Diff for /wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn between versions 1.109 and 1.116

version 1.109, 2018/11/07 01:10:59 version 1.116, 2018/12/23 15:53:14
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 [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]  [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
   
 This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org).  All [board variants](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raspberry_Pi#Specifications) are supported.  We use e.g. "RPI2" to refer to "Raspberry Pi 2" to save precious bytes on this page.  This page describes the NetBSD/evbarm port on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org) hardware.  All [board variants](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raspberry_Pi#Specifications) are believed supported, and specific boards know to work are listed.  We use e.g. "RPI2" to refer to "Raspberry Pi 2" to save precious bytes on this page.  This web page is 32-bit (aarch32) centric, as that has been until mid-2018 the only approach.
   
 Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0.  NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2 or later, but note that everyone uses 8 or -current.)  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0.  NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2 or later, but note that everyone uses 8 or -current.)
   
   In mid-2018, -current gained support for 64-bit ARM (aarch64) support.
   
 [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]  [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
   
 [[!toc levels=2]]  [[!toc levels=2]]
Line 36  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support w Line 38  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support w
  - RPI3+    - RPI3+ 
  - RPI3 builtin bluetooth   - RPI3 builtin bluetooth
  - RPI3 new SD host controller driver   - RPI3 new SD host controller driver
    - \todo Verify: RPI2-1.2 and RPI3 aarch64
   
 ## What needs documenting if it works  ## What needs documenting if it works
   
Line 48  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support w Line 51  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support w
  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.   - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
  - RPI3, RPI0W builtin WiFi   - RPI3, RPI0W builtin WiFi
  - RPI0W Bluetooth Low Energy (probably)   - RPI0W Bluetooth Low Energy (probably)
    - aarch64 support is evolving very rapidly, and not yet recommended for production, largely because one must run -current.
   
 # CPU types  # CPU types
   
Line 55  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support w Line 59  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support w
  - RPI0 uses "earmv6hf".   - RPI0 uses "earmv6hf".
  - RPI0W uses "earmv6hf".   - RPI0W uses "earmv6hf".
  - RPI2 uses "earmv7hf".   - RPI2 uses "earmv7hf".
  - RPI3 uses "earmv7hf".   - RPI2-1.2 uses "earmv7hf" or "aarch64" (armv8 CPU hardware)
    - RPI3 uses "earmv7hf" or "aarch64" (armv8 CPU hardware)
   
 Note that one can run a build of earmv6hf on the 2 and 3.  There will still be a kernel7, built to use the 2/3 hardware, but with the armv6 instruction set.  Note that one can run a build of earmv6hf on the 2 and 3.  There will still be a kernel7, built to use the 2/3 hardware, but with the armv6 instruction set.
   
Line 63  In theory the code compiled for earmv7hf Line 68  In theory the code compiled for earmv7hf
   
 While the evbarm port has "eb" variants (for big-endian mode), the RPI systems do not support eb and these variants will not work.  Systems built with older CPU architectures (earm, earmv4, earmv5) are not expected to work on RPI.  While the evbarm port has "eb" variants (for big-endian mode), the RPI systems do not support eb and these variants will not work.  Systems built with older CPU architectures (earm, earmv4, earmv5) are not expected to work on RPI.
   
 See also [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the RPI2-1.2 and RPI3/RPI3+ in 64-bit mode.  The RPI2-1.2 and RPI3 have an armv8 CPU that supports aarch64 (64-bit
   mode) in addition to aarch32 (regular 32-bit ARM).  This is supported,
   in -current only, by the "aarch64" MACHINE_ARCH of evbarm, also
   available in build.sh via the alias evbarm64.  This is sometimes
   referred to as [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]].
   
