Annotation of wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn, revision 1.101

1.1       jakllsch    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
1.39      wiki        3: This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi]( All board variants are supported.
1.70      gdt         5: Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2, or the netbsd-7 branch after mid 2018.)
1.39      wiki        6: 
1.3       wiki        7: [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
1.26      wiki        9: [[!toc levels=2]]
1.14      wiki       11: <small>([Raspberry Pi image]( by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
1.3       wiki       12: 
1.54      gdt        13: # What works (and what doesn't yet)
1.53      gdt        14: 
1.101   ! gdt        15: We use .e.g. "RPI2" to refer to "Raspberry Pi 2" to save precious bytes on this page.
        !            16: 
        !            17: 
1.92      gdt        18: \todo Add information  on Pi Zero and Pi Zero W.
1.70      gdt        20: ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
1.53      gdt        21: 
1.101   ! gdt        22:  - RPI1, RPI2, RPI3 (except RPI3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
        !            23:  - RPI0 and RPI0W are expected to work (as RPI3, no WiFi, but one needs fdt files \todo where from?)
        !            24:  - multiple processors on RPI2/RPI3
1.74      gdt        25:  - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
                     26:  - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
1.53      gdt        27:  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
1.74      gdt        28:  - X11 via HDMI
                     29:  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
                     30:  - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
                     31:  - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
1.53      gdt        32:  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
1.74      gdt        33:  - RNG
1.53      gdt        34:  - Audio: works. man page missing.
1.74      gdt        35:  - GPIO
1.53      gdt        36:  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
                     37:  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
                     39: ## NetBSD current
1.101   ! gdt        41:  - RPI3B+ 
        !            42:  - RPI3 builtin bluetooth
        !            43:  - RPI3 new SD host controller driver
1.53      gdt        44: 
1.54      gdt        45: ## What needs work
1.53      gdt        46: 
                     47:  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
1.101   ! gdt        48:  - RPI3 builtin WiFi
1.53      gdt        49: 
1.57      gdt        50: # CPU types
1.101   ! gdt        52:  - RPI1 uses "earmv6hf".
        !            53:  - RPI0 uses "\todo".
        !            54:  - RPI2 uses "earmv7hf".
        !            55:  - RPI3 uses "earmv7hf".
        !            56:  - RPI0W uses "\todo".
1.57      gdt        57: 
1.101   ! gdt        58: Note that one can run a build of earmv6hf on the 2 and 3.  There will still be a kernel7, built to use the 2/3 hardware, but with the armv6 instruction set.
1.96      gdt        59: 
1.101   ! gdt        60: In theory the code compiled for earmv7hf will be faster, but anecdotal experience is that it doesn't matter that much.
1.97      gdt        61: 
1.101   ! gdt        62: While the evbarm port has "eb" variants (for big-endian mode), the RPI systems do not support eb and these variants will not work.  Systems built with older CPU architectures (earm, earmv4, earmv5) are not expected to work on RPI.
1.96      gdt        63: 
                     64: See also [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.
1.70      gdt        65: 
1.7       wiki       66: # Installation
1.53      gdt        67: 
1.62      gdt        68: ## SD card structure
1.86      gdt        70: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 MBR partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
                     71: The NetBSD kernel will then find NetBSD MBR partition and within that the root disklabel partition, and use that FFS partition as the root filesystem.
1.62      gdt        72: 
1.86      gdt        73: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size, and the installation image will fit.  After the first boot, the system resizes the NetBSD root partition to fill the card.  Note that swap is after /boot and before /, and not contained in the NetBSD fdisk partition.  However, if you don't try to change the partition structure, this should not cause you any trouble.
1.63      gdt        74: 
1.91      gdt        75: Note that SD cards generally have limited write tolerance, so you may wish to disable atime updates via the noatime option, as is done by the default installation.
1.62      gdt        77: ## Choosing a version
1.95      gdt        79: First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.2 or 8.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, a recent build of netbsd-8 is probably best, with 8.0 the choice for those who value being at exactly a formal release.
1.65      gdt        80: 
                     81: See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
1.58      gdt        82: 
                     83: ## Getting bits to install
1.96      gdt        85: You can either build a release yourself with, or get a release from the NetBSD HTTPS/FTP servers.  The bits from both sources should match, except for things like  timestamps, or because the sources are from slightly different points along branches.
