Diff for /wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn between versions 1.63 and 1.81

version 1.63, 2017/10/22 00:39:08 version 1.81, 2018/11/06 01:42:03
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 This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org). All board variants are supported.  This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org). All board variants are supported.
   
 Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2, or the netbsd-7 branch after mid 2018.)
   
 [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]  [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
   
Line 12  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support w Line 12  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support w
   
 # What works (and what doesn't yet)  # What works (and what doesn't yet)
   
 ## NetBSD 7 before July, 2017  ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
   
  - RaspberryPi 1, and 2 (including SMP)   - RaspberryPi 1, 2, 3 (except Pi 3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
  - multi-user boot with root on SD card   - multiple processors on 2/3
    - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
    - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)   - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
    - X11 via HDMI
    - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
    - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
    - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support   - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
    - RNG
  - Audio: works. man page missing.   - Audio: works. man page missing.
  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page  
  - GPIO   - GPIO
  - RNG   - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page   - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.  
  - USB (host) - dwctwo(4)  
  - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)  
  - X windows.  
   
 ## NetBSD 7 after July, 2017 and NetBSD 8  
   
  - Raspberry Pi 3 (excluding WiFi and bluetooth)  
   
 ## NetBSD current  ## NetBSD current
   
  - Raspberry Pi 3 bluetooth   - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin bluetooth
  - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver   - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver
   
 ## What needs work  ## What needs work
   
  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.   - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
  - WiFi   - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin WiFi
   
 # CPU types  # CPU types
   
 Note that one can also use code for earlier models on later models.  
   
  - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".   - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
    - Raspberry Pi 0 uses "\todo".
  - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".   - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
  - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".  (NetBSD does not yet have 64-bit support.)   - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
    - Raspberry Pi 0W uses "\todo".
   
   Note that one can run earmv6hf code on the 2 and 3.  See also
   [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.
   
 # Installation  # Installation
   
 ## SD card structure  ## SD card structure
   
 The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and a kernel on the first FAT32  The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
 partition of the uSD card.  The NetBSD kernel will then use the FFS  
 partition as the root filesystem.  The NetBSD kernel will then use the FFS partition as the root filesystem.
   
 A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size.  The NetBSD filesystem will  A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size.  The NetBSD filesystem will be expanded to fit.
 be expanded to fit on larger cards.  
   
 ## Choosing a version  ## Choosing a version
   
 First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.1), a stable  First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.2 or 8.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, 8.0 or netbsd-8 is probably best.
 branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or current.  Note that 7.1 predates  
 Raspberry Pi 3 support.  For people who don't know how to choose among  See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
 those, netbsd-8 is probably best.  
   
 ## Getting bits to install  ## Getting bits to install
   
 You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get one from the NetBSD FTP servers.  You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get one from the NetBSD FTP servers.
   
 Both will provide rpi.img.gz and rpi_inst.img.gz.  Each is an image to  Both will provide rpi.img.gz and rpi_inst.img.gz.  Each is an image to be written to a uSD card, and has a FAT32 partition for booting.  In rpi.img.gz, there is also an FFS partition for NetBSD.
 be written to a uSD card, and has a FAT32 partition for booting.  In  
 rpi.img.gz, there is also an FFS partition for NetBSD.  
   
 ### Building yourself  ### Building yourself
   
 Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  However, the evbarm port has a very large number of CPU types, compared to i386 and amd64 which have one.  The standard approach is to use -m to define MACHINE and -a to define "MACHINE_ARCH".  build.sh supports aliases that can be passed a MACHINE value, but denote both MACHINE and a MACHINE_ARCH.   The third line is an example (equal to the second in effect).
 Pick a CPU type alias and pass it to build.sh with -m.  Examples:  
  - ./build.sh -m earmv6hf -u release  
  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release   - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release   - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
    - ./build.sh -m earmv7hf-el -u release
   
   Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if you wish to build multiple MACHINE_ARCH values on the same system; see build.sh.
   
 ### NetBSD FTP servers  ### NetBSD FTP servers
   
 NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  These are equivalent to building yourself.  NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  These are equivalent to building yourself.
   
  - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that can be used as a single image for both boards.   - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that can be used as a single image for both boards.
  - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that is optimized for Raspberry Pi 2.   - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that is optimized for Raspberry Pi 2/3.
  - The stable build directory will be under netbsd-7/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-7/201710201440Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg)       - The old stable build directory will be under netbsd-7/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-7/201710201440Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg)    
  - The not-yet-released stable build directory will be under netbsd-8/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/201710211010Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/)   - The stable build directory will be under netbsd-8/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/201710211010Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/)
  - The HEAD/current directory build will be under HEAD/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/201710202210Z/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/)   - The HEAD/current directory build will be under HEAD/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/201710202210Z/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/)
   
 ## Installing to uSD  ## Preparing a uSD card
   
 Once you have rpi.img.gz, put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:  Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
   
  - gunzip rpi.img.gz   - gunzip rpi.img.gz
  - dd if=rpi.i7mg of=/dev/disk1   - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
   
 ### Serial Console  ### Serial Console
   
Line 112  edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb Line 111  edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb
   
    In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no"     In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no"
   
   ### Enabling ssh
   
   If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address, you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
   
 ### Installation with sshramdisk image  ### Installation with sshramdisk image
   
 build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:  build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
   
  - Ensure that you have a lan with a DHCP server.   - Ensure that you have a lan with a DHCP server.
  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to the LAN.   - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to the LAN.
Line 133  every few weeks. Line 136  every few weeks.
   
  - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)   - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)
   
   # Maintaining a system
   
   ## vcgencmd
   
   The program vcgencmd, referenced in the boot section,  can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
   
 ## Updating the kernel  ## Updating the kernel
   
  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.   - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
Line 142  every few weeks. Line 151  every few weeks.
           /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd            /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd
          ...           ...
   
  - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.bin" kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.   - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" (for current) or "netbsd.bin" (for 7 and 8) kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)   - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
  - reboot   - reboot
   
   ## Updating the firmware
   
   A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
   
   TODO: Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain any particular cautions.
   
   ## Booting
   
   The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/) and read all the subpages.
   
   The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
   
   One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /.   The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
   
   An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
   
   A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/msd.md) will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
   \todo Confirm that putting program_usb_boot_mode=1 in config.txt and booting works to program the OTP bit.  Confirm that one can then boot NetBSD from external USB.
   
   \todo Explain USB enumeration and how to ensure that the correct boot and root devices are found if one has e.g. a small SSD for the system and a big disk.
   
 # Wireless Networking  # Wireless Networking
   
   Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.  Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.
   
  - A Realtek 802.11n USB adaptor configures as urtwn(4).   - A Realtek 802.11n USB adaptor configures as urtwn(4).
    - Configure with wpa_supplicant in /etc/rc.conf -     - Configure with wpa_supplicant in /etc/rc.conf -
Line 196  $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg - Line 226  $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -
   
 These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.  These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
   
 ## Updating the firmware  ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
   
 You probably don't want to do this. Firmware updates can break things,  (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
 and the latest firmware that's been tested is already included in the  be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
 NetBSD build you installed.  
   Upstream firmware releases are
   [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).
   Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
   
 If you're feeling adventurous (or are the port maintainer), here's what  New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
 to test whenever you try new firmware:  
   
 - Audio  - Audio
 - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])  - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
 - Serial/framebuffer console  - Serial/framebuffer console
 - CPU frequency scaling  - CPU frequency scaling
   
 That goes for all of `rpi[0123]`.  Tests shoudl be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
   
 Upstream firmware releases are  
 [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).  
 Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.  

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