Annotation of wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn, revision 1.100

1.1       jakllsch    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
                      2: 
1.39      wiki        3: This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org). All board variants are supported.
                      4: 
1.70      gdt         5: Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2, or the netbsd-7 branch after mid 2018.)
1.39      wiki        6: 
1.3       wiki        7: [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
                      8: 
1.26      wiki        9: [[!toc levels=2]]
                     10: 
1.14      wiki       11: <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
1.3       wiki       12: 
1.54      gdt        13: # What works (and what doesn't yet)
1.53      gdt        14: 
1.92      gdt        15: \todo Add information  on Pi Zero and Pi Zero W.
                     16: 
1.70      gdt        17: ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
1.53      gdt        18: 
1.74      gdt        19:  - RaspberryPi 1, 2, 3 (except Pi 3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
                     20:  - multiple processors on 2/3
                     21:  - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
                     22:  - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
1.53      gdt        23:  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
1.74      gdt        24:  - X11 via HDMI
                     25:  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
                     26:  - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
                     27:  - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
1.53      gdt        28:  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
1.74      gdt        29:  - RNG
1.53      gdt        30:  - Audio: works. man page missing.
1.74      gdt        31:  - GPIO
1.53      gdt        32:  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
                     33:  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
                     34: 
                     35: ## NetBSD current
                     36: 
1.74      gdt        37:  - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin bluetooth
1.53      gdt        38:  - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver
                     39: 
1.54      gdt        40: ## What needs work
1.53      gdt        41: 
                     42:  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
1.74      gdt        43:  - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin WiFi
1.53      gdt        44: 
1.57      gdt        45: # CPU types
                     46: 
1.59      gdt        47:  - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
1.92      gdt        48:  - Raspberry Pi Zero uses "\todo".
1.59      gdt        49:  - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
1.64      gdt        50:  - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
1.92      gdt        51:  - Raspberry Pi Zero W uses "\todo".
1.57      gdt        52: 
1.96      gdt        53: Note that one can run earmv6hf userland code on the 2 and 3.  In theory the code compiled for earmv7hf will be faster. \todo Benchmark and explain.  \todo Explain if one can run the earmv6hf RPI2 kernel on RPI1.  \todo Explain if the earmv6hf rpi.img.gz will run on a RPI2/3.
                     54: 
1.97      gdt        55: \todo Explain if one can run "eb" variants.  (However, using eb is likely to find more bugs because almost everyone uses el.  That can either be a reason to run it or not run it.)
                     56: 
1.96      gdt        57: \todo Explain if systems built with earm or earmv5 will work on RPI or RPI2/3.
                     58: 
                     59: See also [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.
1.70      gdt        60: 
1.7       wiki       61: # Installation
1.53      gdt        62: 
1.62      gdt        63: ## SD card structure
                     64: 
1.86      gdt        65: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 MBR partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
                     66: The NetBSD kernel will then find NetBSD MBR partition and within that the root disklabel partition, and use that FFS partition as the root filesystem.
1.62      gdt        67: 
1.86      gdt        68: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size, and the installation image will fit.  After the first boot, the system resizes the NetBSD root partition to fill the card.  Note that swap is after /boot and before /, and not contained in the NetBSD fdisk partition.  However, if you don't try to change the partition structure, this should not cause you any trouble.
1.63      gdt        69: 
1.91      gdt        70: Note that SD cards generally have limited write tolerance, so you may wish to disable atime updates via the noatime option, as is done by the default installation.
                     71: 
1.62      gdt        72: ## Choosing a version
                     73: 
1.95      gdt        74: First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.2 or 8.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, a recent build of netbsd-8 is probably best, with 8.0 the choice for those who value being at exactly a formal release.
1.65      gdt        75: 
                     76: See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
1.58      gdt        77: 
                     78: ## Getting bits to install
                     79: 
1.96      gdt        80: You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get a release from the NetBSD HTTPS/FTP servers.  The bits from both sources should match, except for things like  timestamps, or because the sources are from slightly different points along branches.
1.58      gdt        81: 
                     82: ### Building yourself
                     83: 
1.95      gdt        84: Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  However, the evbarm port has a very large number of CPU types, compared to i386 and amd64 which have one each.  The standard approach is to use -m to define MACHINE and -a to define MACHINE_ARCH.  build.sh supports aliases that can be passed as a MACHINE value, but denote both MACHINE and a MACHINE_ARCH.   The third line uses an alias and is equal to the second, for RPI2/3.  Note that the aliases start with "evb" while the MACHINE_ARCH values do not, and that aliases have "-el" or "-eb", while the MACHINE_ARCH values have no suffix or "eb".
