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    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm install via sysinst(8) on a SATA hard disk, USB stick or (u)SD card"]]
    2: 
    3: In this document we will see step by step how to install NetBSD/evbarm on an
    4: external media (SATA hard disk, USB stick or (u)SD card) using
    5: [[!template id=man name="sysinst" section="8"]].
    6: 
    7: 
    8: # Populating (u)SD card with `armv7.img`
    9: 
   10: *TODOleot*: (mostly) copy-paste instructions from allwinner.mdwn
   11: 
   12: *TODOleot*: Adjust/provide u-boot incantantions to boot on a BPI
   13: 
   14: 
   15: # Installing via sysinst(8)
   16: 
   17: *TODOleot*: Document all sysinst(8) "screenshot"!
   18: 
   19: Now that the SD card is populated with `armv7.img` we can login as `root` (by
   20: default the password is empty) and run `sysinst`:
   21: 
   22: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   23: # sysinst
   24: """]]
   25: 
   26: The first menu is about the system type (Respberry PI or Other), we select the
   27: latter ("Other"):
   28: 
   29: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   30: 
   31: 
   32: 
   33: 
   34: 
   35: 
   36: 
   37: 
   38: 
   39: 
   40:                     +-------------------------------------+
   41:                     | What kind of system do you have?    |
   42:                     |                                     |
   43:                     | a: Raspberry PI                     |
   44:                     |>b: Other                            |
   45:                     +-------------------------------------+
   46: 
   47: 
   48: 
   49: 
   50: 
   51: 
   52: 
   53: 
   54: 
   55: 
   56: """]]
   57: 
   58: We want to install NetBSD/evbarm on the hard disk so let's select
   59: "Install NetBSD to hard disk":
   60: 
   61: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   62: 
   63:  NetBSD/evbarm 8.0
   64: 
   65:  This menu-driven tool is designed to help you install NetBSD to a hard disk,
   66:  or upgrade an existing NetBSD system, with a minimum of work.
   67:  In the following menus type the reference letter (a, b, c, ...) to select an
   68:  item, or type CTRL+N/CTRL+P to select the next/previous item.
   69:  The arrow keys and Page-up/Page-down may also work.
   70:  Activate the current selection from the menu by typing the enter key.
   71: 
   72:  If you booted from a floppy, you may now remove the disk.
   73:  Thank you for using NetBSD!
   74:                +-----------------------------------------------+
   75:                | NetBSD-8.0 Install System                     |
   76:                |                                               |
   77:                |>a: Install NetBSD to hard disk                |
   78:                | b: Upgrade NetBSD on a hard disk              |
   79:                | c: Re-install sets or install additional sets |
   80:                | d: Reboot the computer                        |
   81:                | e: Utility menu                               |
   82:                | f: Config menu                                |
   83:                | x: Exit Install System                        |
   84:                +-----------------------------------------------+
   85: 
   86: 
   87: 
   88: """]]
   89: 
   90: Before proceeding with the installation, if the hard disk had any important data
   91: it is better to stop and doing a backup before proceeding. If it is empty and/or
   92: we can safetely remove its data we can proceed:
   93: 
   94: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   95: 
   96:  You have chosen to install NetBSD on your hard disk.  This will change
   97:  information on your hard disk.  You should have made a full backup before
   98:  this procedure!  This procedure will do the following things:
   99:          a) Partition your disk
  100:          b) Create new BSD file systems
  101:          c) Load and install distribution sets
  102:          d) Some initial system configuration
  103: 
  104:  (After you enter the partition information but before your disk is changed,
  105:  you will have the opportunity to quit this procedure.)
  106: 
  107:  Shall we continue?
  108:                                +---------------+
  109:                                | yes or no?    |
  110:                                |               |
  111:                                | a: No         |
  112:                                |>b: Yes        |
  113:                                +---------------+
  114: 
  115: 
  116: 
  117: 
  118: 
  119: 
  120: 
  121: """]]
  122: 
  123: Now we can see all the available disks. The hard disk attached via SATA is a
  124: 120GB SSD recognized as `wd0`:
  125: 
  126: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  127: 
  128:  On which disk do you want to install NetBSD?
