Diff for /wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn between versions 1.17 and 1.70

version 1.17, 2013/06/01 10:29:03 version 1.70, 2018/10/30 01:31:15
Line 1 Line 1
 [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]  [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
   This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org). All board variants are supported.
   Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2, or the netbsd-7 branch after mid 2018.)
 [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]  [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
 This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org).  [[!toc levels=2]]
 <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>  <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
   # What works (and what doesn't yet)
   ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
    - RaspberryPi 1, and 2 (including SMP)
    - Raspberry Pi 3 (excluding WiFi and bluetooth)
    - multi-user boot with root on SD card
    - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
    - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
    - Audio: works. man page missing.
    - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
    - GPIO
    - RNG
    - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
    - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
    - USB (host) - dwctwo(4)
    - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
    - X windows.
   ## NetBSD current
    - Raspberry Pi 3 bluetooth
    - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver
   ## What needs work
    - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
    - WiFi
   # CPU types
   Note that one can also use code for earlier models on later models.
    - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
    - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
    - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
   See also [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.
 # Installation  # Installation
  - Use the latest HEAD/-current which builds for install  
    - As the raspberry pi port is still not part the stable release, you will want to use the  ## SD card structure
      HEAD branch to download installation sets.  
    - You may use the rpi.img file created by an arm build.  The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
    - An example can be found in the '/evbarm/binary/gzimg/' directory under releng.netbsd.org  
      - On nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ (it will look like pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/201305220150Z)  The NetBSD kernel will then use the FFS partition as the root filesystem.
    - 'obj/releasedir/evbarm/binary/gzimg/' if you run (for example) './build.sh -m evbarm -u release'  
      - <i>gunzip and dd</i> this img to your sd card.  A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size.  The NetBSD filesystem will be expanded to fit.
            dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1  ## Choosing a version
  - Using a serial console  First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.1), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  Note that 7.1 predates Raspberry Pi 3 support.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, netbsd-8 is probably best.
    - By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output; to change mount rpi.img (it's a FAT filesystem)  
   See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
            edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'  
    - proceed with the 'dd'  ## Getting bits to install
  - Growing the root file-system  You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get one from the NetBSD FTP servers.
    - During the partitioning process, do not delete or format the  
      first MSDOS (FAT) partition, as the Raspberry pi firmware is  Both will provide rpi.img.gz and rpi_inst.img.gz.  Each is an image to be written to a uSD card, and has a FAT32 partition for booting.  In rpi.img.gz, there is also an FFS partition for NetBSD.
      hard coded to boot on the SDCAD / 1st MSDOS partition / Firmware  
      updates and boot loader.  ### Building yourself
    - Copy /boot/cmdline.txt to /boot/cmdline.txt.orig  
    - Edit /boot/cmdline.txt and add the '-s' flag to the end of the first line of text to boot into single-user mode.  Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  Pick a CPU type alias and pass it to build.sh with -m.  Examples (the first two are equivalent):
    - Reboot, and at the prompt to enter the passname of shell, press  
            return for the default (/bin/sh).   - ./build.sh -m earmv6hf -u release
    - At the # prompt, type   - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
    - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
         "disklabel -i ld0" and press return.  
    - At the partition> prompt type "A" and press return.  ### NetBSD FTP servers
            Adjust disklabel sector from 4194304 to 62333952 [n]?  NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  These are equivalent to building yourself.
            Type "y" and press return.  
    - partition> prompt type "a" and press return.   - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that can be used as a single image for both boards.
    - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that is optimized for Raspberry Pi 2.
            Filesystem type prompt, press return to use the current value (4.2BSD).   - The stable build directory will be under netbsd-7/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-7/201710201440Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg)    
            Start offset prompt, press return to use the current value.   - The not-yet-released stable build directory will be under netbsd-8/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/201710211010Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/)
            Partition size prompt, type "$" and press return to grow the   - The HEAD/current directory build will be under HEAD/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/201710202210Z/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/)
            partition to use all available free space.  
    - partition> prompt type "W" to save the changes to the disklabel.  ## Preparing a uSD card
            Confirm this choice by typing "y" at the Label disk prompt.  Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
            Type "Q" and press return to quit disklabel.  
    - At the # prompt (shell), type   - gunzip rpi.img.gz
    - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
            fsck -fy /dev/rld0a  
