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    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Hardkernel ODROID-C1 and ODROID-C1+"]]
    2: 
    3: [ODROID-C1](https://www.hardkernel.com/shop/odroid-c1-2/) was a $35 quad-core SBC from Hardkernel. ODROID-C1 support was introduced in NetBSD 7.0.  It has been succeeded by the [ODROID-C1+](https://www.hardkernel.com/shop/odroid-c1/), which is supported by the same NetBSD kernel.
    4: 
    5: [[!toc levels=2]]
    6: 
    7: # Supported hardware
    8:  - CPU: Cortex-A5: Amlogic S805 (4-core) at 1.5GHz
    9:    - CPU frequency scaling is supported with machdep.cpu sysctl tree
   10:    - SMP supported
   11:    - PL310 L2 cache controller
   12:  - GIC
   13:  - A5 global timer
   14:  - Watchdog timer
   15:  - "SDHC" and "SDIO" SD/MMC controllers (DMA)
   16:  - Serial console
   17:  - Framebuffer console
   18:  - USB host (OTG)
   19:  - Gigabit Ethernet (GMAC)
   20:    - RTL8211F PHY
   21:  - Hardware random number generator
   22:  - RTC
   23:  - GPIO
   24: 
   25: # TODO
   26:  - USB device mode
   27:  - IR receiver
   28:  - I2C
   29:  - Audio
   30: 
   31: # Installation (NetBSD 8.0 and later)
   32: 
   33: * Start with an ARMv7 image from *evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/* such as *armv7.img*
   34: * Build U-Boot for ODROID-C1 <https://github.com/hardkernel/u-boot/tree/odroidc-v2011.03>
   35:   * Pre-built binaries here: <http://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/misc/jmcneill/odroidc1/u-boot-odroidc-v2011.03-20150308.tar.gz>
   36: * Write the bootloader to the empty space at the start of the base image:
   37: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
   38: # dd if=bl1.bin.hardkernel of=armv7.img bs=1 count=442 conv=notrunc
   39: # dd if=bl1.bin.hardkernel of=armv7.img bs=512 skip=1 seek=1 conv=notrunc
   40: # dd if=u-boot.bin of=armv7.img bs=512 seek=64 conv=notrunc
   41: """]]
   42: * Write the image to an SD card.
   43: * Edit *boot.ini* on the MS-DOS partition. Note that the default boot.ini has `console=fb` in `bootargs`, which you should remove if you want serial console:
   44: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
   45: ODROIDC-UBOOT-CONFIG
   46: 
   47: setenv bootargs "root=ld0a awge0.mac-address=${ethaddr} console=fb"
   48: setenv bootcmd "fatload mmc 0:1 0x21000000 netbsd-ODROID-C1.ub; bootm 0x21000000"
   49: run bootcmd
   50: """]] 
   51: 
   52: # Installation (NetBSD 7.0/7.1)
   53: 
   54: * Start with an ARMv7 image from *evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/* such as *armv7.img*
   55: * Build U-Boot for ODROID-C1 <https://github.com/hardkernel/u-boot/tree/odroidc-v2011.03>
   56:   * Pre-built binaries here: <http://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/misc/jmcneill/odroidc1/u-boot-odroidc-v2011.03-20150308.tar.gz>
   57: * Note the location and size of the FFS partition in the *armv7.img* disklabel:
   58: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
   59: # $TOOLDIR/bin/nbdisklabel -M evbarm -B le armv7.img
   60: ...
   61: 8 partitions:
   62: #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
   63:  a:   1359312    385024     4.2BSD      0     0     0  # (Cyl.    188 -    851*)
   64:  b:    262144    122880       swap                     # (Cyl.     60 -    187)
   65:  c:   1744336         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -    851*)
   66:  d:   1744336         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -    851*)
   67:  e:    114688      8192      MSDOS                     # (Cyl.      4 -     59)
   68: """]]
   69: * Write the bootloader to the empty space at the start of the base image:
   70: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
   71: # dd if=bl1.bin.hardkernel of=armv7.img bs=1 count=442 conv=notrunc
   72: # dd if=bl1.bin.hardkernel of=armv7.img bs=512 skip=1 seek=1 conv=notrunc
   73: # dd if=u-boot.bin of=armv7.img bs=512 seek=64 conv=notrunc
   74: """]]
   75: * Since the bootloader has overwritten the disklabel, we need to re-add partition "a" from the disklabel to the MBR partition table:
   76: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
   77: # $TOOLDIR/bin/armv7--netbsdelf-eabihf-fdisk -u armv7.img
   78: ...
