Diff for /wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn between versions 1.20 and 1.68

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 [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]  [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
   
   This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org). All board variants are supported.
   
   Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.
   
 [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]  [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
   
 This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org).  [[!toc levels=2]]
   
 <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>  <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
   
   # What works (and what doesn't yet)
   
   ## NetBSD 7 before July, 2017
   
    - RaspberryPi 1, and 2 (including SMP)
    - multi-user boot with root on SD card
    - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
    - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
    - Audio: works. man page missing.
    - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
    - GPIO
    - RNG
    - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
    - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
    - USB (host) - dwctwo(4)
    - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
    - X windows.
   
   ## NetBSD 7 after July, 2017 and NetBSD 8
   
    - Raspberry Pi 3 (excluding WiFi and bluetooth)
   
   ## NetBSD current
   
    - Raspberry Pi 3 bluetooth
    - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver
   
   ## What needs work
   
    - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
    - WiFi
    - Raspberry Pi 3 in 64-bit mode.  (Note that this will be provided by the evbarm64 port, rather than evbarm.)
   
   # CPU types
   
   Note that one can also use code for earlier models on later models.
   
    - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
    - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
    - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
   
 # Installation  # Installation
  - Use the latest HEAD/-current which builds for install  
    - As the Raspberry Pi port is still not part the stable release, you will want to use the  
      HEAD branch to download installation sets.  
    - You may use the rpi.img file created by an evbarm build - evbarm-earmv6hf is recommended, but this is not currently available on nyftp. For now, evbarm-earmhf is best.  
    - An example can be found in the 'evbarm-earmhf/binary/gzimg/' directory under releng.netbsd.org  
      - On nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ (it will look like pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/201305220150Z)  
    - 'releasedir/evbarm/binary/gzimg/' if you run (for example) './build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release'  
      - <i>gunzip and dd</i> this img to your sd card.  
   
            dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1  ## SD card structure
   
   The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
   
   The NetBSD kernel will then use the FFS partition as the root filesystem.
   
   A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size.  The NetBSD filesystem will be expanded to fit.
   
   ## Choosing a version
   
   First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.1), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  Note that 7.1 predates Raspberry Pi 3 support.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, netbsd-8 is probably best.
   
   See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
   
   ## Getting bits to install
   
   You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get one from the NetBSD FTP servers.
   
   Both will provide rpi.img.gz and rpi_inst.img.gz.  Each is an image to be written to a uSD card, and has a FAT32 partition for booting.  In rpi.img.gz, there is also an FFS partition for NetBSD.
   
   ### Building yourself
   
   Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  Pick a CPU type alias and pass it to build.sh with -m.  Examples (the first two are equivalent):
   
  - Using a serial console   - ./build.sh -m earmv6hf -u release
    - By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output; to change to using a serial console first mount rpi.img (it's a FAT filesystem)   - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
    - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
   
            edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'  ### NetBSD FTP servers
   
  - Growing the root file-system  NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  These are equivalent to building yourself.
    - During the partitioning process, do not delete or format the  
      first MSDOS (FAT) partition, as the Raspberry pi firmware is  
      hard coded to boot on the SDCAD / 1st MSDOS partition / Firmware  
      updates and boot loader.  
    - Copy /boot/cmdline.txt to /boot/cmdline.txt.orig  
    - Edit /boot/cmdline.txt and add the '-s' flag to the end of the first line of text to boot into single-user mode.  
    - For the next steps, the root filesystem mustn't be mounted rw. So reboot, and at the prompt to enter the pathname of shell,  
      press return for the default (/bin/sh).  
    - At the # prompt, type  
   
         "disklabel -i ld0" and press return.   - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that can be used as a single image for both boards.
    - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that is optimized for Raspberry Pi 2.
    - The stable build directory will be under netbsd-7/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-7/201710201440Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg)    
    - The not-yet-released stable build directory will be under netbsd-8/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/201710211010Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/)
    - The HEAD/current directory build will be under HEAD/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/201710202210Z/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/)
   
    - At the partition> prompt type "A" and press return.  ## Preparing a uSD card
   
            Adjust disklabel sector from 4194304 to 62333952 [n]?  Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
            Type "y" and press return.  
   
    - partition> prompt type "a" and press return.   - gunzip rpi.img.gz
    - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
   
            Filesystem type prompt, press return to use the current value (4.2BSD).  ### Serial Console
            Start offset prompt, press return to use the current value.  
            Partition size prompt, type "$" and press return to grow the  
            partition to use all available free space.  
   