            resize_ffs -y /dev/rld0a  ### Serial Console
    - This may take a few minutes, be patient!  
   By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, first mount the FAT32 partition and then
            fsck -fy /dev/rld0a  edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
            mount /dev/ld0e /boot  
            mv /boot/cmdline.txt.orig /boot/cmdline.txt   - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters only connect Tx, Rx and ground, and do not connect any flow control lines. An effect of missing flow control is that you see console output, but cannot type anything. If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
     - When the system comes back up, the root file-system will have been expanded to     In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
            fill the SD card.  
      In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no"
 # Installation with sshramdisk image  
  - You may use the  rpi_inst.img.gz file created by an evbarm build.  ### Enabling ssh
  - Connect Ethernet Cable to RPI.  
  - After starting DHCP client,SSH login to RPI with user "sysinst",passwd "netbsd".  If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address, you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
   ### Installation with sshramdisk image
   build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
    - Ensure that you have a lan with a DHCP server.
    - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to the LAN.
    - After starting DHCP client, SSH login to with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
    - Be careful to note the ip address given during DHCP so you don't lose your connection     - Be careful to note the ip address given during DHCP so you don't lose your connection
    - Also for after the sysinst is done and the system reboots     - Also for after the sysinst is done and the system reboots
  - sysinst started!   - sysinst started!
 # Updating the firmware  ## Installation via ebijun's image
  - [rpi firmware files](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/tree/master/boot)  
    - Copy all files except 'kernel*img' into /boot and reboot  
 # Additional links  As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
  - [ARM userland utilities](https://github.com/jaredmcneill/userland)  provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
   is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
   work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
   every few weeks.
 # What works   - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)
  - multi-user boot with root on SD card  
  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)  ## Updating the kernel
  - X windows.  
  - USB (host); control, interrupt and bulk transfers. Has some stability issues that are being worked on. man page missing.   - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
  - USB Ethernet  
  - RNG: works           ...
  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page           Kernels built from RPI2:
  - SPI: works, could use enhancements, man page            /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd
  - VCHIQ: work in progress. man page missing. (-current)           ...
  - Audio: works. man page missing. (-current)  
    - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" (for current) or "netbsd.bin" (for 7 and 8) kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
 # What needs work   - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
  - USB (host); isochronous transfers. DMA support.   - reboot
  - DMA controller driver / dmover(9) backend  
  - Teach sdhc(4) about dmover; not Raspberry Pi specific  # Wireless Networking
  - hardfloat; not Raspberry Pi specific  
  - earm ABI; not Raspberry Pi specific    Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.
  - GPIO  
    - A Realtek 802.11n USB adaptor configures as urtwn(4).
      - Configure with wpa_supplicant in /etc/rc.conf -
              dhcpcd_flags="-q -b"
              wpa_supplicant_flags="-B -i urtwn0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf"
      - A sample wpa_supplicant.conf can be found at /usr/share/examples/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
   # GPU
   ## Video playback
   Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/omxplayer) application and through GStreamer with the [omx](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/gst-plugins1-omx) plugin.
   ## OpenGL ES
   Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland](http://pkgsrc.se/misc/raspberrypi-userland) package.
   ## Quake 3
   A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-raspberrypi) package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
    - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
    - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-pk3) package
    - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
   Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
   ## RetroArch / Libretro
   Using [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch) it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*](http://pkgsrc.se/search.php?so=libretro-) packages. To begin using retroarch:
    - Install [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch)
    - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/libretro-gambatte), a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
    - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
    - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
   [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
   $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
    - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
   [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
   $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/gambatte_libretro.so game.gbc
   # Developer notes
   These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
   ## Updating the firmware
   You probably don't want to do this. Firmware updates can break things,
   and the latest firmware that's been tested is already included in the
   NetBSD build you installed.
   If you're feeling adventurous (or are the port maintainer), here's what
   to test whenever you try new firmware:
   - Audio
   - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
   - Serial/framebuffer console
   - CPU frequency scaling
   That goes for all of `rpi[0123]`.
   Upstream firmware releases are
   [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).
   Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.

Removed from v.1.17  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.70

CVSweb for NetBSD wikisrc <wikimaster@NetBSD.org> software: FreeBSD-CVSweb