1.66      gdt        85: 
1.59      gdt        86:  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
                     87:  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
1.95      gdt        88:  - ./build.sh -m evbearmv7hf-el -u release
1.81      gdt        89: 
1.94      gdt        90: Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if you wish to build multiple MACHINE_ARCH values for a MACHINE; see build.sh.  Use something like "evbarm-earmv7hf", so that 1) earvm6 and earmv7 don't collide and 2) anita will recognize it as a type of evbarm.
1.58      gdt        91: 
1.85      gdt        92: ### NetBSD autobuild HTTPS/FTP servers
1.58      gdt        93: 
1.96      gdt        94: NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](https://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  The next directory level is the branch being built (netbsd-7, netbsd-8, HEAD, and more), plus optionally things like compiler type.  It is followed by date/time, e.g. "HEAD/201811051650Z"; once a build is complete the symlink "latest" is adjusted to point to it.  The next level is "${MACHINE}-${MACHINE_ARCH}", e.g. "evbarm-earmv7hf", and multiple combinations are provided.
1.58      gdt        95: 
1.96      gdt        96: An example URL, arguably the standard approach for first-time NetBSD/RPI users, is https://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/latest/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/
1.95      gdt        97: 
                     98: ### release layout
                     99: 
1.96      gdt       100: Once you get to the releasedir, self-built and autobuild releases have the same structure.
                    101: 
1.85      gdt       102:  - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that will run on any of the RPI boards.
1.96      gdt       103:  - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that uses the armv7 instruction set, and thus can run only on the Raspberry Pi 2/3.
1.85      gdt       104: 
1.95      gdt       105: \todo Explain why there is no armv7_inst.gz.
1.58      gdt       106: 
1.65      gdt       107: ## Preparing a uSD card
1.10      wiki      108: 
1.65      gdt       109: Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
1.14      wiki      110: 
1.60      gdt       111:  - gunzip rpi.img.gz
1.67      ryoon     112:  - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
1.14      wiki      113: 
1.89      gdt       114: ## Console approaches
                    115: 
                    116: The standard approach is to use a USB keyboard and an HDMI monitor for installation.
                    117: 
1.58      gdt       118: ### Serial Console
                    119: 
1.89      gdt       120: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, mount the FAT32 partition on another system and edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
1.14      wiki      121: 
1.89      gdt       122:  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters have wires for Tx, Rx and ground, and not RTS/CTS or other flow control lines.   Thus, your terminal program (or terminal) must be configured to not require flow control; a symptom of misconfiguration is that you see console output, but cannot type anything.  If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
1.41      wiki      123: 
1.89      gdt       124:    - In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
                    125:    - In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no".
1.41      wiki      126: 
1.89      gdt       127: ### Enabling ssh for installation without any console
1.41      wiki      128: 
1.89      gdt       129: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, you can edit the configuration of a uSD card before booting.   On another computer, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address (e.g. from DHCP server logs), you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
1.65      gdt       130: 
1.89      gdt       131: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
1.65      gdt       132: 
1.89      gdt       133: build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console, when built for earmv6hf.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
1.58      gdt       134: 
1.89      gdt       135:  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to a LAN with a DHCP server, and another host you can use for ssh.
                    136:  - Power on the RPI, and wait.  Watch the logs on the DHCP server, and find the IP address assigned to the RPI.
                    137:  - Use ssh to login to the address you found with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
                    138:  - When installing, ensure that you enable DHCP and ssh, so that you can log in again after the system is installed.
1.53      gdt       139: 
1.89      gdt       140: \todo Verify that the above is accurate and sufficient.
1.16      wiki      141: 
1.55      gdt       142: ## Installation via ebijun's image
                    143: 
1.58      gdt       144: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
                    145: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
                    146: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
                    147: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
                    148: every few weeks.
1.55      gdt       149: 
1.56      gdt       150:  - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)
1.55      gdt       151: 
1.98      gdt       152: ## Configuring 802.11
                    153: 
                    154: After installation, the Ethernet will function as on any other NetBSD system; simply enable dhcpcd or configure a static address.  USB WiFi devices will also function as on any other NetBSD system; in addition to dhcpcd or static, configure and enable wpa_supplicant.
                    155: 
                    156: Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.  In particular, the following are known to work:
                    157: 
                    158:  - urtwn0: Realtek (0xbda) 802.11n WLAN Adapter (0x8176), rev 2.00/2.00, addr 5, MAC/BB RTL8188CUS, RF 6052 1T1R
                    159: 
1.90      gdt       160: ## Links
                    161: 
                    162: The following pages have been published by NetBSD community members.  (Note that some of them are old.)
