is equal to the second, for RPI2/3.  Note that the aliases start with "evb" while the MACHINE_ARCH values do not, and that aliases have "-el" or "-eb", while the MACHINE_ARCH values have no suffix or "eb".
1.66      gdt       110: 
1.59      gdt       111:  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
                    112:  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
1.95      gdt       113:  - ./build.sh -m evbearmv7hf-el -u release
1.81      gdt       114: 
1.94      gdt       115: Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if you wish to build multiple MACHINE_ARCH values for a MACHINE; see build.sh.  Use something like "evbarm-earmv7hf", so that 1) earvm6 and earmv7 don't collide and 2) anita will recognize it as a type of evbarm.
1.58      gdt       116: 
1.85      gdt       117: ### NetBSD autobuild HTTPS/FTP servers
1.58      gdt       118: 
1.132     gdt       119: NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nycdn.netbsd.org](https://nycdn.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  The next directory level is the branch being built (netbsd-8, netbsd-9, HEAD, and more), plus optionally things like compiler type.  It is followed by date/time, e.g. "HEAD/201811051650Z"; once a build is complete the symlink "latest" is adjusted to point to it.  The next level is "${MACHINE}-${MACHINE_ARCH}", e.g. "evbarm-earmv7hf", and multiple combinations are provided.
1.58      gdt       120: 
1.130     gutterid  121: An example URL, arguably the standard approach for first-time NetBSD/RPI users, is <https://nycdn.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/latest/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/>
1.95      gdt       122: 
                    123: ### release layout
                    124: 
1.96      gdt       125: Once you get to the releasedir, self-built and autobuild releases have the same structure.
                    126: 
1.85      gdt       127:  - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that will run on any of the RPI boards.
1.103     gdt       128:  - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that uses the armv7 instruction set, and thus can run only on the RPI2 and RPI3 (and perhaps the CM3).  It also supports systems other than the RPI family.
1.85      gdt       129: 
1.95      gdt       130: \todo Explain why there is no armv7_inst.gz.
1.58      gdt       131: 
1.65      gdt       132: ## Preparing a uSD card
1.10      wiki      133: 
1.107     gdt       134: Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst for earmv6 boards), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
1.14      wiki      135: 
1.60      gdt       136:  - gunzip rpi.img.gz
1.67      ryoon     137:  - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
1.14      wiki      138: 
1.89      gdt       139: ## Console approaches
                    140: 
                    141: The standard approach is to use a USB keyboard and an HDMI monitor for installation.
                    142: 
1.58      gdt       143: ### Serial Console
                    144: 
1.89      gdt       145: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, mount the FAT32 partition on another system and edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
1.14      wiki      146: 
1.127     gdt       147:  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters have wires for TX, RX and ground, and not RTS/CTS or other flow control lines.   Thus, your terminal program (or terminal) must be configured to not require flow control; a symptom of misconfiguration is that you see console output, but cannot type anything.  If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".   The serial port is at 115200 baud.
1.41      wiki      148: 
1.127     gdt       149:    - In Kermit, the commands are "set flow none", "set carrier-watch off", "set baud 115200", and, often on NetBSD, "set line /dev/dtyU0".
1.89      gdt       150:    - In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no".
1.41      wiki      151: 
1.89      gdt       152: ### Enabling ssh for installation without any console
1.41      wiki      153: 
1.89      gdt       154: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, you can edit the configuration of a uSD card before booting.   On another computer, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address (e.g. from DHCP server logs), you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
1.65      gdt       155: 
1.89      gdt       156: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
1.65      gdt       157: 
1.89      gdt       158: build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console, when built for earmv6hf.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
1.58      gdt       159: 
1.89      gdt       160:  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to a LAN with a DHCP server, and another host you can use for ssh.
                    161:  - Power on the RPI, and wait.  Watch the logs on the DHCP server, and find the IP address assigned to the RPI.
1.130     gutterid  162:  - Use ssh to log in to the address you found with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
1.89      gdt       163:  - When installing, ensure that you enable DHCP and ssh, so that you can log in again after the system is installed.
1.53      gdt       164: 
1.107     gdt       165: The rpi_inst.img.gz image will only work for systems that use earmv6hf kernels (so not RPI2/3).  See [this port-arm message](https://mail-index.netbsd.org/port-arm/2017/08/18/msg004374.html) for details.