    - partition> prompt type "W" to save the changes to the disklabel.  By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, first mount the FAT32 partition and then
   edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
   
            Confirm this choice by typing "y" at the Label disk prompt.   - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters only connect Tx, Rx and ground, and do not connect any flow control lines. An effect of missing flow control is that you see console output, but cannot type anything. If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
            Type "Q" and press return to quit disklabel.  
   
    - At the # prompt (shell), type     In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
   
            fsck -fy /dev/rld0a     In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no"
            resize_ffs -y /dev/rld0a  
   
    - This may take a few minutes, be patient!  ### Enabling ssh
   
            fsck -fy /dev/rld0a  If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address, you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
            mount_msdos /dev/ld0e /boot  
            mv /boot/cmdline.txt.orig /boot/cmdline.txt  
            reboot  
   
     - When the system comes back up, the root file-system will have been expanded to  ### Installation with sshramdisk image
            fill the SD card.  
   
 # Installation with sshramdisk image  build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
  - You may use the  rpi_inst.img.gz file created by an evbarm build.  
  - Connect Ethernet Cable to RPI.   - Ensure that you have a lan with a DHCP server.
    - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to the LAN.
  - After starting DHCP client, SSH login to with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".   - After starting DHCP client, SSH login to with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
    - Be careful to note the ip address given during DHCP so you don't lose your connection     - Be careful to note the ip address given during DHCP so you don't lose your connection
    - Also for after the sysinst is done and the system reboots     - Also for after the sysinst is done and the system reboots
  - sysinst started!   - sysinst started!
   
 # Updating the firmware  ## Installation via ebijun's image
  - [rpi firmware files](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/tree/master/boot)  
    - Copy all files except 'kernel*.img' into /boot and reboot  
   
 # Additional links  As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
  - [ARM userland utilities](https://github.com/jaredmcneill/userland)  provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
   is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
   work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
   every few weeks.
   
 # What works   - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)
  - multi-user boot with root on SD card  
  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)  
  - X windows.  
  - USB (host) - dwctwo(4)  
  - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)  
  - RNG: works  
  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page  
  - SPI: works, could use enhancements, man page  
  - VCHIQ: work in progress. man page missing. (-current)  
  - Audio: works. man page missing. (-current)  
   
 # What needs work  ## Updating the kernel
  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.  
  - DMA controller driver / dmover(9) backend   - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
  - Teach sdhc(4) about dmover; not Raspberry Pi specific  
  - GPIO           ...
            Kernels built from RPI2:
             /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd
            ...
   
    - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
    - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
    - reboot
   
   # Wireless Networking
   
     Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.
   
    - A Realtek 802.11n USB adaptor configures as urtwn(4).
      - Configure with wpa_supplicant in /etc/rc.conf -
   
              ifconfig_urtwn0=dhcp
              dhcpcd=YES
              dhcpcd_flags="-q -b"
              wpa_supplicant=YES
              wpa_supplicant_flags="-B -i urtwn0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf"
      - A sample wpa_supplicant.conf can be found at /usr/share/examples/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
   
   # GPU
   
   ## Video playback
   Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/omxplayer) application and through GStreamer with the [omx](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/gst-plugins1-omx) plugin.
   
   ## OpenGL ES
   Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland](http://pkgsrc.se/misc/raspberrypi-userland) package.
   
   ## Quake 3
   A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-raspberrypi) package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
   
    - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
    - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-pk3) package
    - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
   
   Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
   
   ## RetroArch / Libretro
   Using [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch) it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*](http://pkgsrc.se/search.php?so=libretro-) packages. To begin using retroarch:
   
    - Install [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch)
    - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/libretro-gambatte), a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
    - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
    - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
   [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
   $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
   """]]
    - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
   [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
   $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/gambatte_libretro.so game.gbc
   """]]
   
   # Developer notes
   
   These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
   
   ## Updating the firmware
   
   You probably don't want to do this. Firmware updates can break things,
   and the latest firmware that's been tested is already included in the
   NetBSD build you installed.
   
   If you're feeling adventurous (or are the port maintainer), here's what
   to test whenever you try new firmware:
   
   - Audio
   - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
   - Serial/framebuffer console
   - CPU frequency scaling
   
   That goes for all of `rpi[0123]`.
   
   Upstream firmware releases are
   [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).
   Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.

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