Annotation of wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn, revision 1.113

1.1       jakllsch    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
1.113   ! gdt         3: This page describes the NetBSD/evbarm port on [Raspberry Pi]( hardware.  All [board variants]( are believed supported, and specific boards know to work are listed.  We use e.g. "RPI2" to refer to "Raspberry Pi 2" to save precious bytes on this page.
1.39      wiki        4: 
1.104     gdt         5: Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0.  NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2 or later, but note that everyone uses 8 or -current.)
1.39      wiki        6: 
1.3       wiki        7: [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
1.26      wiki        9: [[!toc levels=2]]
1.14      wiki       11: <small>([Raspberry Pi image]( by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
1.3       wiki       12: 
1.54      gdt        13: # What works (and what doesn't yet)
1.53      gdt        14: 
1.70      gdt        15: ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
1.53      gdt        16: 
1.102     gdt        17:  - RPI1, RPI2, RPI2-1.2, RPI3, RPI3+ (except RPI3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
                     18:  - RPI0 and RPI0W are expected to work (without WiFi, and one needs fdt files \todo where from?)
1.101     gdt        19:  - multiple processors on RPI2/RPI3
1.74      gdt        20:  - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
                     21:  - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
1.53      gdt        22:  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
1.74      gdt        23:  - X11 via HDMI
                     24:  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
                     25:  - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
                     26:  - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
1.53      gdt        27:  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
1.74      gdt        28:  - RNG
1.53      gdt        29:  - Audio: works. man page missing.
1.74      gdt        30:  - GPIO
1.53      gdt        31:  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
                     32:  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
                     34: ## NetBSD current
1.105     gdt        36:  - RPI3+ 
1.101     gdt        37:  - RPI3 builtin bluetooth
                     38:  - RPI3 new SD host controller driver
1.53      gdt        39: 
1.102     gdt        40: ## What needs documenting if it works
                     42:  - CM1
                     43:  - CM3
                     44:  - CM3lite
1.54      gdt        46: ## What needs work
1.53      gdt        47: 
                     48:  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
1.105     gdt        49:  - RPI3, RPI0W builtin WiFi
                     50:  - RPI0W Bluetooth Low Energy (probably)
1.113   ! gdt        51:  - aarch64 support is evolving very rapidly, and not yet recommended for production, largely because one must run -current.
1.53      gdt        52: 
1.57      gdt        53: # CPU types
1.101     gdt        55:  - RPI1 uses "earmv6hf".
1.109     gdt        56:  - RPI0 uses "earmv6hf".
                     57:  - RPI0W uses "earmv6hf".
1.101     gdt        58:  - RPI2 uses "earmv7hf".
1.113   ! gdt        59:  - RPI2-1.2 uses "earmv7hf" or "aarch64" (armv8 CPU hardware)
        !            60:  - RPI3 uses "earmv7hf" or "aarch64" (armv8 CPU hardware)
1.57      gdt        61: 
1.101     gdt        62: Note that one can run a build of earmv6hf on the 2 and 3.  There will still be a kernel7, built to use the 2/3 hardware, but with the armv6 instruction set.
1.96      gdt        63: 
1.101     gdt        64: In theory the code compiled for earmv7hf will be faster, but anecdotal experience is that it doesn't matter that much.
1.97      gdt        65: 
1.101     gdt        66: While the evbarm port has "eb" variants (for big-endian mode), the RPI systems do not support eb and these variants will not work.  Systems built with older CPU architectures (earm, earmv4, earmv5) are not expected to work on RPI.
1.96      gdt        67: 
1.113   ! gdt        68: The RPI2-1.2 and RPI3 have an armv8 CPU that supports aarch64 (64-bit
        !            69: mode) in addition to aarch32 (regular 32-bit ARM).  This is supported,
        !            70: in -current only, by the "aarch64" MACHINE_ARCH of evbarm, also
        !            71: available in via the alias evbarm64.  This is sometimes
        !            72: referred to as [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]].
1.70      gdt        73: 
1.7       wiki       74: # Installation
1.53      gdt        75: 
1.62      gdt        76: ## SD card structure
1.86      gdt        78: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 MBR partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
                     79: The NetBSD kernel will then find NetBSD MBR partition and within that the root disklabel partition, and use that FFS partition as the root filesystem.
1.62      gdt        80: 
1.86      gdt        81: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size, and the installation image will fit.  After the first boot, the system resizes the NetBSD root partition to fill the card.  Note that swap is after /boot and before /, and not contained in the NetBSD fdisk partition.  However, if you don't try to change the partition structure, this should not cause you any trouble.
1.63      gdt        82: 
1.91      gdt        83: Note that SD cards generally have limited write tolerance, so you may wish to disable atime updates via the noatime option, as is done by the default installation.
1.62      gdt        85: ## Choosing a version
1.95      gdt        87: First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.2 or 8.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, a recent build of netbsd-8 is probably best, with 8.0 the choice for those who value being at exactly a formal release.