                    166: 
1.55      gdt       167: ## Installation via ebijun's image
                    168: 
1.58      gdt       169: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
                    170: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
                    171: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
                    172: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
                    173: every few weeks.
1.55      gdt       174: 
1.121     cnst      175:  - <https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README>
1.55      gdt       176: 
1.137     gdt       177: ## Boot Process
                    178: 
                    179: https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/configuration/config-txt/boot.md
                    180: 
1.138     gdt       181: ### DTBs
                    182: 
1.137     gdt       183: Note that generally, a single dtb is loaded.  On NetBSD 9, the dtb
                    184: file for the system is loaded by the bootloader (in flash).
                    185: 
1.138     gdt       186: The RPI bootloader looks for a magic string in a trailer after the kernel to determine if it should use DTB support (the new normal) or something called ATAG (apparently the old way).  See https://github.com/raspberrypi/linux/commit/2367d8a42e2717d8d15a39a9085cc2909fae033a#diff-8f088aca645d10d79b594d58db4136f3e09caee077fe373bb08f02f2040900a9 for more information.
                    187: 
1.139   ! gdt       188: ### Kernel format variants
        !           189: 
        !           190: In netbsd-8, only the ELF and bin variants of RPI2 are built.  The bin version is used.
        !           191: 
        !           192: In netbsd-9 releasedir/binary/kernels, the following 4 versions of GENERIC are produced.  (This might be the same in current.)
        !           193: 
        !           194: #### netbsd-GENERIC.gz
        !           195: 
        !           196: This is regular ELF and not used on RPI.
        !           197: 
        !           198: #### netbsd-GENERIC.bin.gz
        !           199: 
        !           200: It is unclear why this file exists on 9.  It seems to be like img, but without the trailer for DTB; this makes sense for 8.
        !           201: 
        !           202: #### netbsd-GENERIC.img.gz
        !           203: 
        !           204: On NetBSD >=9, the kernel with the .img suffix has the trailer to cause the bootloader to load DTB files.
        !           205: 
        !           206: #### netbsd-GENERIC.ub.gz
        !           207: 
        !           208: This is for u-boot and not used on RPI.
        !           209: 
1.98      gdt       210: ## Configuring 802.11
1.139   ! gdt       211: 
1.98      gdt       212: After installation, the Ethernet will function as on any other NetBSD system; simply enable dhcpcd or configure a static address.  USB WiFi devices will also function as on any other NetBSD system; in addition to dhcpcd or static, configure and enable wpa_supplicant.
                    213: 
                    214: Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.  In particular, the following are known to work:
                    215: 
                    216:  - urtwn0: Realtek (0xbda) 802.11n WLAN Adapter (0x8176), rev 2.00/2.00, addr 5, MAC/BB RTL8188CUS, RF 6052 1T1R
                    217: 
1.90      gdt       218: ## Links
                    219: 
                    220: The following pages have been published by NetBSD community members.  (Note that some of them are old.)
                    221: 
1.130     gutterid  222:  - <https://www.cambus.net/netbsd-on-the-raspberry-pi/>
1.90      gdt       223: 
1.74      gdt       224: # Maintaining a system
                    225: 
1.127     gdt       226: ## Booting single user
                    227: 
                    228: \todo Describe how to boot single user via the serial console and via the fb console.
                    229: 
1.78      gdt       230: ## vcgencmd
                    231: 
1.80      gdt       232: The program vcgencmd, referenced in the boot section,  can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
1.78      gdt       233: 
1.53      gdt       234: ## Updating the kernel
1.46      schmonz   235: 
1.131     gdt       236:  - Run uname -a to determine the name of the config of your current kernel.  For NetBSD <= 8, one ran RPI or RPI2.  For NetBSD >=9, one uses GENERIC.
                    237:  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. Ideally, run "build.sh release" and look in releasedir/binary/kernels.  If building just a kernel, it will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
1.42      wiki      238:          ...
1.131     gdt       239:          Kernels built from GENERIC:
                    240:           /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/GENERIC/netbsd
1.42      wiki      241:          ...
1.131     gdt       242:  - There are multiple kernel formats produced by a release build, for use with different boot loader schemes..  For GENERIC:
                    243:    - netbsd-GENERIC: A normal kernel in ELF format.