  129: 
  130: 
  131:                      +-----------------------------------+
  132:                      | Available disks                   |
  133:                      |                                   |
  134:                      |>a: wd0 (112G, SanDisk SDSSDA120G) |
  135:                      | b: Extended partitioning          |
  136:                      | x: Exit                           |
  137:                      +-----------------------------------+
  138: 
  139: 
  140: 
  141: 
  142: 
  143: 
  144: 
  145: 
  146: 
  147: 
  148: 
  149: 
  150: 
  151: 
  152: 
  153: """]]
  154: 
  155: We now need to edit MBR partition table. We will create two MBR partitions: the
  156: first one a FAT32 for `/boot` and the other for NetBSD. We select "Edit the MBR
  157: partition table":
  158: 
  159: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  160: 
  161:  We are now going to install NetBSD on the disk wd0.
  162: 
  163:  NetBSD requires a single partition in the disk's MBR partition table, this is
  164:  split further by the NetBSD disklabel.  NetBSD can also access file systems
  165:  in other MBR partitions.
  166: 
  167:  If you select 'Use the entire disk' then the previous contents of the disk
  168:  will be overwritten and a single MBR partition used to cover the entire disk.
  169:  If you want to install more than one operating system then edit the MBR
  170:  partition table and create a partition for NetBSD.
  171: 
  172:  A few hundred MB is enough for a basic installation, but you should allow
  173:  extra for additional software and user files.
  174:  Allow at least 5GB if you want to build NetBSD itself.
  175:                       +---------------------------------+
  176:                       | Which would you like to do?     |
  177:                       |                                 |
  178:                       |>a: Edit the MBR partition table |
  179:                       | b: Use the entire disk          |
  180:                       +---------------------------------+
  181: 
  182: 
  183: 
  184: 
  185: 
  186: """]]
  187: 
  188: First we select the second entry ("b"), set the "type:" to "NetBSD":
  189: 
  190: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  191: 
  192:  The Current MBR partition table is shown below.
  193:  Flgs: a => Active partition, I => Install here.
  194:  Select the partition you wish to change:
  195: 
  196:     Total disk size 114473 MB.
  197:                +-----------------------------------------------------------+
  198:     Start( MB) |>a:       type: unused                                     |
  199:     ---------- | b:      start: 0 MB                                       |
  200:  a:            | c:       size: 0 MB                                       |
  201: >b:            | d:        end: 0 MB                                       |
  202:  c:            | e:     active: No                                         |
  203:  d:          +-----------------------------------+                         |
  204:  e: Change in| a: Don't change                   |linders/MB)              |
  205:  x: Partition| b: Delete partition               |                         |
  206:              |>c: NetBSD                         |-------------------------+
  207:              | d: Extended partition, LBA        |
  208:              | e: FreeBSD/386BSD                 |
  209:              | f: OpenBSD                        |
  210:              | g: Linux native                   |
  211:              | h: Linux swap                     |
  212:              | i: DOS FAT12                      |
  213:              | &lt;: page up, &gt;: page down          |
  214:              +-----------------------------------+
  215: 
  216: 
  217: """]]
  218: 
  219: We reserve for the NetBSD MBR partition all the end of the disk,
  220: starting at 92MB (1MB that will be empty and 91MB that will be for
  221: the FAT32), we also select to make it active ("active: Yes") and
  222: we will use it to install NetBSD ("install: Yes"):
  223: 
  224: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  225: 
  226:  The Current MBR partition table is shown below.
  227:  Flgs: a => Active partition, I => Install here.
  228:  Select the partition you wish to change:
  229: 
  230:     Total disk size 114473 MB.
