File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / ports / evbarm.mdwn
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    1: [[!template id=port
    2: port="evbarm"
    3: port_alt="arm"
    4: port_var1="earm"
    5: port_var2="earmeb"
    6: port_var3="earmv6hf"
    7: port_var4="earmv7hf"
    8: port_var5="earmv7hfeb"
    9: port_var_install_notes="evbarm-earm"
   10: cur_rel="8.1"
   11: future_rel="9.0"
   12: changes_cur="8.1"
   13: changes_future="9.0"
   14: thumbnail="//www.netbsd.org/images/ports/evbarm/adi_brh.gif"
   15: about="""
   16: NetBSD/evbarm is the port of NetBSD to various evaluation and prototyping
   17: boards based on CPUs implementing the ARM architecture. NetBSD/evbarm also
   18: supports some specific embedded system products based on prototype board
   19: designs.
   20: 
   21: Matt Thomas is the maintainer of NetBSD/evbarm.
   22: 
   23: ### CPU types
   24: 
   25: The evbarm port can be built with a variety of CPU options, corresponding to the
   26: [large array of ARM CPU architectures](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ARM_architecture#Cores).
   27: There are
   28: four main variables: the word size, the instruction set, the
   29: endianness, and whether there is hardware floating point.  By default
   30: the CPU type is "earm", and this implies aarch32 (32-bit), earmv5 cpu
   31: architecture, little endian (el when explicitly stated), and soft
   32: (Emulated) floating point.  Another example, suitable for Raspberry PI
   33: 2, is earmv7hf, which is aarch32, the v7 instruction set, little
   34: endian, and hardware floating point.
   35: 
   36: Typically, various boards are best compiled with a CPU type that
   37: matches the board's CPU and floating point support, but generally a
   38: lower CPU instruction set version is workable on a newer board.  See
   39: build.sh and look for aliases for the evbarm port.
   40: 
   41: Through NetBSD 8, the evbarm port has supported exclusively the
   42: aarch32 (32-bit CPU) sub-family of the ARM architecture.  Some
   43: processors, such as many supporting the armv8 CPU architecture, also
   44: support a 64-bit instruction set, referred to as aarch64.  This is
   45: sometimes referred to as a distinct port, [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]],
   46: with code in src/sys/arch/aarch64, but it is built as the evbarm port
   47: with aarch64 cpu type, and available as the alias evbarm64.
   48: 
   49: Note that MACHINE_ARCH=aarch64 currently refers to the A64 instruction
   50: set and the aarch64 architecture, built for the armv8 architecture.
   51: (Note also that armv8 is the first architecture to support aarch64, so
   52: this will not be an issue until at least armv9.)
   53: 
   54: #### ABI types
   55: 
   56: There are two basic ABIs on ARM.  One, called oabi, assumed a
   57: particular kind of hardware floating point (FPA).  This results in
   58: faulting any floating-point instructions for kernel emulation on a
   59: vast number of CPus, which is very slow.  A newer one, called eabi,
   60: has two variants.  Both have stricter alignment rules, tending to 8
   61: byte rather than 4 bytes for 8-byte types (but actually read the specs
   62: if you care).  The one without "hf" emulates floating point without
   63: causing traps/emulation, and "hf" uses VFP instructions, which are
   64: present on modern CPUs. See the
   65: [TS-7200](https://wiki.embeddedarm.com/wiki/EABI_vs_OABI) and
   66: [Debian](https://wiki.debian.org/ArmEabiPort) documentation.
   67: 
   68: Now, EABI is normal, and OABI is crufty.  The only real reason NetBSD
   69: retains OABI support is binary compatibility with older releases.  The
   70: "arm" and "armeb" MACHINE_ARCH targets are OABI; the rest of the
   71: targets, all having "earm" are EABI.
   72: 
   73: \todo CHECK THIS: The "aarch64" MACHINE_ARCH target is an EABI variant.
   74: 
   75: ### Relationship of MACHINE_ARCH to official ARM terminology
   76: 
   77: Note that these are all little endian, and have big endian variants
   78: with a "eb" suffix.  Unless otherwise noted, all use the A32 or
   79: aarch32 instruction set.
