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    1: # Darwin vs macOS
    2: 
    3: macOS consists of Darwin (kernel/userland) plus Mac stuff on top.
    4: pkgsrc used to target Darwin, but given the tools issued discussed
    5: below it is not clear that it works on Darwin without macOS.  Darwin
    6: from Apple is no longer open source.
    7: 
    8: Users of non-macOS Darwin are invited to submit patches to this file.
    9: The only known project is [PureDarwin](http://www.puredarwin.org/).
   10: 
   11: Until then, this file remains macOS-centric.
   12: 
   13: # system tools issues
   14: 
   15: ## native headers vs SDK
   16: 
   17: macOS used to include system headers in /usr/include, so that one
   18: could treat it like a relatively normal POSIX system.  Starting at
   19: approximately 10.9, headers were no longer available at the standard
   20: location, and one has to use an SDK that puts headers someplace else.
   21: pkgsrc supports this, but there has been some confusion where a 10.9
   22: system produced binaries for 10.10, which only mostly works.  The
   23: confusion is believed to be resolved.
   24: 
   25: ### SDK version issues
   26: 
   27: The SDK supported versions and default versions do are not always the
   28: same as the current system version.  The following may be useful in
   29: understanding one's situation:
   30: 
   31:   /usr/bin/xcrun --show-sdk-version
   32:   sw_vers -productVersion
   33: 
   34: pkgsrc attempts to query the system version, and then ask the sdk to
   35: use that version.  See mk/platform/Darwin.mk for the code.
   36: 
   37: ## gcc vs clang
   38: 
   39: Older versions of OS X (when XCode is installed) provided gcc, and
   40: pkgsrc defaulted to using gcc.  With 10.9, gcc is no longer present.
   41: 
   42: ## i386 vs x86_64 ABI issue
   43: 
   44: This entire section is only about Intel Macs.
   45: 
   46: OS X 10.6 and higher supports x86-64 binaries on Intel Macs with
   47: x86-64 processors, which is now most of them.  i386 binaries are also
   48: supported on most (all?) Intel machines.
   49: 
   50: ### issues related to ABI 32 vs 64
   51: 
   52: Note that a pkgsrc package built in x86_64 mode will not run on an
   53: Intel Mac that is i386 only.  For a longer discussion, see
   54: <http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/pkgsrc-users/2009/09/24/msg010817.html>.
   55: 
   56: Somewhat separately from pkgsrc's ABI choice, there have been issues
   57: with packages which get confused because "MACHINE_ARCH" is in some OS
   58: versions set to "i386" (on a 64-bit system!).  As of 2016 this should
   59: be mostly resolved.
   60:   version:  uname -m : uname -p
   61:   10.6: i386 : i386
   62:   10.9: x86_64 : i386
   63: 
   64: ### default ABI
   65: 
   66: The ABI is chosen at bootstrap time and encoded into mk.conf.  So a
   67: change in the default is about what a new bootstrap will do;
   68: already-bootstrapped systems should remain unchanged.  They should be
   69: able to build and run new packages using the old ABI value.
   70: 
   71: pkgsrc used to set the default ABI as i386, both on systems with i386
   72: processors and on systems with x86_64 processors.  On 2015-11-09 the
   73: default was changed so that ABI=64 is chosen on machines where "uname
   74: -m" reports x86_64.  (It remains i386 on others, which are not capable
   75: of running x86_64 binaries.)
   76: 
   77: Generally, users will not need to deal with the default ABI change,
   78: except that packages are mostly only portable across machines with the
   79: same bootstrapping parameters.
   80: 
   81: If one unpacks a new binary bootstrap kit over an existing
   82: installation, one can end up with a mix. The standard advice is not to
   83: do this, and to rrebuild/reinstall all packages from scratch or a
   84: compatible binary package set.  But, one could also mark packages with
   85: the wrong ABI as rebuild=YES and use pkg_rolling-replace.
   86: 
   87: ### change in storage of ABI information
   88: 
   89: On 2016-01-24, the way ABI information was stored in pkgsrc was
   90: rationalized and simplified.  The new code could compute the wrong ABI
   91: for some previously-bootstrapped installations.  The problem can be
   92: resolved by building bmake with MACHINE_ARCH=x86_64 and updating that
   93: package, as described in mail archives:
   94: 
   95: <https://mail-index.netbsd.org/pkgsrc-users/2016/01/25/msg022870.html>
   96: 
   97: (One would expect to be able to use make replace to do this.  One
   98: minor issue is that it requires pkg_tarup, although that will be
   99: present on systems of those who use make replace.  There also may be
  100: an error with architecture mismatch from pkg_install requiring a "-f"
  101: option.  Repeatable data about recovery is somewhat hard to obtain, as
  102: most are past this issue already and no longer interested in
  103: experimenting.)
  104: 
  105: # Developer tools and prerequisites
  106: 
  107: ## XCode
  108: 
  109: This section applies to 10.6 through 11.