  231:                +-----------------------------------------------------------+
  232:     Start( MB) | a:       type: NetBSD                                     |
  233:     ---------- | b:      start: 92 MB                                      |
  234:  a:            | c:       size: 114381 MB                                  |
  235: >b:            | d:        end: 114473 MB                                  |
  236:  c:            | e:     active: Yes                                        |
  237:  d:            | f:    install: Yes                                        |
  238:  e: Change inpu| g: Change input units (sectors/cylinders/MB)              |
  239:  x: Partition t|>x: Partition OK                                           |
  240:                +-----------------------------------------------------------+
  241: 
  242: 
  243: 
  244: 
  245: 
  246: 
  247: 
  248: 
  249: 
  250: 
  251: """]]
  252: 
  253: We now select the first partition ("a") and create a "Windows FAT32", starting
  254: at 1MB and ending at 92MB before the "NetBSD" partition. We also make it active
  255: ("active: Yes"):
  256: 
  257: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  258: 
  259:  The Current MBR partition table is shown below.
  260:  Flgs: a => Active partition, I => Install here.
  261:  Select the partition you wish to change:
  262: 
  263:     Total disk size 114473 MB.
  264:                +-----------------------------------------------------------+
  265:     Start( MB) | a:       type: Windows FAT32                              |
  266:     ---------- | b:      start: 1 MB                                       |
  267: >a:            | c:       size: 91 MB                                      |
  268:  b:         92 | d:        end: 92 MB                                      |
  269:  c:            | e:     active: Yes                                        |
  270:  d:            | f:    install: No                                         |
  271:  e: Change inpu| g: Change input units (sectors/cylinders/MB)              |
  272:  x: Partition t|>x: Partition OK                                           |
  273:                +-----------------------------------------------------------+
  274: 
  275: 
  276: 
  277: 
  278: 
  279: 
  280: 
  281: 
  282: 
  283: 
  284: """]]
  285: 
  286: Here the final MBR partition table:
  287: 
  288: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  289: 
  290:  The Current MBR partition table is shown below.
  291:  Flgs: a => Active partition, I => Install here.
  292:  Select the partition you wish to change:
  293: 
  294:     Total disk size 114473 MB.
  295: 
  296:     Start( MB)  Size( MB) Flg Kind
  297:     ---------- ---------- --- ----------------
  298: >a:          1         91 a   Windows FAT32
  299:  b:         92     114381   I NetBSD
  300:  c:                           unused
  301:  d:                           unused
  302:  e: Change input units (sectors/cylinders/MB)
  303:  x: Partition table OK
  304: 
  305: 
  306: 
  307: 
  308: 
  309: 
  310: 
  311: 
  312: 
  313: 
  314: 
  315: """]]
  316: 
  317: Now that the MBR partition table is written we can proceed to set
  318: sizes of NetBSD partitions:
  319: 
  320: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  321: 
  322:  NetBSD uses a BSD disklabel to carve up the NetBSD portion of the disk into
  323:  multiple BSD partitions.  You must now set up your BSD disklabel.
  324: 
  325:  You can use a simple editor to set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions, or
  326:  keep the existing partition sizes and contents.
  327: 
  328:  You will then be given the opportunity to change any of the disklabel fields.
  329: 
  330:  The NetBSD part of your disk is 114381 Megabytes.  A full installation
  331:  requires at least 288 Megabytes without X and at least 348 Megabytes if the X
  332:  sets are included.
  333:                      +-----------------------------------+
  334:                      | Choose your installation          |
  335:                      |                                   |
  336:                      |>a: Set sizes of NetBSD partitions |
  337:                      | b: Use existing partition sizes   |
  338:                      +-----------------------------------+
  339: 
  340: 
  341: 
  342: 
  343: 
  344: 
  345: 
  346: 
  347: """]]
  348: 
  349: We set the swap size to 4G and we reserve the rest of the space for "/":
  350: 
  351: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  352: 
  353:  You can now change the sizes for the system partitions.  The default is to
  354:  allocate all the space to the root file system.  However, you may wish to
  355:  have separate /usr (additional system files), /var (log files etc) or /home
  356:  (users' home directories) file systems.
  357: 
  358:  Free space will be added to the partition marked with a '+'.
  359: 
  360:         MB         Cylinders   Sectors   Filesystem
  361:     a:   2208(110284)      4488   4523904 + /
  362:     b:   4096              8323   8389584   swap
  363:     c:      0                 0         0   /tmp (mfs)
  364:     d:      0                 0         0   /usr
  365:     e:      0                 0         0   /var
  366:     f:      0                 0         0   /home
  367:     g: Add a user defined partition
  368:     h: Change input units (sectors/cylinders/MB)
  369:    >x: Accept partition sizes.  Free space 108076 MB, 13 free partitions.