   79: Which partition do you want to change?: [none] 1
   80: The data for partition 1 is:
   81: <UNUSED>
   82: sysid: [0..255 default: 169] 
   83: start: [0..109cyl default: 63, 0cyl, 0MB] 385024
   84: size: [0..85cyl default: 1359312, 85cyl, 664MB] 1359312
   85: ...
   86: Which partition do you want to change?: [none] 
   87: ...
   88: Should we write new partition table? [n] y
   89: """]]
   90: * Write the image to an SD card.
   91: * Edit *boot.ini* on the MS-DOS partition. Note that the default boot.ini has `console=fb` in `bootargs`, which you should remove if you want serial console:
   92: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
   93: ODROIDC-UBOOT-CONFIG
   94: 
   95: setenv bootargs "root=ld0f awge0.mac-address=${ethaddr} console=fb"
   96: setenv bootcmd "fatload mmc 0:1 0x21000000 netbsd.ub; bootm 0x21000000"
   97: run bootcmd
   98: """]] 
   99: 
  100: * On first boot, it will stop because of the wrong device in /etc/fstab. Take this opportunity to grow the root file-system:
  101: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
  102: # fdisk -u ld0
  103: ...
  104: Which partition do you want to change?: [none] 1
  105: The data for partition 1 is:
  106: NetBSD (sysid 169)
  107:     start 385024, size 1359312 (664 MB, Cyls 23/246/32-108/147/55)
  108:         PBR is not bootable: All bytes are identical (0x00)
  109: sysid: [0..255 default: 169]
  110: start: [0..966cyl default: 385024, 24cyl, 188MB]
  111: size: [0..942cyl default: 1359312, 85cyl, 664MB] $
  112: ...
  113: Which partition do you want to change?: [none]
  114: ...
  115: Should we write new partition table? [n] y
  116: # resize_ffs -y /dev/rld0f
  117: # reboot
  118: """]]
  119: * Next boot, create a new /etc/fstab:
  120: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
  121: # mount -u -o rw /dev/ld0f /
  122: # cat > /etc/fstab << EOF
  123: /dev/ld0f       /               ffs     rw      1 1
  124: /dev/ld0e       /boot           msdos   rw      1 1
  125: kernfs          /kern           kernfs  rw
  126: ptyfs           /dev/pts        ptyfs   rw
  127: procfs          /proc           procfs  rw
  128: tmpfs           /var/shm        tmpfs   rw,-m1777,-sram%25
  129: EOF
  130: # reboot
  131: """]]
  132: 
  133: # HDMI
  134: 
  135: ## Framebuffer console
  136: 
  137: Simply add **console=fb** to the *bootargs* variable in *boot.ini*.
  138: 
  139: ## Video mode
  140: 
  141: HDMI video mode can be selected in U-Boot with the *video* command, e.g.:
  142: 
  143: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
  144: odroidc#video dev open 1080P
  145: """]]
  146: 
  147: To make this change permanent, add it to the *bootcmd* variable in *boot.ini*:
  148: 
  149: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
  150: setenv bootcmd "video dev open 1080P; fatload mmc 0:1 0x21000000 netbsd.ub; bootm 0x21000000"
  151: """]]
  152: 
  153: ## 16 or 24 bpp?
  154: 
  155: ODROID-C1 defaults to 16bpp. If you want to try 24bpp, add **fb.depth=24** to the kernel cmdline options in *boot.ini*. There are some issues with 24bpp mode and Xorg; see <http://gnats.netbsd.org/49812>.
