Diff for /wikisrc/ports/evbarm/raspberry_pi.mdwn between versions 1.69 and 1.100

version 1.69, 2018/04/05 13:27:58 version 1.100, 2018/11/06 18:16:43
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 This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org). All board variants are supported.  This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org). All board variants are supported.
   
 Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2, or the netbsd-7 branch after mid 2018.)
   
 [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]  [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
   
Line 12  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support w Line 12  Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support w
   
 # What works (and what doesn't yet)  # What works (and what doesn't yet)
   
 ## NetBSD 7 before July, 2017  \todo Add information  on Pi Zero and Pi Zero W.
   
  - RaspberryPi 1, and 2 (including SMP)  ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
  - multi-user boot with root on SD card  
    - RaspberryPi 1, 2, 3 (except Pi 3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
    - multiple processors on 2/3
    - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
    - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)   - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
    - X11 via HDMI
    - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
    - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
    - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support   - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
    - RNG
  - Audio: works. man page missing.   - Audio: works. man page missing.
  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page  
  - GPIO   - GPIO
  - RNG   - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page   - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.  
  - USB (host) - dwctwo(4)  
  - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)  
  - X windows.  
   
 ## NetBSD 7 after July, 2017 and NetBSD 8  
   
  - Raspberry Pi 3 (excluding WiFi and bluetooth)  
   
 ## NetBSD current  ## NetBSD current
   
  - Raspberry Pi 3 bluetooth   - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin bluetooth
  - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver   - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver
   
 ## What needs work  ## What needs work
   
  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.   - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
  - WiFi   - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin WiFi
  - Raspberry Pi 3 in 64-bit mode.  (Note that this will be provided by the evbarm64 port, rather than evbarm.)  
   
 # CPU types  # CPU types
   
 Note that one can also use code for earlier models on later models.  
   
  - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".   - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
    - Raspberry Pi Zero uses "\todo".
  - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".   - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
  - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".   - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
    - Raspberry Pi Zero W uses "\todo".
   
   Note that one can run earmv6hf userland code on the 2 and 3.  In theory the code compiled for earmv7hf will be faster. \todo Benchmark and explain.  \todo Explain if one can run the earmv6hf RPI2 kernel on RPI1.  \todo Explain if the earmv6hf rpi.img.gz will run on a RPI2/3.
   
   \todo Explain if one can run "eb" variants.  (However, using eb is likely to find more bugs because almost everyone uses el.  That can either be a reason to run it or not run it.)
   
   \todo Explain if systems built with earm or earmv5 will work on RPI or RPI2/3.
   
   See also [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.
   
 # Installation  # Installation
   
 ## SD card structure  ## SD card structure
   
 The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.  The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 MBR partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
   The NetBSD kernel will then find NetBSD MBR partition and within that the root disklabel partition, and use that FFS partition as the root filesystem.
   
 The NetBSD kernel will then use the FFS partition as the root filesystem.  A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size, and the installation image will fit.  After the first boot, the system resizes the NetBSD root partition to fill the card.  Note that swap is after /boot and before /, and not contained in the NetBSD fdisk partition.  However, if you don't try to change the partition structure, this should not cause you any trouble.
   
 A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size.  The NetBSD filesystem will be expanded to fit.  Note that SD cards generally have limited write tolerance, so you may wish to disable atime updates via the noatime option, as is done by the default installation.
   
 ## Choosing a version  ## Choosing a version
   
 First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.1), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  Note that 7.1 predates Raspberry Pi 3 support.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, netbsd-8 is probably best.  First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.2 or 8.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, a recent build of netbsd-8 is probably best, with 8.0 the choice for those who value being at exactly a formal release.
   
 See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.  See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
   
 ## Getting bits to install  ## Getting bits to install
   
 You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get one from the NetBSD FTP servers.  You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get a release from the NetBSD HTTPS/FTP servers.  The bits from both sources should match, except for things like  timestamps, or because the sources are from slightly different points along branches.
   
 Both will provide rpi.img.gz and rpi_inst.img.gz.  Each is an image to be written to a uSD card, and has a FAT32 partition for booting.  In rpi.img.gz, there is also an FFS partition for NetBSD.  
   
 ### Building yourself  ### Building yourself
   
 Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  Pick a CPU type alias and pass it to build.sh with -m.  Examples (the first two are equivalent):  Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  However, the evbarm port has a very large number of CPU types, compared to i386 and amd64 which have one each.  The standard approach is to use -m to define MACHINE and -a to define MACHINE_ARCH.  build.sh supports aliases that can be passed as a MACHINE value, but denote both MACHINE and a MACHINE_ARCH.   The third line uses an alias and is equal to the second, for RPI2/3.  Note that the aliases start with "evb" while the MACHINE_ARCH values do not, and that aliases have "-el" or "-eb", while the MACHINE_ARCH values have no suffix or "eb".
   