   80: 
   81: [[!table data=<<EOT
   82: MACHINE_ARCH |bits | ARM architecture version            |ABI
   83: arm          |32   |\todo ?                              |oabi
   84: earm         |32   |alias for earmv5 (\todo why?)        |eabi
   85: earmv4       |32   |armv4 (no thumb, so ok on strongarm) |eabi
   86: earmv5       |32   |armv5t                               |eabi
   87: earmv6       |32   |armv6                                |eabi
   88: earmv7       |32   |armv7                                |eabi
   89: aarch64      |64   |armv8 in aarch64 mode                |\todo ? eabi
   90: EOT]]
   91: 
   92: \todo Explain why, if we have armv5, we still have earm as a MACHINE_ARCH.
   93: 
   94: \todo Explain why aarch64 is a MACHINE_ARCH, when it seems like it
   95: should be something like armv8hf_64.
   96: 
   97: \todo Explain if MACHINE_ARCH values correspond to a particular
   98: argument to some CPU selection command in gcc (and/or clang).
   99: 
  100: ### Kernels and userland
  101: 
  102: The evbarm userland can be used on any system that can run code of the
  103: CPU type used for the build.  Typically, a particular board requires a
  104: kernel for that board.
  105: 
  106: ### anita and qemu
  107: 
  108: anita can be used to test builds.  (In addition to anita, install qemu and dtb-arm-vexpress from pkgsrc.)   The release subdirectory should follow the naming convention on the autobuild cluster, used below.
  109: 
  110:  - evbarm-earmv7hf uses "qemu-system-arm -M vexpress-a15"
  111:  - evbarm-aarch64 uses "qemu-system-aarch64 -M virt"
  112:  - Information on how to test emulated versions of other specific hardware is welcome.
  113: 
  114: ### Board specific information
  115:  - [[Allwinner sunxi family SoCs|Allwinner]]
  116:  - [[BeagleBone, BeagleBone Black, and PocketBeagle|BeagleBone]]
  117:  - [[NVIDIA Tegra|Tegra]]
  118:  - [[ODROID C1 and C1+|ODROID-C1]]
  119:  - [[Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3|Raspberry Pi]]
  120: 
  121: """
  122: 
  123: supported_hardware="""
  124: 
  125: **NOTE**: This list is incomplete. For a full list of configurations, please see the [evbarm kernel configs](http://cvsweb.netbsd.org/bsdweb.cgi/src/sys/arch/evbarm/conf/) directory in CVS.
  126: 
  127: [[!toc startlevel=3]]
  128: 
  129: ### ADI Engineering **BRH** ("Big Red Head")
  130: 
  131: The BRH is an evaluation and development platform for the Intel **i80200**
  132: XScale processor. The BRH is based on ADI's **BECC** ("Big Endian Companion
  133: Chip"). The BRH is capable of both big- and little-endian operation, although
  134: NetBSD currently only supports little-endian operation.
  135: 
  136: Support for the BRH was written by Jason Thorpe, and contributed by Wasabi
  137: Systems, Inc.
  138: 
  139:  * On-board NS16550-compatible serial ports (_com_)
  140:  * On-board Intel i82559 Ethernet on the PCI bus (_fxp_)
  141:  * On-chip timer on the BECC (used as system clock)
  142:  * Other devices inserted into the PCI slot
  143: 
  144: The BRH comes with 128M of SDRAM. Systems with BECC revision 7 or less are
  145: limited to 64M due to the layout of the PCI DMA windows. Users of these
  146: systems should obtain an FPGA upgrade from ADI to revision 8 or later of the
  147: BECC.
  148: 
  149: ### Allwinner Technology
  150: Various boards based on [[Allwinner]] SoCs are supported, including the BananaPi, Cubieboard 2, Cubietruck, Cubieboard 4, and Merrii Hummingbird A31.
  151: 
  152: ### Arcom **Viper**
  153: 
  154: The Arcom Viper is a single board computer based on the PXA255 XScale
  155: processor.
  156: 
  157: Support for the Arcom Viper was written by Antti Kantee.
  158: 
  159:  * On-chip timers (_saost_ used as system clock)
  160:  * On-chip serial ports (_com_)
  161:  * On-board SMC91C111 ethernet (_sm_)
  162: 
  163: ### ARM, Ltd. **Integrator**
  164: 
  165: The Integrator/AP is an ATX form-factor board that is used for development of
  166: ARM processor-based designs. It supports up to four processors on plug-in core
  167: modules, and provides clocks, a bus interface, and interrupt support. The
  168: Integrator/AP also supports logic modules which provide additional
  169: peripherals, and can accommodate up to three PCI expansion cards. The
  170: Integrator/AP can also be inserted into a CompactPCI backplane.
