Annotation of wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn, revision 1.105

1.1       jakllsch    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
1.102     gdt         3: This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](  All [board variants]( are supported.  We use e.g. "RPI2" to refer to "Raspberry Pi 2" to save precious bytes on this page.
1.39      wiki        4: 
1.104     gdt         5: Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0.  NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2 or later, but note that everyone uses 8 or -current.)
1.39      wiki        6: 
1.3       wiki        7: [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
1.26      wiki        9: [[!toc levels=2]]
1.14      wiki       11: <small>([Raspberry Pi image]( by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
1.3       wiki       12: 
1.54      gdt        13: # What works (and what doesn't yet)
1.53      gdt        14: 
1.70      gdt        15: ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
1.53      gdt        16: 
1.102     gdt        17:  - RPI1, RPI2, RPI2-1.2, RPI3, RPI3+ (except RPI3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
                     18:  - RPI0 and RPI0W are expected to work (without WiFi, and one needs fdt files \todo where from?)
1.101     gdt        19:  - multiple processors on RPI2/RPI3
1.74      gdt        20:  - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
                     21:  - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
1.53      gdt        22:  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
1.74      gdt        23:  - X11 via HDMI
                     24:  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
                     25:  - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
                     26:  - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
1.53      gdt        27:  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
1.74      gdt        28:  - RNG
1.53      gdt        29:  - Audio: works. man page missing.
1.74      gdt        30:  - GPIO
1.53      gdt        31:  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
                     32:  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
                     34: ## NetBSD current
1.105   ! gdt        36:  - RPI3+ 
1.101     gdt        37:  - RPI3 builtin bluetooth
                     38:  - RPI3 new SD host controller driver
1.53      gdt        39: 
1.102     gdt        40: ## What needs documenting if it works
                     42:  - CM1
                     43:  - CM3
                     44:  - CM3lite
1.54      gdt        46: ## What needs work
1.53      gdt        47: 
                     48:  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
1.105   ! gdt        49:  - RPI3, RPI0W builtin WiFi
        !            50:  - RPI0W Bluetooth Low Energy (probably)
1.53      gdt        51: 
1.57      gdt        52: # CPU types
1.101     gdt        54:  - RPI1 uses "earmv6hf".
                     55:  - RPI0 uses "\todo".
                     56:  - RPI2 uses "earmv7hf".
                     57:  - RPI3 uses "earmv7hf".
                     58:  - RPI0W uses "\todo".
1.57      gdt        59: 
1.101     gdt        60: Note that one can run a build of earmv6hf on the 2 and 3.  There will still be a kernel7, built to use the 2/3 hardware, but with the armv6 instruction set.
1.96      gdt        61: 
1.101     gdt        62: In theory the code compiled for earmv7hf will be faster, but anecdotal experience is that it doesn't matter that much.
1.97      gdt        63: 
1.101     gdt        64: While the evbarm port has "eb" variants (for big-endian mode), the RPI systems do not support eb and these variants will not work.  Systems built with older CPU architectures (earm, earmv4, earmv5) are not expected to work on RPI.
1.96      gdt        65: 
1.102     gdt        66: See also [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the RPI2-1.2 and RPI3/RPI3+ in 64-bit mode.
1.70      gdt        67: 
1.7       wiki       68: # Installation
1.53      gdt        69: 
1.62      gdt        70: ## SD card structure
1.86      gdt        72: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 MBR partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
                     73: The NetBSD kernel will then find NetBSD MBR partition and within that the root disklabel partition, and use that FFS partition as the root filesystem.
1.62      gdt        74: 
1.86      gdt        75: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size, and the installation image will fit.  After the first boot, the system resizes the NetBSD root partition to fill the card.  Note that swap is after /boot and before /, and not contained in the NetBSD fdisk partition.  However, if you don't try to change the partition structure, this should not cause you any trouble.
1.63      gdt        76: 
1.91      gdt        77: Note that SD cards generally have limited write tolerance, so you may wish to disable atime updates via the noatime option, as is done by the default installation.
1.62      gdt        79: ## Choosing a version
1.95      gdt        81: First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.2 or 8.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, a recent build of netbsd-8 is probably best, with 8.0 the choice for those who value being at exactly a formal release.
1.65      gdt        82: 
                     83: See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
1.58      gdt        84: 
                     85: ## Getting bits to install
1.96      gdt        87: You can either build a release yourself with, or get a release from the NetBSD HTTPS/FTP servers.  The bits from both sources should match, except for things like  timestamps, or because the sources are from slightly different points along branches.