  - ./build.sh -m earmv6hf -u release  
  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release   - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release   - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
    - ./build.sh -m evbearmv7hf-el -u release
   
   Consider setting RELEASEMACHINEDIR if you wish to build multiple MACHINE_ARCH values for a MACHINE; see build.sh.  Use something like "evbarm-earmv7hf", so that 1) earvm6 and earmv7 don't collide and 2) anita will recognize it as a type of evbarm.
   
   ### NetBSD autobuild HTTPS/FTP servers
   
   NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](https://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  The next directory level is the branch being built (netbsd-7, netbsd-8, HEAD, and more), plus optionally things like compiler type.  It is followed by date/time, e.g. "HEAD/201811051650Z"; once a build is complete the symlink "latest" is adjusted to point to it.  The next level is "${MACHINE}-${MACHINE_ARCH}", e.g. "evbarm-earmv7hf", and multiple combinations are provided.
   
   An example URL, arguably the standard approach for first-time NetBSD/RPI users, is https://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/latest/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/
   
 ### NetBSD FTP servers  ### release layout
   
 NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  These are equivalent to building yourself.  Once you get to the releasedir, self-built and autobuild releases have the same structure.
   
  - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that can be used as a single image for both boards.   - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that will run on any of the RPI boards.
  - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that is optimized for Raspberry Pi 2.   - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that uses the armv7 instruction set, and thus can run only on the Raspberry Pi 2/3.
  - The stable build directory will be under netbsd-7/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-7/201710201440Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg)      
  - The not-yet-released stable build directory will be under netbsd-8/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/201710211010Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/)  \todo Explain why there is no armv7_inst.gz.
  - The HEAD/current directory build will be under HEAD/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/201710202210Z/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/)  
   
 ## Preparing a uSD card  ## Preparing a uSD card
   
Line 98  Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst),  Line 111  Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), 
  - gunzip rpi.img.gz   - gunzip rpi.img.gz
  - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1   - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
   
 ### Serial Console  ## Console approaches
   
 By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, first mount the FAT32 partition and then  The standard approach is to use a USB keyboard and an HDMI monitor for installation.
 edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.  
   ### Serial Console
   
  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters only connect Tx, Rx and ground, and do not connect any flow control lines. An effect of missing flow control is that you see console output, but cannot type anything. If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".  By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, mount the FAT32 partition on another system and edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
   
    In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".   - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters have wires for Tx, Rx and ground, and not RTS/CTS or other flow control lines.   Thus, your terminal program (or terminal) must be configured to not require flow control; a symptom of misconfiguration is that you see console output, but cannot type anything.  If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
   
    In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no"     - In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
      - In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no".
   
 ### Enabling ssh  ### Enabling ssh for installation without any console
   
 If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address, you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.  If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, you can edit the configuration of a uSD card before booting.   On another computer, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address (e.g. from DHCP server logs), you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
   
 ### Installation with sshramdisk image  ### Installation with sshramdisk image
   
 build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:  build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console, when built for earmv6hf.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
   
  - Ensure that you have a lan with a DHCP server.   - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to a LAN with a DHCP server, and another host you can use for ssh.
  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to the LAN.   - Power on the RPI, and wait.  Watch the logs on the DHCP server, and find the IP address assigned to the RPI.
  - After starting DHCP client, SSH login to with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".   - Use ssh to login to the address you found with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
    - Be careful to note the ip address given during DHCP so you don't lose your connection   - When installing, ensure that you enable DHCP and ssh, so that you can log in again after the system is installed.
    - Also for after the sysinst is done and the system reboots  
  - sysinst started!  \todo Verify that the above is accurate and sufficient.
   
 ## Installation via ebijun's image  ## Installation via ebijun's image
   
Line 134  every few weeks. Line 149  every few weeks.
   
  - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)   - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)
   
   ## Configuring 802.11
   
   After installation, the Ethernet will function as on any other NetBSD system; simply enable dhcpcd or configure a static address.  USB WiFi devices will also function as on any other NetBSD system; in addition to dhcpcd or static, configure and enable wpa_supplicant.
   
   Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.   USB WiFi interfaces (that work on NetBSD in general) should all work.  In particular, the following are known to work:
   
    - urtwn0: Realtek (0xbda) 802.11n WLAN Adapter (0x8176), rev 2.00/2.00, addr 5, MAC/BB RTL8188CUS, RF 6052 1T1R
   
   ## Links
   
   The following pages have been published by NetBSD community members.  (Note that some of them are old.)
   