  110: 
  111: If you haven't already, you will need to install the macOS
  112: Developer Tools package (XCode) to obtain a compiler, etc.  The
  113: procedure depends on the version of macOS; recent versions use the
  114: App Store.
  115: 
  116: ### Command-line Tools
  117: 
  118: If one installs "Commmand Line Tools", then pkgsrc can use the
  119: compiler.
  120: 
  121: Since Xcode 7 (installed from the Apple Store) the development
  122: environment can upgrade itself without interaction from the user, but
  123: will not automatically update the Command Line Tools.  This will
  124: cause system header files like stdlib.h not to be found by pkgsrc.
  125: The command `xcode-select --install' will install the Command Line
  126: Tools for Xcode.
  127: 
  128: In the past at least, Command Line Tools for Xcode could be obtained
  129: from <https://developer.apple.com/downloads/>
  130: 
  131: ## cvs
  132: 
  133: Note that as of 10.9, cvs is no longer provided by Apple.  You can build
  134: devel/scmcvs.  To obtain pkgsrc in order to bootstrap and build cvs,
  135: it may be useful to `git clone https://github.com/NetBSD/pkgsrc.git`.
  136: 
  137: ## X11
  138: 
  139: X11 used to be built into macOS, but as of 10.8 it is no longer
  140: included.  You can install XQuartz from
  141: <https://www.xquartz.org>, or try the newly-added pkgsrc
  142: version.
  143: 
  144: # macOS Versions
  145: 
  146: Because Apple drops support for previous hardware faster than the
  147: hardware fails, many machines cannot be upgraded to recent versions of
  148: macOS, creating a greater than usual desire to support old systems.
  149: Because of the particular history of deprecation, most systems tend to
  150: run relatively recent versions or specific older versions.
  151: 
  152: The stance of pkgsrc is generally to avoid breaking older systems
  153: unless keeping support would cause difficulty, and to accept clean
  154: patches when there is no harm to non-deprecated versions.  This
  155: section is partly to document what versions tend to be used and why,
  156: and partly to enable cleaning up bug reports without fixes for very
  157: old systems.
  158: 
  159: pkgsrc PRs about 10.12 or older that do not contain fixes may be closed
  160: without fixing.
  161: 
  162: macOS 11 (major versions are now just digits) is the current version;
  163: hardware before 2013 cannot be upgraded to this version. Also this
  164: version introduces support for Apple M1 processors, using the aarch64
  165: instruction set.
  166: 
  167: macOS 10.15 is maintained and supports the same hardware as 10.14.
  168: 
  169: macOS 10.14 is somewhat old but still maintained.  It cannot be run on
  170: hardware before 2012 and Macbooks before 2015.
  171: 
  172: macOS 10.13 is old; Apple ended support in January of 2021.
  173: Significant amounts of entirely functional hardware cannot be upgraded
  174: beyond this version.
  175: 
  176: macOS 10.12 is very old.  There is no known reason to run it, as all
  177: (most?) hardware that runs 10.12 can run 10.13.
  178: 
  179: OS X 10.11 is very old; some hardware cannot be upgraded beyond this
  180: version, but most of it is old and slow, dating from approximately
  181: 2010 or earlier.
  182: 
  183: OS X 10.10, 10.9 and 10.8 are extremely old; most hardware that can
  184: run them can probably run 10.11.
  185: 
  186: OS X 10.7 is the last version that works on a few Intel Macs, e.g. the
  187: Mac Pro 1.1 and 2.1 and some Mac Minis.
  188: 
  189: OS X 10.6 is the last version that works on Intel Macs lacking amd64
  190: support, e.g. Mac Minis and Macbooks with Core Duo.
  191: 
  192: OS X 10.5 is the last version that works on PowerPC Macs.
  193: 
  194: OS X 10.4 (Darwin 8.11.0) is the last version that works on PowerPC G3
  195: and slower G4 Macs.
  196: 
  197: # Bulk builds
  198: 
  199: Clearly, it is desirable for a bulk build to be useful on as many
  200: computers as possible.  The main issues are which ABI and which macOS
  201: version.  Targeting older versions makes a build run on more systems,
  202: and targeting newer versions makes the build closer to what would be
  203: obtained from bootstrapping on a newer version and thus avoids some
  204: issues.   This section has pointers to active bulk builds.
  205: 
  206: ## 10.4, --abi=32 powerpc, gcc
  207: 
  208: Sevan Janiyan <Sevan@NetBSD.org> provides a bulk build for the -current branch
  209: (--abi=32, OS X 10.4/PowerPC, gcc 4.0.1 from Xcode 2.5, X11_TYPE=modular):
  210: 
  211: - <https://www.geeklan.co.uk/?p=1579>
  212: - US repo: <http://sevan.mit.edu/packages>
  213: - Euro mirror: <http://pkgsrc.geeklan.co.uk/packages/current/Darwin-8>
  214: - See <https://mail-index.netbsd.org/pkgsrc-bulk/2015/11/07/msg012171.html>

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