1.65      gdt        88: 
                     89: See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
1.58      gdt        90: 
                     91: ## Getting bits to install
1.96      gdt        93: You can either build a release yourself with, or get a release from the NetBSD HTTPS/FTP servers.  The bits from both sources should match, except for things like  timestamps, or because the sources are from slightly different points along branches.
1.58      gdt        94: 
                     95: ### Building yourself
1.95      gdt        97: Getting sources and building a release with is not special for evbarm.  However, the evbarm port has a very large number of CPU types, compared to i386 and amd64 which have one each.  The standard approach is to use -m to define MACHINE and -a to define MACHINE_ARCH. supports aliases that can be passed as a MACHINE value, but denote both MACHINE and a MACHINE_ARCH.   The third line uses an alias and is equal to the second, for RPI2/3.  Note that the aliases start with "evb" while the MACHINE_ARCH values do not, and that aliases have "-el" or "-eb", while the MACHINE_ARCH values have no suffix or "eb".
1.66      gdt        98: 
1.59      gdt        99:  - ./ -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
                    100:  - ./ -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
1.95      gdt       101:  - ./ -m evbearmv7hf-el -u release
1.81      gdt       102: 
1.94      gdt       103: Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if you wish to build multiple MACHINE_ARCH values for a MACHINE; see  Use something like "evbarm-earmv7hf", so that 1) earvm6 and earmv7 don't collide and 2) anita will recognize it as a type of evbarm.
1.58      gdt       104: 
1.85      gdt       105: ### NetBSD autobuild HTTPS/FTP servers
1.58      gdt       106: 
1.96      gdt       107: NetBSD provides nightly builds on [](  The next directory level is the branch being built (netbsd-7, netbsd-8, HEAD, and more), plus optionally things like compiler type.  It is followed by date/time, e.g. "HEAD/201811051650Z"; once a build is complete the symlink "latest" is adjusted to point to it.  The next level is "${MACHINE}-${MACHINE_ARCH}", e.g. "evbarm-earmv7hf", and multiple combinations are provided.
1.58      gdt       108: 
1.96      gdt       109: An example URL, arguably the standard approach for first-time NetBSD/RPI users, is
1.95      gdt       110: 
                    111: ### release layout
1.96      gdt       113: Once you get to the releasedir, self-built and autobuild releases have the same structure.
1.85      gdt       115:  - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that will run on any of the RPI boards.
1.103     gdt       116:  - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that uses the armv7 instruction set, and thus can run only on the RPI2 and RPI3 (and perhaps the CM3).  It also supports systems other than the RPI family.
1.85      gdt       117: 
1.95      gdt       118: \todo Explain why there is no armv7_inst.gz.
1.58      gdt       119: 
1.65      gdt       120: ## Preparing a uSD card
1.10      wiki      121: 
1.107     gdt       122: Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst for earmv6 boards), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
1.14      wiki      123: 
1.60      gdt       124:  - gunzip rpi.img.gz
1.67      ryoon     125:  - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
1.14      wiki      126: 
1.89      gdt       127: ## Console approaches
                    129: The standard approach is to use a USB keyboard and an HDMI monitor for installation.
1.58      gdt       131: ### Serial Console
1.89      gdt       133: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, mount the FAT32 partition on another system and edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
1.14      wiki      134: 
1.109     gdt       135:  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters have wires for TX, RX and ground, and not RTS/CTS or other flow control lines.   Thus, your terminal program (or terminal) must be configured to not require flow control; a symptom of misconfiguration is that you see console output, but cannot type anything.  If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
1.41      wiki      136: 
1.89      gdt       137:    - In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
                    138:    - In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no".
1.41      wiki      139: 
1.89      gdt       140: ### Enabling ssh for installation without any console
1.41      wiki      141: 
1.89      gdt       142: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, you can edit the configuration of a uSD card before booting.   On another computer, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address (e.g. from DHCP server logs), you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
1.65      gdt       143: 
1.89      gdt       144: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
1.65      gdt       145: 
1.89      gdt       146: (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console, when built for earmv6hf.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
1.58      gdt       147: 
1.89      gdt       148:  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to a LAN with a DHCP server, and another host you can use for ssh.
                    149:  - Power on the RPI, and wait.  Watch the logs on the DHCP server, and find the IP address assigned to the RPI.
                    150:  - Use ssh to login to the address you found with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
                    151:  - When installing, ensure that you enable DHCP and ssh, so that you can log in again after the system is installed.
1.53      gdt       152: 
1.107     gdt       153: The rpi_inst.img.gz image will only work for systems that use earmv6hf kernels (so not RPI2/3).  See [this port-arm message]( for details.
1.55      gdt       155: ## Installation via ebijun's image
1.58      gdt       157: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
                    158: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
                    159: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
                    160: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
                    161: every few weeks.
