Diff for /wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn between versions 1.18 and 1.78

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 [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]  [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
   
   This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org). All board variants are supported.
   
   Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2, or the netbsd-7 branch after mid 2018.)
   
 [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]  [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
   
 This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org).  [[!toc levels=2]]
   
 <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>  <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
   
   # What works (and what doesn't yet)
   
   ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
   
    - RaspberryPi 1, 2, 3 (except Pi 3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
    - multiple processors on 2/3
    - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
    - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
    - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
    - X11 via HDMI
    - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
    - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
    - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
    - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
    - RNG
    - Audio: works. man page missing.
    - GPIO
    - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
    - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
   
   ## NetBSD current
   
    - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin bluetooth
    - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver
   
   ## What needs work
   
    - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
    - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin WiFi
   
   # CPU types
   
    - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
    - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
    - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
   
   Note that one can run earmv6hf code on the 2 and 3.  See also
   [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.
   
 # Installation  # Installation
  - Use the latest HEAD/-current which builds for install  
    - As the raspberry pi port is still not part the stable release, you will want to use the  ## SD card structure
      HEAD branch to download installation sets.  
    - You may use the rpi.img file created by an arm build.  The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
    - An example can be found in the '/evbarm/binary/gzimg/' directory under releng.netbsd.org  
      - On nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ (it will look like pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/201305220150Z)  The NetBSD kernel will then use the FFS partition as the root filesystem.
    - 'obj/releasedir/evbarm/binary/gzimg/' if you run (for example) './build.sh -m evbarm -u release'  
      - <i>gunzip and dd</i> this img to your sd card.  A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size.  The NetBSD filesystem will be expanded to fit.
   
            dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1  ## Choosing a version
   
  - Using a serial console  First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.2 or 8.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, 8.0 or netbsd-8 is probably best.
    - By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output; to change mount rpi.img (it's a FAT filesystem)  
   See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
            edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'  
    - proceed with the 'dd'  ## Getting bits to install
   
  - Growing the root file-system  You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get one from the NetBSD FTP servers.
    - During the partitioning process, do not delete or format the  
      first MSDOS (FAT) partition, as the Raspberry pi firmware is  Both will provide rpi.img.gz and rpi_inst.img.gz.  Each is an image to be written to a uSD card, and has a FAT32 partition for booting.  In rpi.img.gz, there is also an FFS partition for NetBSD.
      hard coded to boot on the SDCAD / 1st MSDOS partition / Firmware  
      updates and boot loader.  ### Building yourself
    - Copy /boot/cmdline.txt to /boot/cmdline.txt.orig  
    - Edit /boot/cmdline.txt and add the '-s' flag to the end of the first line of text to boot into single-user mode.  Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  Pick a CPU type alias and pass it to build.sh with -m.  Examples (the first two are equivalent):
    - Reboot, and at the prompt to enter the passname of shell, press  
            return for the default (/bin/sh).   - ./build.sh -m earmv6hf -u release
    - At the # prompt, type   - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
    - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
         "disklabel -i ld0" and press return.  
    - At the partition> prompt type "A" and press return.  ### NetBSD FTP servers
   
            Adjust disklabel sector from 4194304 to 62333952 [n]?  NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  These are equivalent to building yourself.
            Type "y" and press return.  
    - partition> prompt type "a" and press return.   - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that can be used as a single image for both boards.
    - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that is optimized for Raspberry Pi 2/3.
            Filesystem type prompt, press return to use the current value (4.2BSD).   - The old stable build directory will be under netbsd-7/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-7/201710201440Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg)    
            Start offset prompt, press return to use the current value.   - The stable build directory will be under netbsd-8/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/201710211010Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/)
            Partition size prompt, type "$" and press return to grow the   - The HEAD/current directory build will be under HEAD/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/201710202210Z/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/)
            partition to use all available free space.  
    - partition> prompt type "W" to save the changes to the disklabel.  ## Preparing a uSD card
   
            Confirm this choice by typing "y" at the Label disk prompt.  Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
            Type "Q" and press return to quit disklabel.  
    - At the # prompt (shell), type   - gunzip rpi.img.gz
    - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
            fsck -fy /dev/rld0a  
            resize_ffs -y /dev/rld0a  ### Serial Console
    - This may take a few minutes, be patient!  
   By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, first mount the FAT32 partition and then
            fsck -fy /dev/rld0a  edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
            mount_msdos /dev/ld0e /boot  
            mv /boot/cmdline.txt.orig /boot/cmdline.txt   - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters only connect Tx, Rx and ground, and do not connect any flow control lines. An effect of missing flow control is that you see console output, but cannot type anything. If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
            reboot  
     - When the system comes back up, the root file-system will have been expanded to     In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
            fill the SD card.  
      In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no"
 # Installation with sshramdisk image  
  - You may use the  rpi_inst.img.gz file created by an evbarm build.  ### Enabling ssh
  - Connect Ethernet Cable to RPI.  
  - After starting DHCP client,SSH login to RPI with user "sysinst",passwd "netbsd".  If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address, you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
   