  370: 
  371: 
  372: 
  373: 
  374: 
  375: 
  376: 
  377: 
  378: """]]
  379: 
  380: The summary of the current BSD disklabel is:
  381: 
  382: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  383: 
  384:  We now have your BSD disklabel partitions as:
  385:  This is your last chance to change them.
  386: 
  387:     Start  MB   End  MB  Size  MB FS type    Newfs Mount Mount point
  388:     --------- --------- --------- ---------- ----- ----- -----------
  389: >a:        92    110375    110284 FFSv1      Yes   Yes   /
  390:  b:    110376    114472      4096 swap
  391:  c:         0    114472    114473 Whole disk
  392:  d:         0         0         0 unused
  393:  e:         1        91        91 Boot partition
  394:  f:         0         0         0 unused
  395:  g: Show all unused partitions
  396:  h: Change input units (sectors/cylinders/MB)
  397:  x: Partition sizes ok
  398: 
  399: 
  400: 
  401: 
  402: 
  403: 
  404: 
  405: 
  406: 
  407: 
  408: 
  409: """]]
  410: 
  411: We can adjust the disklabel, for example we can use FFSv2 for "/"
  412: and for the disklabel "e" set its mount point to "/boot" in order
  413: that an `/etc/fstab` entry will be populated (please note
  414: that "/boot" will not be automatically mounted by default):
  415: 
  416: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  417: 
  418:  We now have your BSD disklabel partitions as:
  419:  This is your last chance to change them.
  420: 
  421:     Start  MB   End  MB  Size  MB FS type    Newfs Mount Mount point
  422:     --------- --------- --------- ---------- ----- ----- -----------
  423:  a:        92    110375    110284 FFSv2      Yes   Yes   /
  424:  b:    110376    114472      4096 swap
  425:  c:         0    114472    114473 Whole disk
  426:  d:         0         0         0 unused
  427:  e:         1        91        91 Boot partition             /boot
  428:  f:         0         0         0 unused
  429:  g: Show all unused partitions
  430:  h: Change input units (sectors/cylinders/MB)
  431: >x: Partition sizes ok
  432: 
  433: 
  434: 
  435: 
  436: 
  437: 
  438: 
  439: 
  440: 
  441: 
  442: 
  443: """]]
  444: 
  445: We have finally ready to proceed with
  446: [[!template id=man name="sysinst" section="8"]] as usual and install
  447: the installation sets.  If you choose to install via FTP/HTTP please
  448: note that the "Binary set directory" needs to be adjusted from
  449: `/evbarm/binary/sets` to `/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/sets` (it's
  450: missing an `-earmv7hf' due different evbarm-s):
  451: 
  452: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  453: 
  454:  The following are the http site, directory, user, and password that will be
  455:  used.  If "user" is "ftp", then the password is not needed.
  456: 
  457:  a: Host                      ftp.NetBSD.org
  458:  b: Base directory            pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-8.0
  459: >c: Binary set directory      /evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/sets
  460:  d: Source set directory      /source/sets
  461:  e: User                      ftp
  462:  f: Password
  463:  g: Proxy
  464:  h: Transfer directory        /usr/INSTALL
  465:  i: Delete after install      No
  466:  j: Configure network
  467:  k: Exit
  468:  x: Get Distribution
  469: 
  470: 
  471: 
  472: 
  473: 
  474: 
  475: 
  476: 
  477: 
  478: 
  479: """]]
  480: 
  481: The installation will proceed as usual and for more information
  482: please give a look to
  483: [The NetBSD Guide](https://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-exinst.html#exinst-choose-media).
  484: 
  485: *TODOleot*: add information how to populate `/boot` and prepare `boot.cmd`,
  486: `boot.scr`.
  487: 
  488: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  489: # mount /dev/wd0e /mnt
  490: # cp -r /boot/* /mnt/
  491: """]]
  492: 
  493: 
  494: # References
  495: 
  496: *TODOleot*: add a reference to the instructions shared via PR port-evbarm/50806.

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