1.58      gdt        86: 
                     87: ### Building yourself
1.95      gdt        89: Getting sources and building a release with is not special for evbarm.  However, the evbarm port has a very large number of CPU types, compared to i386 and amd64 which have one each.  The standard approach is to use -m to define MACHINE and -a to define MACHINE_ARCH. supports aliases that can be passed as a MACHINE value, but denote both MACHINE and a MACHINE_ARCH.   The third line uses an alias and is equal to the second, for RPI2/3.  Note that the aliases start with "evb" while the MACHINE_ARCH values do not, and that aliases have "-el" or "-eb", while the MACHINE_ARCH values have no suffix or "eb".
1.66      gdt        90: 
1.59      gdt        91:  - ./ -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
                     92:  - ./ -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
1.95      gdt        93:  - ./ -m evbearmv7hf-el -u release
1.81      gdt        94: 
1.94      gdt        95: Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if you wish to build multiple MACHINE_ARCH values for a MACHINE; see  Use something like "evbarm-earmv7hf", so that 1) earvm6 and earmv7 don't collide and 2) anita will recognize it as a type of evbarm.
1.58      gdt        96: 
1.85      gdt        97: ### NetBSD autobuild HTTPS/FTP servers
1.58      gdt        98: 
1.96      gdt        99: NetBSD provides nightly builds on [](  The next directory level is the branch being built (netbsd-7, netbsd-8, HEAD, and more), plus optionally things like compiler type.  It is followed by date/time, e.g. "HEAD/201811051650Z"; once a build is complete the symlink "latest" is adjusted to point to it.  The next level is "${MACHINE}-${MACHINE_ARCH}", e.g. "evbarm-earmv7hf", and multiple combinations are provided.
1.58      gdt       100: 
1.96      gdt       101: An example URL, arguably the standard approach for first-time NetBSD/RPI users, is
1.95      gdt       102: 
                    103: ### release layout
1.96      gdt       105: Once you get to the releasedir, self-built and autobuild releases have the same structure.
1.85      gdt       107:  - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that will run on any of the RPI boards.
1.96      gdt       108:  - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that uses the armv7 instruction set, and thus can run only on the Raspberry Pi 2/3.
1.85      gdt       109: 
1.95      gdt       110: \todo Explain why there is no armv7_inst.gz.
1.58      gdt       111: 
1.65      gdt       112: ## Preparing a uSD card
1.10      wiki      113: 
1.65      gdt       114: Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
1.14      wiki      115: 
1.60      gdt       116:  - gunzip rpi.img.gz
1.67      ryoon     117:  - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
1.14      wiki      118: 
1.89      gdt       119: ## Console approaches
                    121: The standard approach is to use a USB keyboard and an HDMI monitor for installation.
1.58      gdt       123: ### Serial Console
1.89      gdt       125: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, mount the FAT32 partition on another system and edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
1.14      wiki      126: 
1.89      gdt       127:  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters have wires for Tx, Rx and ground, and not RTS/CTS or other flow control lines.   Thus, your terminal program (or terminal) must be configured to not require flow control; a symptom of misconfiguration is that you see console output, but cannot type anything.  If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
1.41      wiki      128: 
1.89      gdt       129:    - In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
                    130:    - In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no".
1.41      wiki      131: 
1.89      gdt       132: ### Enabling ssh for installation without any console
1.41      wiki      133: 
1.89      gdt       134: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, you can edit the configuration of a uSD card before booting.   On another computer, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address (e.g. from DHCP server logs), you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
1.65      gdt       135: 
1.89      gdt       136: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
1.65      gdt       137: 
1.89      gdt       138: (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console, when built for earmv6hf.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
1.58      gdt       139: 
1.89      gdt       140:  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to a LAN with a DHCP server, and another host you can use for ssh.
                    141:  - Power on the RPI, and wait.  Watch the logs on the DHCP server, and find the IP address assigned to the RPI.
                    142:  - Use ssh to login to the address you found with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
                    143:  - When installing, ensure that you enable DHCP and ssh, so that you can log in again after the system is installed.
1.53      gdt       144: 
1.89      gdt       145: \todo Verify that the above is accurate and sufficient.
1.16      wiki      146: 
1.55      gdt       147: ## Installation via ebijun's image
1.58      gdt       149: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
                    150: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
                    151: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
                    152: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
                    153: every few weeks.
1.55      gdt       154: 
1.56      gdt       155:  - [](
1.55      gdt       156: 
1.98      gdt       157: ## Configuring 802.11
                    159: After installation, the Ethernet will function as on any other NetBSD system; simply enable dhcpcd or configure a static address.  USB WiFi devices will also function as on any other NetBSD system; in addition to dhcpcd or static, configure and enable wpa_supplicant.