1.58      gdt        88: 
                     89: ### Building yourself
1.95      gdt        91: Getting sources and building a release with is not special for evbarm.  However, the evbarm port has a very large number of CPU types, compared to i386 and amd64 which have one each.  The standard approach is to use -m to define MACHINE and -a to define MACHINE_ARCH. supports aliases that can be passed as a MACHINE value, but denote both MACHINE and a MACHINE_ARCH.   The third line uses an alias and is equal to the second, for RPI2/3.  Note that the aliases start with "evb" while the MACHINE_ARCH values do not, and that aliases have "-el" or "-eb", while the MACHINE_ARCH values have no suffix or "eb".
1.66      gdt        92: 
1.59      gdt        93:  - ./ -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
                     94:  - ./ -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
1.95      gdt        95:  - ./ -m evbearmv7hf-el -u release
1.81      gdt        96: 
1.94      gdt        97: Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if you wish to build multiple MACHINE_ARCH values for a MACHINE; see  Use something like "evbarm-earmv7hf", so that 1) earvm6 and earmv7 don't collide and 2) anita will recognize it as a type of evbarm.
1.58      gdt        98: 
1.85      gdt        99: ### NetBSD autobuild HTTPS/FTP servers
1.58      gdt       100: 
1.96      gdt       101: NetBSD provides nightly builds on [](  The next directory level is the branch being built (netbsd-7, netbsd-8, HEAD, and more), plus optionally things like compiler type.  It is followed by date/time, e.g. "HEAD/201811051650Z"; once a build is complete the symlink "latest" is adjusted to point to it.  The next level is "${MACHINE}-${MACHINE_ARCH}", e.g. "evbarm-earmv7hf", and multiple combinations are provided.
1.58      gdt       102: 
1.96      gdt       103: An example URL, arguably the standard approach for first-time NetBSD/RPI users, is
1.95      gdt       104: 
                    105: ### release layout
1.96      gdt       107: Once you get to the releasedir, self-built and autobuild releases have the same structure.
1.85      gdt       109:  - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that will run on any of the RPI boards.
1.103     gdt       110:  - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that uses the armv7 instruction set, and thus can run only on the RPI2 and RPI3 (and perhaps the CM3).  It also supports systems other than the RPI family.
1.85      gdt       111: 
1.95      gdt       112: \todo Explain why there is no armv7_inst.gz.
1.58      gdt       113: 
1.65      gdt       114: ## Preparing a uSD card
1.10      wiki      115: 
1.65      gdt       116: Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
1.14      wiki      117: 
1.60      gdt       118:  - gunzip rpi.img.gz
1.67      ryoon     119:  - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
1.14      wiki      120: 
1.89      gdt       121: ## Console approaches
                    123: The standard approach is to use a USB keyboard and an HDMI monitor for installation.
1.58      gdt       125: ### Serial Console
1.89      gdt       127: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, mount the FAT32 partition on another system and edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
1.14      wiki      128: 
1.89      gdt       129:  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters have wires for Tx, Rx and ground, and not RTS/CTS or other flow control lines.   Thus, your terminal program (or terminal) must be configured to not require flow control; a symptom of misconfiguration is that you see console output, but cannot type anything.  If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
1.41      wiki      130: 
1.89      gdt       131:    - In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
                    132:    - In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no".
1.41      wiki      133: 
1.89      gdt       134: ### Enabling ssh for installation without any console
1.41      wiki      135: 
1.89      gdt       136: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, you can edit the configuration of a uSD card before booting.   On another computer, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address (e.g. from DHCP server logs), you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
1.65      gdt       137: 
1.89      gdt       138: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
1.65      gdt       139: 
1.89      gdt       140: (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console, when built for earmv6hf.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
1.58      gdt       141: 
1.89      gdt       142:  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to a LAN with a DHCP server, and another host you can use for ssh.
                    143:  - Power on the RPI, and wait.  Watch the logs on the DHCP server, and find the IP address assigned to the RPI.
                    144:  - Use ssh to login to the address you found with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
                    145:  - When installing, ensure that you enable DHCP and ssh, so that you can log in again after the system is installed.
1.53      gdt       146: 
1.89      gdt       147: \todo Verify that the above is accurate and sufficient.
1.16      wiki      148: 
1.55      gdt       149: ## Installation via ebijun's image
1.58      gdt       151: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
                    152: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
                    153: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
                    154: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
                    155: every few weeks.