                    163: 
                    164:  - https://www.cambus.net/netbsd-on-the-raspberry-pi/
                    165: 
1.74      gdt       166: # Maintaining a system
                    167: 
1.78      gdt       168: ## vcgencmd
                    169: 
1.80      gdt       170: The program vcgencmd, referenced in the boot section,  can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
1.78      gdt       171: 
1.53      gdt       172: ## Updating the kernel
1.46      schmonz   173: 
1.42      wiki      174:  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
                    175: 
                    176:          ...
                    177:          Kernels built from RPI2:
                    178:           /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd
                    179:          ...
                    180: 
1.69      rin       181:  - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" (for current) or "netbsd.bin" (for 7 and 8) kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
1.48      sevan     182:  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
1.42      wiki      183:  - reboot
                    184: 
1.73      gdt       185: ## Updating the firmware
                    186: 
                    187: A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
                    188: 
1.88      gdt       189: \todo Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain how to update a system (presumably /boot) from either an installed system's new firmware files, or the source tree.  Explain any particular cautions.
1.73      gdt       190: 
1.99      gdt       191: \todo Explain if using updated firmware from one branch (e.g. netbsd-current) on a system using a different branch (e.g. netbsd-8) is safe.  Explain if pullups are done to release branches with new firmware.
                    192: 
1.75      gdt       193: ## Booting
                    194: 
1.79      gdt       195: The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/) and read all the subpages.
1.75      gdt       196: 
                    197: The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
                    198: 
1.77      gdt       199: One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /.   The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
1.75      gdt       200: 
1.77      gdt       201: An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
1.75      gdt       202: 
1.80      gdt       203: A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/msd.md) will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
                    204: \todo Confirm that putting program_usb_boot_mode=1 in config.txt and booting works to program the OTP bit.  Confirm that one can then boot NetBSD from external USB.
1.75      gdt       205: 
                    206: \todo Explain USB enumeration and how to ensure that the correct boot and root devices are found if one has e.g. a small SSD for the system and a big disk.
                    207: 
1.93      gdt       208: # X11 and GPU
                    209: 
                    210: ## Console font
                    211: 
                    212: Some find the default font to be too small.  \todo Give a link to the normal instructions on how to change it.
1.27      wiki      213: 
                    214: ## Video playback
1.29      wiki      215: Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/omxplayer) application and through GStreamer with the [omx](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/gst-plugins1-omx) plugin.
1.27      wiki      216: 
                    217: ## OpenGL ES
                    218: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland](http://pkgsrc.se/misc/raspberrypi-userland) package.
                    219: 
1.28      wiki      220: ## Quake 3
1.27      wiki      221: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-raspberrypi) package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
                    222: 
                    223:  - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
1.31      snj       224:  - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-pk3) package
1.27      wiki      225:  - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
                    226: 
1.31      snj       227: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
1.27      wiki      228: 
1.32      wiki      229: ## RetroArch / Libretro
                    230: Using [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch) it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*](http://pkgsrc.se/search.php?so=libretro-) packages. To begin using retroarch:
                    231: 
                    232:  - Install [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch)
                    233:  - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/libretro-gambatte), a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
                    234:  - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
                    235:  - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
                    236: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
1.35      wiki      237: $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
1.32      wiki      238: """]]
                    239:  - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
                    240: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
                    241: $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/gambatte_libretro.so game.gbc
                    242: """]]
                    243: 
1.53      gdt       244: # Developer notes
1.50      gdt       245: 
1.53      gdt       246: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       247: 
1.72      gdt       248: ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
1.50      gdt       249: 
1.72      gdt       250: (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
                    251: be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
1.50      gdt       252: 
1.72      gdt       253: Upstream firmware releases are
                    254: [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).
                    255: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
                    256: 
                    257: New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
1.50      gdt       258: 
1.53      gdt       259: - Audio
                    260: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
                    261: - Serial/framebuffer console
                    262: - CPU frequency scaling
1.50      gdt       263: 
1.92      gdt       264: Tests should be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
1.94      gdt       265: 
                    266: ## Testing with anita and qemu
                    267: 
                    268: anita has support for evbarm.  Install qemu and dtb-arm-vexpress from pkgsrc.  Note that the release subdirectory should be evbarm-earmv6hf or evbarm-earmv7hf.
                    269: 
                    270: \todo Explain how to select various RPI models to emulate.
                    271: \todo Explain about how DTB works.
1.100   ! gdt       272: \todo Give a command line example to run qemu (without anita).

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