   ### Installation with sshramdisk image
   
   build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
   
    - Ensure that you have a lan with a DHCP server.
    - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to the LAN.
    - After starting DHCP client, SSH login to with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
    - Be careful to note the ip address given during DHCP so you don't lose your connection     - Be careful to note the ip address given during DHCP so you don't lose your connection
    - Also for after the sysinst is done and the system reboots     - Also for after the sysinst is done and the system reboots
  - sysinst started!   - sysinst started!
   
 # Updating the firmware  ## Installation via ebijun's image
  - [rpi firmware files](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/tree/master/boot)  
    - Copy all files except 'kernel*img' into /boot and reboot  
   
 # Additional links  As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
  - [ARM userland utilities](https://github.com/jaredmcneill/userland)  provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
   is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
   work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
   every few weeks.
   
    - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)
   
   # Maintaining a system
   
   ## vcgencmd
   
   The program vcgencmd can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
   
   
   ## Updating the kernel
   
    - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
   
            ...
            Kernels built from RPI2:
             /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd
            ...
   
    - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" (for current) or "netbsd.bin" (for 7 and 8) kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
    - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
    - reboot
   
   ## Updating the firmware
   
   A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
   
   TODO: Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain any particular cautions.
   
   ## Booting
   
   The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [[upstream documentation on booting]](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/) and read all the subpages.
   
   The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
   
   One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /.   The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
   
   An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
   
   A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support.   \todo Explain if this has been observed to work.
   \todo In theory the [[procedure to program USB host boot mode]](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/msd.md) will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
   
   \todo Explain USB enumeration and how to ensure that the correct boot and root devices are found if one has e.g. a small SSD for the system and a big disk.
   
   # Wireless Networking
   
   Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.
   
    - A Realtek 802.11n USB adaptor configures as urtwn(4).
      - Configure with wpa_supplicant in /etc/rc.conf -
   
              ifconfig_urtwn0=dhcp
              dhcpcd=YES
              dhcpcd_flags="-q -b"
              wpa_supplicant=YES
              wpa_supplicant_flags="-B -i urtwn0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf"
      - A sample wpa_supplicant.conf can be found at /usr/share/examples/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
   
   # GPU
   
   ## Video playback
   Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/omxplayer) application and through GStreamer with the [omx](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/gst-plugins1-omx) plugin.
   
   ## OpenGL ES
   Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland](http://pkgsrc.se/misc/raspberrypi-userland) package.
   
   ## Quake 3
   A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-raspberrypi) package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
   
    - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
    - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-pk3) package
    - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
   
   Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
   
   ## RetroArch / Libretro
   Using [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch) it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*](http://pkgsrc.se/search.php?so=libretro-) packages. To begin using retroarch:
   
    - Install [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch)
    - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/libretro-gambatte), a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
    - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
    - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
   [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
   $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
   """]]
    - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
   [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
   $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/gambatte_libretro.so game.gbc
   """]]
   
   # Developer notes
   
   These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
   
   ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
   
   (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
   be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
   
   Upstream firmware releases are
   [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).
   Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
   
   New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
   
   - Audio
   - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
   - Serial/framebuffer console
   - CPU frequency scaling
   
   Tests shoudl be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
   
 # What works  
  - multi-user boot with root on SD card  
  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)  
  - X windows.  
  - USB (host); control, interrupt and bulk transfers. Has some stability issues that are being worked on. man page missing.  
  - USB Ethernet  
  - RNG: works  
  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page  
  - SPI: works, could use enhancements, man page  
  - VCHIQ: work in progress. man page missing. (-current)  
  - Audio: works. man page missing. (-current)  
   
 # What needs work  
  - USB (host); isochronous transfers. DMA support.  
  - DMA controller driver / dmover(9) backend  
  - Teach sdhc(4) about dmover; not Raspberry Pi specific  
  - hardfloat; not Raspberry Pi specific  
  - earm ABI; not Raspberry Pi specific  
  - GPIO  

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