1.55      gdt       156: 
1.56      gdt       157:  - [](
1.55      gdt       158: 
1.98      gdt       159: ## Configuring 802.11
                    161: After installation, the Ethernet will function as on any other NetBSD system; simply enable dhcpcd or configure a static address.  USB WiFi devices will also function as on any other NetBSD system; in addition to dhcpcd or static, configure and enable wpa_supplicant.
                    163: Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.  In particular, the following are known to work:
                    165:  - urtwn0: Realtek (0xbda) 802.11n WLAN Adapter (0x8176), rev 2.00/2.00, addr 5, MAC/BB RTL8188CUS, RF 6052 1T1R
1.90      gdt       167: ## Links
                    169: The following pages have been published by NetBSD community members.  (Note that some of them are old.)
                    171:  -
1.74      gdt       173: # Maintaining a system
1.78      gdt       175: ## vcgencmd
1.80      gdt       177: The program vcgencmd, referenced in the boot section,  can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
1.78      gdt       178: 
1.53      gdt       179: ## Updating the kernel
1.46      schmonz   180: 
1.42      wiki      181:  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
                    183:          ...
                    184:          Kernels built from RPI2:
                    185:           /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd
                    186:          ...
1.69      rin       188:  - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" (for current) or "netbsd.bin" (for 7 and 8) kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
1.48      sevan     189:  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
1.42      wiki      190:  - reboot
1.73      gdt       192: ## Updating the firmware
                    194: A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
1.88      gdt       196: \todo Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain how to update a system (presumably /boot) from either an installed system's new firmware files, or the source tree.  Explain any particular cautions.
1.73      gdt       197: 
1.105   ! gdt       198: Probably, for the RPI3+, one needs to use -current, or use -8 with firmware from -current.  \todo Defuzz.
1.101     gdt       199: 
1.99      gdt       200: \todo Explain if using updated firmware from one branch (e.g. netbsd-current) on a system using a different branch (e.g. netbsd-8) is safe.  Explain if pullups are done to release branches with new firmware.
1.75      gdt       202: ## Booting
1.79      gdt       204: The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting]( and read all the subpages.
1.75      gdt       205: 
                    206: The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
1.77      gdt       208: One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /.   The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
1.75      gdt       209: 
1.77      gdt       210: An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
1.75      gdt       211: 
1.80      gdt       212: A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode]( will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
                    213: \todo Confirm that putting program_usb_boot_mode=1 in config.txt and booting works to program the OTP bit.  Confirm that one can then boot NetBSD from external USB.
1.75      gdt       214: 
1.101     gdt       215: There is no well-defined USB enumeration order, so the preferred approach if one has multiple USB mass storage devices is to use named wedges in both fstab and cmdline.txt.
1.75      gdt       216: 
1.93      gdt       217: # X11 and GPU
1.27      wiki      219: ## Video playback
1.29      wiki      220: Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer]( application and through GStreamer with the [omx]( plugin.
1.27      wiki      221: 
                    222: ## OpenGL ES
                    223: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland]( package.
1.28      wiki      225: ## Quake 3
1.27      wiki      226: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi]( package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
                    228:  - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
1.31      snj       229:  - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3]( package
1.27      wiki      230:  - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
1.31      snj       232: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
1.27      wiki      233: 
1.32      wiki      234: ## RetroArch / Libretro
                    235: Using [emulators/retroarch]( it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*]( packages. To begin using retroarch:
                    237:  - Install [emulators/retroarch](
                    238:  - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](, a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
                    239:  - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
                    240:  - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
                    241: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
1.35      wiki      242: $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
1.32      wiki      243: """]]
                    244:  - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
                    245: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
                    246: $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/ game.gbc
                    247: """]]
1.53      gdt       249: # Developer notes
1.50      gdt       250: 
1.53      gdt       251: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       252: 
1.72      gdt       253: ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
1.50      gdt       254: 
1.72      gdt       255: (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
                    256: be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
1.50      gdt       257: 
1.72      gdt       258: Upstream firmware releases are
                    259: [on GitHub](
                    260: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
                    262: New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       263: 
1.53      gdt       264: - Audio
                    265: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
                    266: - Serial/framebuffer console
                    267: - CPU frequency scaling
1.50      gdt       268: 
1.92      gdt       269: Tests should be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
1.94      gdt       270: 
                    271: ## Testing with anita and qemu
                    273: anita has support for evbarm.  Install qemu and dtb-arm-vexpress from pkgsrc.  Note that the release subdirectory should be evbarm-earmv6hf or evbarm-earmv7hf.
                    275: \todo Explain how to select various RPI models to emulate.
                    276: \todo Explain about how DTB works.
1.100     gdt       277: \todo Give a command line example to run qemu (without anita).

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