    - https://www.cambus.net/netbsd-on-the-raspberry-pi/
   
   # Maintaining a system
   
   ## vcgencmd
   
   The program vcgencmd, referenced in the boot section,  can be found in pkgsrc/misc/raspberrypi-userland.
   
 ## Updating the kernel  ## Updating the kernel
   
  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.   - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
Line 147  every few weeks. Line 182  every few weeks.
  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)   - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
  - reboot   - reboot
   
 # Wireless Networking  ## Updating the firmware
   
   A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
   
   \todo Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain how to update a system (presumably /boot) from either an installed system's new firmware files, or the source tree.  Explain any particular cautions.
   
   \todo Explain if using updated firmware from one branch (e.g. netbsd-current) on a system using a different branch (e.g. netbsd-8) is safe.  Explain if pullups are done to release branches with new firmware.
   
   ## Booting
   
   The device boots by finding a file "bootcode.bin".   The primary location is a FAT32 partition on the uSD card, and an additional location is on a USB drive.  See the [upstream documentation on booting](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/) and read all the subpages.
   
   Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.  The standard approach is to use a uSD card, with a fdisk partition table containing a FAT32 partition marked active, and a NetBSD partition.  The NetBSD partition will then contain a disklabel, pointing to an FFS partition (a), a swap paritiion (b) and the FAT32 boot partition mounted as /boot (e).  The file /boot/cmdline.txt has a line to set the root partition.
   
  - A Realtek 802.11n USB adaptor configures as urtwn(4).  One wrinkle in the standard approach is that the disk layout is "boot swap /", but the NetBSD fdisk partition starts at the location of /.   The / partition can hold a disklabel, while swap cannot.   It is normal to have swap after / (and thus within the fdisk partition), but the arrangement used permits growing / on first boot, for the typical case where a larger uSD is used, compared to the minimum image size.
    - Configure with wpa_supplicant in /etc/rc.conf -  
   
            ifconfig_urtwn0=dhcp  An alternate approach is to have the boot FAT32 partition as above, but to have the entire system including root on an external disk.  This is configured by changing root=ld0a to root=sd0a or root=dk0 (depending on disklabel/GPT).  Besides greater space, part of the point is to avoid writing to the uSD card.
            dhcpcd=YES  
            dhcpcd_flags="-q -b"  
            wpa_supplicant=YES  
            wpa_supplicant_flags="-B -i urtwn0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf"  
    - A sample wpa_supplicant.conf can be found at /usr/share/examples/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf  
   
 # GPU  A third approach, workable on the Pi 3 only, is to configure USB host booting (already enableed on the 3+; see the upstream documentation) and have the boot partition also on the external device.  In this case the external device must have an MBR because the hardware's first-stage boot does not have GPT support. In theory the [procedure to program USB host boot mode](https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/hardware/raspberrypi/bootmodes/msd.md) will function on a NetBSD system because the programming is done by bootcode.bin.
   \todo Confirm that putting program_usb_boot_mode=1 in config.txt and booting works to program the OTP bit.  Confirm that one can then boot NetBSD from external USB.
   
   \todo Explain USB enumeration and how to ensure that the correct boot and root devices are found if one has e.g. a small SSD for the system and a big disk.
   
   # X11 and GPU
   
   ## Console font
   
   Some find the default font to be too small.  \todo Give a link to the normal instructions on how to change it.
   
 ## Video playback  ## Video playback
 Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/omxplayer) application and through GStreamer with the [omx](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/gst-plugins1-omx) plugin.  Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/omxplayer) application and through GStreamer with the [omx](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/gst-plugins1-omx) plugin.
Line 197  $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg - Line 245  $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -
   
 These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.  These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
   
 ## Updating the firmware  ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
   
   (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
   be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
   
 You probably don't want to do this. Firmware updates can break things,  Upstream firmware releases are
 and the latest firmware that's been tested is already included in the  [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).
 NetBSD build you installed.  Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
   
 If you're feeling adventurous (or are the port maintainer), here's what  New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
 to test whenever you try new firmware:  
   
 - Audio  - Audio
 - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])  - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
 - Serial/framebuffer console  - Serial/framebuffer console
 - CPU frequency scaling  - CPU frequency scaling
   
 That goes for all of `rpi[0123]`.  Tests should be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
   
 Upstream firmware releases are  ## Testing with anita and qemu
 [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).  
 Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.  anita has support for evbarm.  Install qemu and dtb-arm-vexpress from pkgsrc.  Note that the release subdirectory should be evbarm-earmv6hf or evbarm-earmv7hf.
   
   \todo Explain how to select various RPI models to emulate.
   \todo Explain about how DTB works.
   \todo Give a command line example to run qemu (without anita).

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  Added in v.1.100


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