Diff for /wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn between versions 1.78 and 1.91

version 1.78, 2018/10/30 23:09:40 version 1.91, 2018/11/06 13:59:57
Line 43  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support w Line 43  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support w
 # CPU types  # CPU types
   
  - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".   - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
    - Raspberry Pi 0 uses "\todo".
  - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".   - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
  - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".   - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
    - Raspberry Pi 0W uses "\todo".
   
 Note that one can run earmv6hf code on the 2 and 3.  See also  Note that one can run earmv6hf code on the 2 and 3.  See also
 [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.  [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.
Line 53  Note that one can run earmv6hf code on t Line 55  Note that one can run earmv6hf code on t
   
 ## SD card structure  ## SD card structure
   
 The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.  The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 MBR partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
   The NetBSD kernel will then find NetBSD MBR partition and within that the root disklabel partition, and use that FFS partition as the root filesystem.
   
 The NetBSD kernel will then use the FFS partition as the root filesystem.  A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size, and the installation image will fit.  After the first boot, the system resizes the NetBSD root partition to fill the card.  Note that swap is after /boot and before /, and not contained in the NetBSD fdisk partition.  However, if you don't try to change the partition structure, this should not cause you any trouble.
   
 A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size.  The NetBSD filesystem will be expanded to fit.  Note that SD cards generally have limited write tolerance, so you may wish to disable atime updates via the noatime option, as is done by the default installation.
   
 ## Choosing a version  ## Choosing a version
   
Line 73  Both will provide rpi.img.gz and rpi_ins Line 76  Both will provide rpi.img.gz and rpi_ins
   
 ### Building yourself  ### Building yourself
   
 Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  Pick a CPU type alias and pass it to build.sh with -m.  Examples (the first two are equivalent):  Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  However, the evbarm port has a very large number of CPU types, compared to i386 and amd64 which have one.  The standard approach is to use -m to define MACHINE and -a to define MACHINE_ARCH.  build.sh supports aliases that can be passed as a MACHINE value, but denote both MACHINE and a MACHINE_ARCH.   The third line uses an alias and is equal to the second in effect, for RPI2/3.
   
  - ./build.sh -m earmv6hf -u release  
  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release   - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release   - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
    - ./build.sh -m earmv7hf-el -u release
   
 ### NetBSD FTP servers  Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if you wish to build multiple MACHINE_ARCH values on the same system; see build.sh.
   
 NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  These are equivalent to building yourself.  ### NetBSD autobuild HTTPS/FTP servers
   
  - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that can be used as a single image for both boards.  NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](https://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  These are equivalent to building yourself.  The next directory level is the branch being built (netbsd-7, netbsd-8, HEAD, and more), plus optionally things like compiler type.  It is followed by date/time, e.g. "HEAD/201811051650Z"; once a build is complete the symlink "latest" is adjusted to point to it.  The next level is "${MACHINE}-${MACHINE_ARCH}", e.g. "evbarm-earmv7hf", and multiple combinations are provided.
  - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that is optimized for Raspberry Pi 2/3.  
  - The old stable build directory will be under netbsd-7/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-7/201710201440Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg)       - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that will run on any of the RPI boards.
  - The stable build directory will be under netbsd-8/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/201710211010Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/)   - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that uses the armv7 instruction set, and thus can run only on the Raspberry Pi 2/3, but is also faster than rpi.img.
  - The HEAD/current directory build will be under HEAD/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/201710202210Z/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/)  
   An example URL, arguably the standard approach for beginners, is https://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/latest/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/
   
 ## Preparing a uSD card  ## Preparing a uSD card
   
Line 96  Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst),  Line 100  Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), 
  - gunzip rpi.img.gz   - gunzip rpi.img.gz
  - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1   - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
   
 ### Serial Console  ## Console approaches
   
 By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, first mount the FAT32 partition and then  The standard approach is to use a USB keyboard and an HDMI monitor for installation.
 edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.  
   ### Serial Console
   
  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters only connect Tx, Rx and ground, and do not connect any flow control lines. An effect of missing flow control is that you see console output, but cannot type anything. If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".  By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, mount the FAT32 partition on another system and edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
   
    In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".   - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters have wires for Tx, Rx and ground, and not RTS/CTS or other flow control lines.   Thus, your terminal program (or terminal) must be configured to not require flow control; a symptom of misconfiguration is that you see console output, but cannot type anything.  If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
   
    In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no"     - In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
      - In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no".
   
 ### Enabling ssh  ### Enabling ssh for installation without any console
   
 If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address, you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.  If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, you can edit the configuration of a uSD card before booting.   On another computer, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address (e.g. from DHCP server logs), you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
   
 ### Installation with sshramdisk image  ### Installation with sshramdisk image
   
 build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:  build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console, when built for earmv6hf.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
   
  - Ensure that you have a lan with a DHCP server.   - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to a LAN with a DHCP server, and another host you can use for ssh.
  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to the LAN.   - Power on the RPI, and wait.  Watch the logs on the DHCP server, and find the IP address assigned to the RPI.
  - After starting DHCP client, SSH login to with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".   - Use ssh to login to the address you found with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
    - Be careful to note the ip address given during DHCP so you don't lose your connection   - When installing, ensure that you enable DHCP and ssh, so that you can log in again after the system is installed.
    - Also for after the sysinst is done and the system reboots  
  - sysinst started!  \todo Verify that the above is accurate and sufficient.
   
 ## Installation via ebijun's image  ## Installation via ebijun's image
   
Line 132  every few weeks. Line 138  every few weeks.
   
  - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)   - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)
   
   ## Links
   
   The following pages have been published by NetBSD community members.  (Note that some of them are old.)
   
    - https://www.cambus.net/netbsd-on-the-raspberry-pi/
   
 # Maintaining a system  # Maintaining a system
   
 ## vcgencmd  ## vcgencmd
   
 The program vcgencmd can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.  The program vcgencmd, referenced in the boot section,  can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
   
   
 ## Updating the kernel  ## Updating the kernel
   
Line 156  The program vcgencmd can be found in pkg Line 167  The program vcgencmd can be found in pkg
   
 A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.  A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
   
 TODO: Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain any particular cautions.  \todo Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain how to update a system (presumably /boot) from either an installed system's new firmware files, or the source tree.  Explain any particular cautions.
   
 ## Booting  ## Booting
   
 The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [[upstream documentation on booting]](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/) and read all the subpages.  The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/) and read all the subpages.
   
 The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.  The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
   
Line 168  One wrinkle in the standard approach is  Line 179  One wrinkle in the standard approach is 
   
 An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.  An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
   
 A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support.   \todo Explain if this has been observed to work.  A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/msd.md) will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
 \todo In theory the [[procedure to program USB host boot mode]](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/msd.md) will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.  \todo Confirm that putting program_usb_boot_mode=1 in config.txt and booting works to program the OTP bit.  Confirm that one can then boot NetBSD from external USB.
   
 \todo Explain USB enumeration and how to ensure that the correct boot and root devices are found if one has e.g. a small SSD for the system and a big disk.  \todo Explain USB enumeration and how to ensure that the correct boot and root devices are found if one has e.g. a small SSD for the system and a big disk.
   

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