1: # Darwin vs macOS
3: macOS consists of Darwin (kernel/userland) plus Mac stuff on top.
4: pkgsrc used to target Darwin, but given the tools issued discussed
5: below it is not clear that it works on Darwin without macOS. Darwin
6: from Apple is no longer open source.
8: Users of non-macOS Darwin are invited to submit patches to this file.
9: The only known project is [PureDarwin](http://www.puredarwin.org/).
11: Until then, this file remains macOS-centric.
13: # system tools issues
15: ## native headers vs SDK
17: macOS used to include system headers in /usr/include, so that one
18: could treat it like a relatively normal POSIX system. Starting at
19: approximately 10.9, headers were no longer available at the standard
20: location, and one has to use an SDK that puts headers someplace else.
21: pkgsrc supports this, but there has been some confusion where a 10.9
22: system produced binaries for 10.10, which only mostly works. The
23: confusion is believed to be resolved.
25: ### SDK version issues
27: The SDK supported versions and default versions do are not always the
28: same as the current system version. The following may be useful in
29: understanding one's situation:
31: /usr/bin/xcrun --show-sdk-version
32: sw_vers -productVersion
34: pkgsrc attempts to query the system version, and then ask the sdk to
35: use that version. See mk/platform/Darwin.mk for the code.
37: ## gcc vs clang
39: Older versions of OS X (when XCode is installed) provided gcc, and
40: pkgsrc defaulted to using gcc. With 10.9, gcc is no longer present.
42: ## i386 vs x86_64 ABI issue
44: This entire section is only about Intel Macs.
46: OS X 10.6 and higher supports x86-64 binaries on Intel Macs with
47: x86-64 processors, which is now most of them. i386 binaries are also
48: supported on most (all?) Intel machines.
50: ### issues related to ABI 32 vs 64
52: Note that a pkgsrc package built in x86_64 mode will not run on an
53: Intel Mac that is i386 only. For a longer discussion, see
56: Somewhat separately from pkgsrc's ABI choice, there have been issues
57: with packages which get confused because "MACHINE_ARCH" is in some OS
58: versions set to "i386" (on a 64-bit system!). As of 2016 this should
59: be mostly resolved.
60: version: uname -m : uname -p
61: 10.6: i386 : i386
62: 10.9: x86_64 : i386
64: ### default ABI
66: The ABI is chosen at bootstrap time and encoded into mk.conf. So a
67: change in the default is about what a new bootstrap will do;
68: already-bootstrapped systems should remain unchanged. They should be
69: able to build and run new packages using the old ABI value.
71: pkgsrc used to set the default ABI as i386, both on systems with i386
72: processors and on systems with x86_64 processors. On 2015-11-09 the
73: default was changed so that ABI=64 is chosen on machines where "uname
74: -m" reports x86_64. (It remains i386 on others, which are not capable
75: of running x86_64 binaries.)
77: Generally, users will not need to deal with the default ABI change,
78: except that packages are mostly only portable across machines with the
79: same bootstrapping parameters.
81: If one unpacks a new binary bootstrap kit over an existing
82: installation, one can end up with a mix. The standard advice is not to
83: do this, and to rrebuild/reinstall all packages from scratch or a
84: compatible binary package set. But, one could also mark packages with
85: the wrong ABI as rebuild=YES and use pkg_rolling-replace.
87: ### change in storage of ABI information
89: On 2016-01-24, the way ABI information was stored in pkgsrc was
90: rationalized and simplified. The new code could compute the wrong ABI
91: for some previously-bootstrapped installations. The problem can be
92: resolved by building bmake with MACHINE_ARCH=x86_64 and updating that
93: package, as described in mail archives:
97: (One would expect to be able to use make replace to do this. One
98: minor issue is that it requires pkg_tarup, although that will be
99: present on systems of those who use make replace. There also may be
100: an error with architecture mismatch from pkg_install requiring a "-f"
101: option. Repeatable data about recovery is somewhat hard to obtain, as
102: most are past this issue already and no longer interested in
105: # Developer tools and prerequisites
107: ## XCode
109: This section applies to 10.6 through 11.
111: If you haven't already, you will need to install the macOS
112: Developer Tools package (XCode) to obtain a compiler, etc. The
113: procedure depends on the version of macOS; recent versions use the
114: App Store.