  171: 
  172: Support for the Integrator was written by Richard Earnshaw, and contributed by
  173: ARM, Ltd.
  174: 
  175:  * PrimeCell PL010 UARTs in the System Controller FPGA (_plcom_)
  176:  * PrimeCell PL030 Real-time Clock in the System Controller FPGA (_plrtc_)
  177:  * PrimeCell PL181 MultiMedia Card Interface
  178:  * Other devices inserted into the PCI expansion slots
  179: 
  180: ### Atmark Techno **Armadillo-9**
  181: 
  182: The Armadillo-9 is a single board computer based on the EP9315 processor.
  183: 
  184: Support for the Armadillo-9 was written by Katsuomi Hamajima.
  185: 
  186:  * On-CPU RS232 UARTs (2) (_epcom_)
  187:  * On-CPU 10/100 Ethernet MAC (_epe_)
  188:  * system clock from on-CPU timers (_epclk_)
  189:  * CompactFlash socket (_eppcic_)
  190:  * USB 1.1 ports (_ohci_)
  191: 
  192: ### BeagleBoard.org **BeagleBoard** and **BeagleBoard-xM**
  193: The [[BeagleBoard]] is a low-power open-source hardware single-board computer from BeagleBoard.org.
  194: 
  195: ### BeagleBoard.org **BeagleBone** and **BeagleBone Black**
  196: The [[BeagleBone]] is a low-cost credit-card-sized computer from BeagleBoard.org.
  197: 
  198: ### Gumstix, Inc. **gumstix**
  199: 
  200: The [gumstix](http://www.gumstix.com/) is a small form-factor motherboard
  201: based on the PXA255 and PXA270 XScale processor. Supports only PXA255 now.
  202: 
  203: Support for the gumstix was written by KIYOHARA Takashi.
  204: 
  205:  * basix
  206:  * cfstix
  207:  * etherstix
  208:  * netCF
  209:  * netDUO
  210:  * netDUO-mmc
  211:  * netMMC
  212: 
  213: When booting, it is necessary to set these with u-boot dynamically.
  214: 
  215: <pre> > go 0xa0200000 busheader=basix</pre>
  216: 
  217:  * audiostix
  218:  * console-st (waysmall - STUART)
  219:  * console-hw (waysmall)
  220:  * GPSstix (GPS not test)
  221:  * tweener
  222: 
  223: ### Hardkernel ODROID-C1 and ODROID-C1+
  224: 
  225: The [[ODROID-C1]] is a quad core Cortex-A5 small form-factor board from Hardkernel co., Ltd.
  226: 
  227: ### Intel **DBPXA250** ("Lubbock")
  228: 
  229: DBPXA250 (a.k.a. Lubbock) is an evaluation and development platform for the
  230: Intel **PXA250** XScale Core application processor. More information about the **DBPXA250** can be found at [Intel website](http://www.intel.com/design/pca/applicationsprocessors/swsup/index.htm).
  231: 
  232: Support for the **DBPXA250** was written by Hiroyuki Bessho, and contributed
  233: by Genetec Corp.
  234: 
  235:  * On-chip timers (_saost_ used as system clock)
  236:  * On-chip 2 serial port (_com_)
  237:  * On-board SMC91C96 ethernet (_sm_)
  238:  * On-board SA-1111 StrongArm companion chip (_sacc_)
  239:  * PS/2 keyboard (_pckbd_)
  240:  * 640x480 LCD (_lcd_)
  241:  * PCMCIA and CF card slots
  242: 
  243: ### Intel **IQ31244**
  244: 
  245: The IQ31244 is a development platform for the Intel **IOP321** I/O Processor
  246: chipset and the Intel **i31244** SATA controller.
  247: 
  248: Initial support for the IQ31244 was written by Jason Thorpe, and contributed
  249: by Wasabi Systems, Inc.