  156: 
  157: ## Overscan compensation
  158: 
  159: If you have ODROID-C1 plugged into a TV, the edges of the screen may not be visible. You can scale down the framebuffer console with the **hw.genfb0.scale** sysctl, e.g.:
  160: 
  161: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
  162: # sysctl -w hw.genfb0.scale=95
  163: """]]
  164: 
  165: Setting *scale* to 100 disables scaling, any other value enables the scaler. Values between 10 and 100 are allowed.
  166: 
  167: To set this value at boot, you can add **fb.scale=95** to the kernel cmdline options in *boot.ini*.
  168: 
  169: # SYS_LED
  170: 
  171: The blue SYS_LED on the board is wired to GPIOAO_13. To control the LED from userland, set **gpio=YES** in rc.conf and add this to */etc/gpio.conf*:
  172: 
  173: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
  174: gpio4 13 set out sys_led
  175: """]]
  176: 
  177: After rebooting, the LED state can be controlled with [[!template id=man name="gpioctl" section="8"]].
  178: 
  179: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
  180: # turn the light on
  181: gpioctl gpio4 sys_led on
  182: 
  183: # turn the light off
  184: gpioctl gpio4 sys_led off
  185: 
  186: # toggle the light state
  187: gpioctl gpio4 sys_led toggle
  188: """]]
  189: 
  190: # U-Boot Environment
  191: 
  192: To read/write U-Boot environment variables from NetBSD, download and compile the following program: <http://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/misc/jmcneill/odroidc1/uenv.c>
  193: 
  194: # Automatically booting a backup kernel
  195: 
  196: *These instructions assume the kernels live on eMMC. Adjust devices accordingly for SD card setup.*
  197: 
  198: To setup an ODROID-C1 to fall back to a recovery kernel in the event of a boot failure, install the recovery kernel as /boot/onetbsd.ub.
  199: 
  200: Create /boot/boot.ini as follows:
  201: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
  202: ODROIDC-UBOOT-CONFIG
  203: setenv bootargs "root=ld0f awge0.mac-address=${ethaddr}"
  204: fatload mmc 0:1 0x22000000 boot.scr
  205: source 0x22000000
  206: """]]
  207: 
  208: Create /boot/boot.txt:
  209: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
  210: # regenerate with:
  211: #  mkubootimage -A arm -C none -O netbsd -T script -a 0 -n "NetBSD/odroidc1 boot" boot.txt boot.scr
  212: 
  213: setenv rescue_kernel "onetbsd.ub"
  214: setenv kernel "netbsd.ub"
  215: 
  216: if test ${boot_rescue} = false; then
  217:   setenv boot_rescue true
  218:   saveenv
  219:   fatload mmc 0:1 0x21000000 ${kernel}
  220:   mw.l c1109900 0f08ffff        # arm watchdog
  221:   bootm 0x21000000
  222: else
  223:   fatload mmc 0:1 0x21000000 ${rescue_kernel}
  224:   bootm 0x21000000
  225: fi
  226: """]]
  227: 
  228: Generate boot.scr from boot.txt:
  229: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
  230: mkubootimage -A arm -C none -O netbsd -T script -a 0 -n "NetBSD/odroidc1 boot" /boot/boot.txt /boot/boot.scr
  231: """]]
  232: 
  233: Install the **uenv** tool from above and add the following to root's crontab:
  234: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
  235: @reboot                                 /usr/local/sbin/uenv ld0 boot_rescue false
  236: """]]
  237: 
  238: # Documentation
  239: 
  240: Amlogic S805 datasheet: <http://dn.odroid.com/S805/Datasheet/S805_Datasheet%20V0.8%2020150126.pdf>
  241: 
  242: # ODROID-C1 UART pins
  243: 
  244: From [ODROID Forum](http://forum.odroid.com/viewtopic.php?f=115&t=7684):
  245: 
  246: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
  247:  ___UART____
  248: |Pin 4 - GND|
  249: |Pin 3 - RXD|
  250: |Pin 2 - TXD|
  251: |Pin 1 - VCC|
  252: \___________|
  253: 
  254: 3.3V LVTTL
  255: """]]
  256: 

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