116: ### Command-line Tools
118: If one installs "Commmand Line Tools", then pkgsrc can use the
121: Since Xcode 7 (installed from the Apple Store) the development
122: environment can upgrade itself without interaction from the user, but
123: will not automatically update the Command Line Tools. This will
124: cause system header files like stdlib.h not to be found by pkgsrc.
125: The command `xcode-select --install' will install the Command Line
126: Tools for Xcode.
128: In the past at least, Command Line Tools for Xcode could be obtained
129: from <https://developer.apple.com/downloads/>
131: ## cvs
133: Note that as of 10.9, cvs is no longer provided by Apple. You can build
134: devel/scmcvs. To obtain pkgsrc in order to bootstrap and build cvs,
135: it may be useful to `git clone https://github.com/NetBSD/pkgsrc.git`.
137: ## X11
139: X11 used to be built into macOS, but as of 10.8 it is no longer
140: included. You can install XQuartz from
141: <https://www.xquartz.org>, or try the newly-added pkgsrc
144: # macOS Versions
146: Because Apple drops support for previous hardware faster than the
147: hardware fails, many machines cannot be upgraded to recent versions of
148: macOS, creating a greater than usual desire to support old systems.
149: Because of the particular history of deprecation, most systems tend to
150: run relatively recent versions or specific older versions.
152: The stance of pkgsrc is generally to avoid breaking older systems
153: unless keeping support would cause difficulty, and to accept clean
154: patches when there is no harm to non-deprecated versions. This
155: section is partly to document what versions tend to be used and why,
156: and partly to enable cleaning up bug reports without fixes for very
157: old systems.
159: pkgsrc PRs about 10.12 or older that do not contain fixes may be closed
160: without fixing.
162: macOS 11 (major versions are now just digits) is the current version;
163: hardware before 2013 cannot be upgraded to this version. Also this
164: version introduces support for Apple M1 processors, using the aarch64
165: instruction set.
167: macOS 10.15 is maintained and supports the same hardware as 10.14.
169: macOS 10.14 is somewhat old but still maintained. It cannot be run on
170: hardware before 2012 and Macbooks before 2015.
172: macOS 10.13 is old; Apple ended support in January of 2021.
173: Significant amounts of entirely functional hardware cannot be upgraded
174: beyond this version.
176: macOS 10.12 is very old. There is no known reason to run it, as all
177: (most?) hardware that runs 10.12 can run 10.13.
179: OS X 10.11 is very old; some hardware cannot be upgraded beyond this
180: version, but most of it is old and slow, dating from approximately
181: 2010 or earlier.
183: OS X 10.10, 10.9 and 10.8 are extremely old; most hardware that can
184: run them can probably run 10.11.
186: OS X 10.7 is the last version that works on a few Intel Macs, e.g. the
187: Mac Pro 1.1 and 2.1 and some Mac Minis.
189: OS X 10.6 is the last version that works on Intel Macs lacking amd64
190: support, e.g. Mac Minis and Macbooks with Core Duo.
192: OS X 10.5 is the last version that works on PowerPC Macs.
194: OS X 10.4 (Darwin 8.11.0) is the last version that works on PowerPC G3
195: and slower G4 Macs.
197: # Bulk builds
199: Clearly, it is desirable for a bulk build to be useful on as many
200: computers as possible. The main issues are which ABI and which macOS
201: version. Targeting older versions makes a build run on more systems,
202: and targeting newer versions makes the build closer to what would be
203: obtained from bootstrapping on a newer version and thus avoids some
204: issues. This section has pointers to active bulk builds.
206: ## 10.4, --abi=32 powerpc, gcc
208: Sevan Janiyan <Sevan@NetBSD.org> provides a bulk build for the -current branch
209: (--abi=32, OS X 10.4/PowerPC, gcc 4.0.1 from Xcode 2.5, X11_TYPE=modular):
211: - <https://www.geeklan.co.uk/?p=1579>
212: - US repo: <http://sevan.mit.edu/packages>
213: - Euro mirror: <http://pkgsrc.geeklan.co.uk/packages/current/Darwin-8>
214: - See <https://mail-index.netbsd.org/pkgsrc-bulk/2015/11/07/msg012171.html>
CVSweb for NetBSD wikisrc <wikimaster@NetBSD.org> software: FreeBSD-CVSweb