                    161: Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.  In particular, the following are known to work:
                    163:  - urtwn0: Realtek (0xbda) 802.11n WLAN Adapter (0x8176), rev 2.00/2.00, addr 5, MAC/BB RTL8188CUS, RF 6052 1T1R
1.90      gdt       165: ## Links
                    167: The following pages have been published by NetBSD community members.  (Note that some of them are old.)
                    169:  -
1.74      gdt       171: # Maintaining a system
1.78      gdt       173: ## vcgencmd
1.80      gdt       175: The program vcgencmd, referenced in the boot section,  can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
1.78      gdt       176: 
1.53      gdt       177: ## Updating the kernel
1.46      schmonz   178: 
1.42      wiki      179:  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
                    181:          ...
                    182:          Kernels built from RPI2:
                    183:           /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd
                    184:          ...
1.69      rin       186:  - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" (for current) or "netbsd.bin" (for 7 and 8) kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
1.48      sevan     187:  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
1.42      wiki      188:  - reboot
1.73      gdt       190: ## Updating the firmware
                    192: A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
1.88      gdt       194: \todo Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain how to update a system (presumably /boot) from either an installed system's new firmware files, or the source tree.  Explain any particular cautions.
1.73      gdt       195: 
1.101   ! gdt       196: Probably, for the RPI3B+, one needs to use -current, or use -8 with firmware from -current.  \todo Defuzz.
        !           197: 
1.99      gdt       198: \todo Explain if using updated firmware from one branch (e.g. netbsd-current) on a system using a different branch (e.g. netbsd-8) is safe.  Explain if pullups are done to release branches with new firmware.
1.75      gdt       200: ## Booting
1.79      gdt       202: The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting]( and read all the subpages.
1.75      gdt       203: 
                    204: The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
1.77      gdt       206: One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /.   The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
1.75      gdt       207: 
1.77      gdt       208: An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
1.75      gdt       209: 
1.80      gdt       210: A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode]( will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
                    211: \todo Confirm that putting program_usb_boot_mode=1 in config.txt and booting works to program the OTP bit.  Confirm that one can then boot NetBSD from external USB.
1.75      gdt       212: 
1.101   ! gdt       213: There is no well-defined USB enumeration order, so the preferred approach if one has multiple USB mass storage devices is to use named wedges in both fstab and cmdline.txt.
1.75      gdt       214: 
1.93      gdt       215: # X11 and GPU
1.27      wiki      217: ## Video playback
1.29      wiki      218: Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer]( application and through GStreamer with the [omx]( plugin.
1.27      wiki      219: 
                    220: ## OpenGL ES
                    221: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland]( package.
1.28      wiki      223: ## Quake 3
1.27      wiki      224: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi]( package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
                    226:  - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
1.31      snj       227:  - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3]( package
1.27      wiki      228:  - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
1.31      snj       230: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
1.27      wiki      231: 
1.32      wiki      232: ## RetroArch / Libretro
                    233: Using [emulators/retroarch]( it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*]( packages. To begin using retroarch:
                    235:  - Install [emulators/retroarch](
                    236:  - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](, a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
                    237:  - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
                    238:  - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
                    239: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
1.35      wiki      240: $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
1.32      wiki      241: """]]
                    242:  - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
                    243: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
                    244: $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/ game.gbc
                    245: """]]
1.53      gdt       247: # Developer notes
1.50      gdt       248: 
1.53      gdt       249: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       250: 
1.72      gdt       251: ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
1.50      gdt       252: 
1.72      gdt       253: (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
                    254: be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
1.50      gdt       255: 
1.72      gdt       256: Upstream firmware releases are
                    257: [on GitHub](
                    258: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
                    260: New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       261: 
1.53      gdt       262: - Audio
                    263: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
                    264: - Serial/framebuffer console
                    265: - CPU frequency scaling
1.50      gdt       266: 
1.92      gdt       267: Tests should be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
1.94      gdt       268: 
                    269: ## Testing with anita and qemu
                    271: anita has support for evbarm.  Install qemu and dtb-arm-vexpress from pkgsrc.  Note that the release subdirectory should be evbarm-earmv6hf or evbarm-earmv7hf.
                    273: \todo Explain how to select various RPI models to emulate.
                    274: \todo Explain about how DTB works.
1.100     gdt       275: \todo Give a command line example to run qemu (without anita).

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