 # Installation  # Installation
   
Line 98  Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if yo Line 107  Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if yo
   
 ### NetBSD autobuild HTTPS/FTP servers  ### NetBSD autobuild HTTPS/FTP servers
   
 NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](https://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  The next directory level is the branch being built (netbsd-7, netbsd-8, HEAD, and more), plus optionally things like compiler type.  It is followed by date/time, e.g. "HEAD/201811051650Z"; once a build is complete the symlink "latest" is adjusted to point to it.  The next level is "${MACHINE}-${MACHINE_ARCH}", e.g. "evbarm-earmv7hf", and multiple combinations are provided.  NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nycdn.netbsd.org](https://nycdn.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  The next directory level is the branch being built (netbsd-7, netbsd-8, HEAD, and more), plus optionally things like compiler type.  It is followed by date/time, e.g. "HEAD/201811051650Z"; once a build is complete the symlink "latest" is adjusted to point to it.  The next level is "${MACHINE}-${MACHINE_ARCH}", e.g. "evbarm-earmv7hf", and multiple combinations are provided.
   
 An example URL, arguably the standard approach for first-time NetBSD/RPI users, is https://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/latest/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/  An example URL, arguably the standard approach for first-time NetBSD/RPI users, is https://nycdn.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/latest/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/
   
 ### release layout  ### release layout
   
Line 203  Probably, for the RPI3+, one needs to us Line 212  Probably, for the RPI3+, one needs to us
   
 The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/) and read all the subpages.  The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/) and read all the subpages.
   
 The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.  The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap partition (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
   
 One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /.   The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.  One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /, so the swap partition is not within the NetBSD fdisk partition.  The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
   
 An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.  An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
   
Line 214  A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 o Line 223  A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 o
   
 There is no well-defined USB enumeration order, so the preferred approach if one has multiple USB mass storage devices is to use named wedges in both fstab and cmdline.txt.  There is no well-defined USB enumeration order, so the preferred approach if one has multiple USB mass storage devices is to use named wedges in both fstab and cmdline.txt.
   
   ## Split-mode aarch32/aarch64
   
   \todo Verify this, and add any necessary cautions about boot code.
   
   The aarch64 kernel can run aarch32 binaries, so one can boot a aarch64 kernel on a system with aarch32 userland.
   
 # X11 and GPU  # X11 and GPU
   
 ## Video playback  ## Video playback
Line 237  Using [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsr Line 252  Using [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsr
  - Install [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch)   - Install [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch)
  - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/libretro-gambatte), a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).   - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/libretro-gambatte), a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
  - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").   - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
  - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.   - Initially you might want to configure your gamepad in X11 using keyboard controls. Set the following in $HOME/.config/retroarch.cfg:
 [[!template  id=programlisting text="""          video_driver = "sdl2"
 $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg          menu_driver = "rgui"
 """]]   - After you are done configuring your gamepad in RetroArch and have saved your configuration, you probably want to use the OpenGLES driver which runs in the framebuffer outside of X11 for better performance and latency. Change video_driver in retroarch.cfg:
  - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):          video_driver = "gl"
 [[!template  id=programlisting text="""   - Then exit X11 and run retroarch.
 $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/gambatte_libretro.so game.gbc  
 """]]  
   
 # Developer notes  # Developer notes
   
Line 270  Tests should be run on all of `rpi[0123] Line 283  Tests should be run on all of `rpi[0123]
   
 ## Testing with anita and qemu  ## Testing with anita and qemu
   
 anita has support for evbarm.  Install qemu and dtb-arm-vexpress from pkgsrc.  Note that the release subdirectory should be evbarm-earmv6hf or evbarm-earmv7hf.  See the anita section in the evbarm page.
   
 \todo It is not currently known and documented how to configure qemu and anita to emulate a RPI in general or a specific RPI model.  
   
 \todo Explain about how DTB works.  
   
 \todo Give a command line example to run qemu (without anita).  It is not currently known how to emulate a RPI in qemu, and therefore anita does not yet have support for this.  \todo Add a command-line example to run qemu emulating some RPI model.

Removed from v.1.109  
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