                    244:    - netbsd-GENERIC.img: In NetBSD >= 9, formatted for the RPI bootloader.
                    245:    - netbsd-GENERIC.bin: In NetBSD <= 8, formatted for the RPI bootloader.  In NetBSD >= 9, ??????  In NetBSD 9, this kernel WILL NOT boot.
                    246:    - netbsd-GENERIC.ub: A kernel in uboot format.
1.48      sevan     247:  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
1.42      wiki      248:  - reboot
                    249: 
1.127     gdt       250: \todo Explain if updating firmware is necessary when e.g. moving from 8 to 9, or 9 to current.
                    251: 
1.131     gdt       252: ## Updating dtb files
                    253: 
1.137     gdt       254: ### NetBSD 8
                    255: 
                    256: On NetBSD 8, dtb files are not used. (\todo Really?)
                    257: 
                    258: ### NetBSD 9
                    259: 
1.131     gdt       260: (This is harder than it should be.)
1.136     gdt       261: Build a release.  gunzip the armv7.img, vnconfig it, and mount the MSDOS partition (e) e.g. on /mnt.  Copy the dtb files from /mnt/foo.dtb to /boot, and from /mnt/dtb/foo.dtb to /boot/dtb.
1.131     gdt       262: 
1.135     gdt       263: It seems that some systems, including RPI, require dtb files in /boot, and some expect them in /boot/dtb.
                    264: 
                    265: \todo Explain if you only really need the right one for your system type.
1.131     gdt       266: 
                    267: \todo Explain how one is supposed to be able to update these from the dtb files in releasedir/binary/kernel, or fix it to have the same structure.
                    268: 
1.137     gdt       269: ### NetBSD current
                    270: 
                    271: When updating, ensure that /boot is mounted and that you unpack the dtb set.
                    272: 
1.73      gdt       273: ## Updating the firmware
                    274: 
1.135     gdt       275: It is highly likely that running NetBSD from a given branch X with firmware from a branch Y < X will not go well.  It is unclear if firmware from a branch Y > X will work.  It is standard practice to use firmware from the right branch.
1.131     gdt       276: 
1.73      gdt       277: A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
                    278: 
1.131     gdt       279: (Updating the firmware is harder than it should be.)
                    280: Build a release.  gunzip the armv7.img, vnconfig it, and mount the MSDOS partition (e) e.g. on /mnt.  Copy files from that to /boot that have changes, carefully.
                    281: 
                    282: Relevant files include bootcode.bin, start.elf and start_cd.elf.
                    283: 
                    284: Compare cmdline.txt, but beware that just overwriting it will lose customizations like using the serial console instead of the framebuffer.
                    285: 
1.127     gdt       286: \todo Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and note that it is not in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain how to update a system (presumably /boot) from either an installed system's new firmware files, or the source tree.  Explain any particular cautions.
1.101     gdt       287: 
1.99      gdt       288: \todo Explain if using updated firmware from one branch (e.g. netbsd-current) on a system using a different branch (e.g. netbsd-8) is safe.  Explain if pullups are done to release branches with new firmware.
                    289: 
1.75      gdt       290: ## Booting
                    291: 
1.79      gdt       292: The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/) and read all the subpages.
1.75      gdt       293: 
1.112     gdt       294: The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap partition (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
1.75      gdt       295: 
1.112     gdt       296: One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /, so the swap partition is not within the NetBSD fdisk partition.  The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
1.75      gdt       297: 
1.77      gdt       298: An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
1.75      gdt       299: 
1.130     gutterid  300: A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enabled on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/msd.md) will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
1.80      gdt       301: \todo Confirm that putting program_usb_boot_mode=1 in config.txt and booting works to program the OTP bit.  Confirm that one can then boot NetBSD from external USB.
1.75      gdt       302: 
1.101     gdt       303: There is no well-defined USB enumeration order, so the preferred approach if one has multiple USB mass storage devices is to use named wedges in both fstab and cmdline.txt.
1.75      gdt       304: 
1.113     gdt       305: ## Split-mode aarch32/aarch64
                    306: 
                    307: \todo Verify this, and add any necessary cautions about boot code.