  250: 
  251:  * Quad on-board Intel i31244 SATA controllers on the PCI-X bus (_artsata_)
  252:  * On-board Intel i82546EB Gigabit Ethernet on the PCI-X bus (_wm_)
  253:  * On-board NS16550-compatible serial port (_com_)
  254:  * On-chip timers (TMR0 used as system clock)
  255:  * On-chip Application Accelerator Unit (_iopaau_)
  256:  * On-chip watchdog timer (_iopwdog_)
  257:  * On-board compact flash reader (_wdc_)
  258:  * Other devices inserted into the PCI-X expansion slot
  259: 
  260: ### Intel **IQ80310**
  261: 
  262: The IQ80310 is the reference platform for the Intel **IOP310** I/O Processor
  263: chipset, which is comprised of the i80200 XScale processor and the i80312 I/O
  264: Companion chip.
  265: 
  266: Support for the IQ80310 was written by Jason Thorpe and Allen Briggs, and
  267: contributed by Wasabi Systems, Inc.
  268: 
  269:  * On-board Intel i82559 Ethernet on the PCI bus (_fxp_)
  270:  * On-board timer in the CPLD (used as system clock)
  271:  * On-board NS16550-compatible serial ports (_com_)
  272:  * Other devices inserted into the PCI expansion slots
  273: 
  274: ### Intel **IQ80321**
  275: 
  276: The IQ80321 is the reference platform for the Intel **IOP321** I/O Processor
  277: (i80321 XScale processor).
  278: 
  279: Support for the IQ80321 was written by Jason Thorpe, and contributed by Wasabi
  280: Systems, Inc.
  281: 
  282:  * On-board Intel i82544EI Gigabit Ethernet on the PCI-X bus (_wm_)
  283:  * On-board NS16550-compatible serial port (_com_)
  284:  * On-chip timers (TMR0 used as system clock)
  285:  * On-chip Application Accelerator Unit (_iopaau_)
  286:  * On-chip watchdog timer (_iopwdog_)
  287:  * Other devices inserted into the PCI-X expansion slots
  288: 
  289: ### Intel **IXM1200**
  290: 
  291: The IXM1200 is the reference platform for the Intel **IXP1200** Network
  292: Processor.
  293: 
  294: Support for the IXM1200 was written by Ichiro FUKUHARA and Naoto Shimazaki.
  295: 
  296:  * On-board Intel i82559 Ethernet on the PCI bus (_fxp_)
  297:  * On-board Intel i21555 Non-Transparent PCI-PCI Bridge (_nppb_)
  298:  * On-chip timers (ixpclk0 used as system clock)
  299:  * On-chip serial port (_ixpcom_)
  300: 
  301: ### NOVATEC **NTNP425B** ("ZAO425")
  302: 
  303: NTNP425B is an evaluation and development platform for the Intel **IXP425**
  304: XScale Core NetworkProcessor. NTNP425B is based on the reference board of
  305: Intel **IXDP425**. The **NTNP425B** is capable of only big-endian operation.
  306: Since the library for micro-engine(NPE) offered from Intel Corp. is big-
  307: endian. More information about the **NTNP425B** can be found on [product
  308: catalogue of **NTNP425B**(2.5MB,PDF
  309: file)](http://www.novatec.co.jp/NTNP425BBrochureE.pdf).
  310: 
  311: Support for the NTNP425B was written by Ichiro FUKUHARA.
  312: 
  313:  * On-chip timers (_ixpclk0_ used as system clock)
  314:  * On-chip 2 serial port (_ixpcom0_ and _ixpcom1_)
  315:  * Other devices inserted into the PCI/mPCI slot
  316:  * On-chip watchdog timer (_ixpwdog_)
  317: 
  318: ### NVIDIA Tegra K1
  319: Support for NVIDIA [[Tegra]] K1 SoCs is present in NetBSD-current and
  320: 8.0_BETA. The Jetson TK1 board is currently supported.
  321: 
  322: ### Raspberry Pi Foundation **Raspberry Pi**/**Raspberry Pi 2**/**Raspberry Pi 3**
  323: The [[Raspberry Pi]] is a low-cost credit-card-sized computer from the Raspberry Pi Foundation.  The Raspberry Pi, Pi 2, and Pi 3 are supported.
  324: 
  325: ### Samsung **SMDK2410**
  326: 
  327: The SMDK2410 is the reference platform for the Samsung **S3C2410** processor,
  328: which has an ARM920T core.