1.55      gdt       162: 
1.56      gdt       163:  - [](
1.55      gdt       164: 
1.98      gdt       165: ## Configuring 802.11
                    167: After installation, the Ethernet will function as on any other NetBSD system; simply enable dhcpcd or configure a static address.  USB WiFi devices will also function as on any other NetBSD system; in addition to dhcpcd or static, configure and enable wpa_supplicant.
                    169: Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.  In particular, the following are known to work:
                    171:  - urtwn0: Realtek (0xbda) 802.11n WLAN Adapter (0x8176), rev 2.00/2.00, addr 5, MAC/BB RTL8188CUS, RF 6052 1T1R
1.90      gdt       173: ## Links
                    175: The following pages have been published by NetBSD community members.  (Note that some of them are old.)
                    177:  -
1.74      gdt       179: # Maintaining a system
1.78      gdt       181: ## vcgencmd
1.80      gdt       183: The program vcgencmd, referenced in the boot section,  can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
1.78      gdt       184: 
1.53      gdt       185: ## Updating the kernel
1.46      schmonz   186: 
1.42      wiki      187:  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
                    189:          ...
                    190:          Kernels built from RPI2:
                    191:           /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd
                    192:          ...
1.69      rin       194:  - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" (for current) or "netbsd.bin" (for 7 and 8) kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
1.48      sevan     195:  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
1.42      wiki      196:  - reboot
1.73      gdt       198: ## Updating the firmware
                    200: A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
1.88      gdt       202: \todo Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain how to update a system (presumably /boot) from either an installed system's new firmware files, or the source tree.  Explain any particular cautions.
1.73      gdt       203: 
1.105     gdt       204: Probably, for the RPI3+, one needs to use -current, or use -8 with firmware from -current.  \todo Defuzz.
1.101     gdt       205: 
1.99      gdt       206: \todo Explain if using updated firmware from one branch (e.g. netbsd-current) on a system using a different branch (e.g. netbsd-8) is safe.  Explain if pullups are done to release branches with new firmware.
1.75      gdt       208: ## Booting
1.79      gdt       210: The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting]( and read all the subpages.
1.75      gdt       211: 
1.112     gdt       212: The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap partition (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
1.75      gdt       213: 
1.112     gdt       214: One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /, so the swap partition is not within the NetBSD fdisk partition.  The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
1.75      gdt       215: 
1.77      gdt       216: An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
1.75      gdt       217: 
1.80      gdt       218: A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode]( will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
                    219: \todo Confirm that putting program_usb_boot_mode=1 in config.txt and booting works to program the OTP bit.  Confirm that one can then boot NetBSD from external USB.
1.75      gdt       220: 
1.101     gdt       221: There is no well-defined USB enumeration order, so the preferred approach if one has multiple USB mass storage devices is to use named wedges in both fstab and cmdline.txt.
1.75      gdt       222: 
1.113   ! gdt       223: ## Split-mode aarch32/aarch64
        !           224: 
        !           225: \todo Verify this, and add any necessary cautions about boot code.
        !           226: 
        !           227: The aarch64 kernel can run aarch32 binaries, so one can boot a aarch64 kernel on a system with aarch32 userland.
        !           228: 
1.93      gdt       229: # X11 and GPU
1.27      wiki      231: ## Video playback
1.29      wiki      232: Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer]( application and through GStreamer with the [omx]( plugin.
1.27      wiki      233: 
                    234: ## OpenGL ES
                    235: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland]( package.
1.28      wiki      237: ## Quake 3
1.27      wiki      238: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi]( package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
                    240:  - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
1.31      snj       241:  - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3]( package
1.27      wiki      242:  - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
1.31      snj       244: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
1.27      wiki      245: 
1.32      wiki      246: ## RetroArch / Libretro
                    247: Using [emulators/retroarch]( it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*]( packages. To begin using retroarch:
                    249:  - Install [emulators/retroarch](
                    250:  - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](, a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
                    251:  - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
                    252:  - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
                    253: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
1.35      wiki      254: $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
1.32      wiki      255: """]]
                    256:  - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
                    257: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
                    258: $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/ game.gbc
                    259: """]]
1.53      gdt       261: # Developer notes
1.50      gdt       262: 
1.53      gdt       263: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       264: 
1.72      gdt       265: ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
1.50      gdt       266: 
1.72      gdt       267: (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
                    268: be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
1.50      gdt       269: 
1.72      gdt       270: Upstream firmware releases are
                    271: [on GitHub](
                    272: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
                    274: New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       275: 
1.53      gdt       276: - Audio
                    277: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
                    278: - Serial/framebuffer console
                    279: - CPU frequency scaling
1.50      gdt       280: 
1.92      gdt       281: Tests should be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
1.94      gdt       282: 
                    283: ## Testing with anita and qemu
1.111     gdt       285: See the anita section in the evbarm page.
1.94      gdt       286: 
1.110     gdt       287: It is not currently known how to emulate a RPI in qemu, and therefore anita does not yet have support for this.  \todo Add a command-line example to run qemu emulating some RPI model.

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