                    308: 
1.130     gutterid  309: The aarch64 kernel can run aarch32 binaries, so one can boot an aarch64 kernel on a system with an aarch32 userland.
1.113     gdt       310: 
1.93      gdt       311: # X11 and GPU
                    312: 
1.27      wiki      313: ## Video playback
1.128     gdt       314: 
1.132     gdt       315: Accelerated video playback is supported with the [OMXPlayer](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/omxplayer) application and through GStreamer with the [omx](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/gst-plugins1-omx) plugin.
1.27      wiki      316: 
                    317: ## OpenGL ES
1.128     gdt       318: 
1.132     gdt       319: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported.  The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland](http://pkgsrc.se/misc/raspberrypi-userland) package.
1.27      wiki      320: 
1.28      wiki      321: ## Quake 3
1.128     gdt       322: 
1.27      wiki      323: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-raspberrypi) package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
                    324: 
                    325:  - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
1.31      snj       326:  - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-pk3) package
1.27      wiki      327:  - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
                    328: 
1.31      snj       329: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
1.27      wiki      330: 
1.32      wiki      331: ## RetroArch / Libretro
1.128     gdt       332: 
1.32      wiki      333: Using [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch) it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*](http://pkgsrc.se/search.php?so=libretro-) packages. To begin using retroarch:
                    334: 
                    335:  - Install [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch)
                    336:  - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/libretro-gambatte), a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
1.118     nia       337:  - Make sure your user has read and write permissions on `/dev/vchiq`.
                    338:  - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D"). Note that since the framebuffer GL driver will not allow for keyboard input in RetroArch, you will have to copy your joypad configuration from another system.
                    339:  - Configure retroarch by editing $HOME/.config/retroarch/retroarch.cfg:
                    340:        video_driver = "gl"
                    341:        input_driver = "null"
                    342:        joypad_driver = "sdl2"
1.116     nia       343:        menu_driver = "rgui"
1.32      wiki      344: 
1.53      gdt       345: # Developer notes
1.50      gdt       346: 
1.53      gdt       347: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       348: 
1.72      gdt       349: ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
1.50      gdt       350: 
1.72      gdt       351: (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
                    352: be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
1.50      gdt       353: 
1.72      gdt       354: Upstream firmware releases are
                    355: [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).
                    356: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
                    357: 
                    358: New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       359: 
1.53      gdt       360: - Audio
                    361: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
                    362: - Serial/framebuffer console
                    363: - CPU frequency scaling
1.50      gdt       364: 
1.92      gdt       365: Tests should be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
1.94      gdt       366: 
                    367: ## Testing with anita and qemu
                    368: 
1.111     gdt       369: See the anita section in the evbarm page.
1.94      gdt       370: 
1.110     gdt       371: It is not currently known how to emulate a RPI in qemu, and therefore anita does not yet have support for this.  \todo Add a command-line example to run qemu emulating some RPI model.
1.119     leot      372: 
1.128     gdt       373: # Misc notes
1.119     leot      374: 
                    375: Miscellaneous notes about Raspberry PI.
                    376: 
                    377: ## Power supply needed (or: why there is a little rainbow square in the top-right corner?)
1.128     gdt       378: 
1.119     leot      379: Raspberry Pi devices are powered by 5V micro USB and a 2.5A (2500mA)
1.124     gdt       380: power supply is recommended.  For more information please read:
1.119     leot      381: 
                    382:  <https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/faqs/#pi-power>
                    383: 
                    384: Power glitches can also manifest in other ways, e.g. with an USB
                    385: disk plugged:
                    386: 
                    387: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    388: sd0(umass0:0:0:0): generic HBA error
                    389: sd0: cache synchronization failed
                    390: """]]
                    391: 
1.124     gdt       392: Using a recommended power supply avoid such issues.
1.119     leot      393: 
                    394: ## Xenon death flash (Raspberry Pi 2 is camera-shy)
1.128     gdt       395: 
1.119     leot      396: When using laser pointers or xenon flashes in cameras (or other
                    397: flashes of high-intensity long-wave light) against a Raspberry Pi
                    398: 2 the Pi can power itself off.
                    399: For more information please read:
                    400: 
                    401:  <https://www.raspberrypi.org/blog/xenon-death-flash-a-free-physics-lesson/>

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