  329: 
  330: More information on the S3C2410 can be found at [Samsung Electronics web page]
  331: (http://www.samsung.com/Products/Semiconductor/MobileSoC/ApplicationProcessor/
  332: ARM9Series/S3C2410/S3C2410.htm).
  333: 
  334: Support for the SMDK2410 was written by Hiroyuki Bessho, and contributed by
  335: Genetec Corp.
  336: 
  337:  * On-chip serial ports (_sscom_)
  338:  * On-chip USB host controller (_ohc_)
  339:  * On-chip timers (used as system clock)
  340:  * On-chip SPI (_ssspi_, used for other on-board devices)
  341:  * 240x320 TFT LCD (_lcd_)
  342:  * keyboard. (_sskbd_)
  343: 
  344: ### Samsung **SMDK2800**
  345: 
  346: The SMDK2800 is the reference platform for the **Samsung S3C2800** processor,
  347: which has an ARM920T core.
  348: 
  349: S3C2800 has built-in PCI controller, and SMDK2800 has three PCI slots.
  350: 
  351: Support for the SMDK2800 was written by Hiroyuki Bessho, and contributed by
  352: Fujitsu Component Ltd., and Genetec Corp.
  353: 
  354:  * On-chip serial ports (_sscom_)
  355:  * On-chip Host-PCI bridge (_sspci_)
  356:  * On-chip timers (used as system clock)
  357:  * Other devices inserted into the PCI slots
  358: 
  359: ### Team ASA, Inc. **Npwr**
  360: 
  361: The Npwr is an IOP310-based design targeted at the network-attached storage
  362: space. The Npwr comes in several configurations (single or dual Gigabit
  363: Ethernet, single or dual Ultra160 SCSI), and can be purchased as a bare board
  364: or as a small server appliance. More information on the Npwr can be found at
  365: the [Team ASA web page](http://www.teamasa.com/).
  366: 
  367: Support for the Npwr was written by Jason Thorpe and Allen Briggs, and
  368: contributed by Wasabi Systems, Inc.
  369: 
  370:  * On-board Intel i82544 Gigabit Ethernet on the PCI bus (_wm_)
  371:  * On-board LSI Logic 53c1010 Ultra160 SCSI on the PCI bus (_siop_)
  372:  * On-board timer in the CPLD (used as system clock)
  373:  * On-board NS16550-compatible serial port (_com_)
  374: 
  375: ### Technologic Systems **TS-7200**
  376: 
  377: The TS-7200 is a low-cost mass-produced PC/104 embedded single board computer
  378: intended as a general purpose core for real embedded applications. The TS-7200
  379: uses the Cirrus Logic EP9302 ARM9 system-on-chip and comes with a PC/104 (isa)
  380: bus and can either boot to CompactFlash or onboard flash. The board also has
  381: general purpose digital IO and optional multichannel analog-to-digital
  382: converters. More information on the TS-7200 can be found at [Technologic
  383: Systems](http://www.embeddedarm.com/epc/ts7200-spec-h.html).
  384: 
  385: Support for the TS-7200 was written by Jesse Off
  386: 
  387: * On-CPU RS232 UARTs (2) (_epcom_)
  388: * On-CPU 10/100 Ethernet MAC (_epe_)
  389: * CompactFlash socket (_wdc_)
  390: * USB 1.1 ports (2) (_ohci_)
  391: * Watchdog timer on CPLD (_tspld_)
  392: * TMP124 high precision temperature sensor via sysctl
  393: * 64Hz system clock from on-CPU timers (_epclk_)
  394: * HD44780 2x24 text mode LCD (_tslcd_)
  395: * 4x4 16 button matrix keypad (_wskbd_)
  396: * TS-5620 battery backed RTC daughter-card (_tsrtc_)
  397: * 1,2,4 port serial TS-SER daughter cards (_com_)
  398: * Up to 4 10Mb TS-ETH10 daughter cards (_tscs_)
  399: * Other devices inserted into the PC/104 (_isa_) expansion slot
  400: 
  401: """
  402: additional="""
  403:   * The [NetBSD Diskless HOWTO](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/network/netboot/)
  404:   * [ Porting NetBSD/evbarm to the Arcom Viper](http://www.cs.hut.fi/~pooka/pubs/EuroBSDCon2005/viper.pdf), presented at EuroBSDCon 2005.
  405: """
  406: ]]
  407: [[!tag tier1port]]

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