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Remove extra "the"

    1: [[!meta title="Hardening pkgsrc"]]
    2: 
    3: A number of mechanisms are available in
    4: [pkgsrc](https://www.pkgsrc.org/) to improve the security of the
    5: resulting system. This page describes the mechanisms, and gives hints
    6: about detecting and fixing problems.
    7: 
    8: # Mechanisms
    9: 
   10: Mechanisms can be enabled individually in `mk.conf`, and are
   11: individually described below. They are sorted by whether they are
   12: enabled by default, and then by their ordering in `mk/defaults/mk.conf`.
   13: 
   14: Typically, a feature will cause some programs to fail to build or work
   15: when first enabled. This can be due to latent problems in the
   16: program, and can be due to other reasons. After enough testing to
   17: have confidence that user problems will be quite rare, individual
   18: mechanisms will be enabled by default.
   19: 
   20: For each mechanism, see the Caveats section below for an explanation
   21: of what might go wrong at compile time and at run time, and how to
   22: notice and address these problems.
   23: 
   24: ## Enabled by default in the stable branch
   25: 
   26: ### PKGSRC_USE_FORTIFY
   27: 
   28: This allows substitute wrappers to be used for some commonly used
   29: library functions that do not have built-in bounds checking - but
   30: could in some cases.
   31: 
   32: TODO: Explain FORTIFY_SOURCE 1 vs 2, and which is used. Give a link
   33: to a good explanation of the technique. Explain if this is gcc specific.
   34: 
   35: It has been enabled by default since pkgsrc-2017Q3.
   36: 
   37: ### PKGSRC_USE_SSP
   38: 
   39: This enables a stack-smashing protection mitigation. It is done by adding a
   40: guard variable to functions with vulnerable objects. The guards are initialized
   41: when a function is entered and then checked when the function exits. The guard
   42: check will fail and the program forcibly exited if the variable was modified in
   43: the meantime. This can happen in case of buffer overflows or memory corruption,
   44: and therefore exposing these bugs.
   45: 
   46: Different mitigation levels are available:
   47: 
   48: * the default ("yes"), which will only protect functions considered vulnerable
   49:   by the compiler;
   50: * "all", which will protect every function;
   51: * "strong", which will apply a better balance between the two settings above.
   52: 
   53: This mitigation is supported by both GCC and clang. It may be supported in
   54: additional compilers, possibly under a different name. It is particularly useful
   55: for unsafe programming languages, such as C/C++.
   56: 
   57: It is enabled by default where known supported since pkgsrc-2017Q3.
   58: 
   59: More details can be found here:
   60: 
   61: * <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffer_overflow_protection>
   62: 
   63: ## Enabled by default in pkgsrc HEAD
   64: 
   65: ## Not enabled by default
   66: 
   67: ### PKGSRC_MKPIE
   68: 
   69: This requests the creation of PIE (Position Independent Executables) for all
   70: executables. The PIE mechanism is normally used for shared libraries so that
   71: they can be loaded at differing addresses at runtime. PIE itself does not have
   72: useful security properties.  However, some operating systems support Address
   73: Space Layout Randomization (ASLR), which causes different addresses to be used
   74: each time a program is run. This makes it more difficult for an attacker to
   75: guess addresses and thus makes exploits harder to construct.
   76: 
   77: PIE executables will only be built for toolchains that are known to support PIE.
   78: Currently, this means NetBSD on amd64 and i386.
   79: 
   80: ### PKGSRC_USE_RELRO
   81: 
   82: This also makes the exploitation of some security vulnerabilities more
   83: difficult in some cases.
   84: 
   85: Two different mitigation levels are available:
   86: 
   87: * partial: the ELF sections are reordered so that internal data sections
   88:   precede the program's own data sections, and non-PLT GOT is read-only;
   89: * full: in addition to partial RELRO, every relocation is performed immediately
   90:   when starting the program (with a slight performance impact), allowing the
   91:   entire GOT to be read-only.
   92: 
   93: This is currently supported by GCC. Many software distributions now enable this
   94: feature by default, at the "partial" level.
   95: 
   96: More details can be found here:
   97: 
   98: * <http://tk-blog.blogspot.co.at/2009/02/relro-not-so-well-known-memory.html>
   99: 
  100: ### PKGSRC_USE_STACK_CHECK
  101: 
  102: This uses `-fstack-check` with GCC for another stack protection mitigation.
  103: 
  104: It asks the compiler to generate code verifying that it does not corrupt the
  105: stack. According to GCC's manual page, this is really only useful for
  106: multi-threaded programs.
  107: 
  108: # Caveats
  109: 
  110: ## Problems with `PKGSRC_MKPIE`
  111: 
  112: ### Recent support for cwrappers
  113: 
  114: `PKGSRC_MKPIE` is only supported by `pkgtools/cwrappers` from the 2017Q3
  115: release on (`USE_CWRAPPERS` in `mk.conf`).
  116: 
  117: ### Packages failing to build
  118: 
  119: A number of packages may fail to build with this option enabled. The failures
  120: are often related to the absence of the `-fPIC` compilation flag when building
  121: libraries or executables (or ideally `-fPIE` in the latter case). This flag is
  122: added to the `CFLAGS` already, but requires the package to actually support it.
  123: 
  124: #### How to fix
  125: 
  126: These instructions are meant as a reference only; they likely need to be adapted
  127: for many packages individually.
  128: 
  129: For packages using `Makefiles`:
  130: 
  131:     MAKE_FLAGS+=	CFLAGS=${CFLAGS:Q}
  132:     MAKE_FLAGS+=	LDFLAGS=${LDFLAGS:Q}
  133: 
  134: For packages using `Imakefiles`:
  135: 
  136:     MAKE_FLAGS+=	CCOPTIONS=${CFLAGS:Q}
  137:     MAKE_FLAGS+=	LOCAL_LDFLAGS=${LDFLAGS:Q}
  138: 
  139: ### Run-time crashes
  140: 
  141: Some programs may fail to run, or crash at random times once built as PIE. Two
  142: scenarios are essentially possible:
  143: 
  144: * actual bug in the program crashing, exposed thanks to ASLR/mprotect;
  145: * bug in the implementation of ASLR/mprotect in the Operating System.
  146: 
  147: ## Problems with `PKGSRC_USE_FORTIFY`
  148: 
  149: ### Packages failing to build
  150: 
  151: This feature makes use of pre-processing directives to look for hardened,
  152: alternative implementations of essential library calls. Some programs may fail
  153: to build as a result; this usually happens for those trying too hard to be
  154: portable, or otherwise abusing definitions in the standard library.
  155: 
  156: This will require a modification to the program, or disabling this feature for
  157: part or all of the build.
  158: 
  159: ### Run-time crashes
  160: 
  161: Just like with `PKGSRC_MKPIE` above, this feature may cause some programs to
  162: crash, usually indicating an actual bug in the program. The fix will typically
  163: involve patching the original program.
  164: 
  165: ### Optimization is required
  166: 
  167: At least in the case of GCC, FORTIFY will only be applied if optimization is
  168: applied while compiling. This means that the CFLAGS should also contain -O, -O2
  169: or another optimization level. This cannot easily be applied globally, as some
  170: packages may require specific optimization levels.
  171: 
  172: ## Problems with `PKGSRC_USE_RELRO`
  173: 
  174: ### Performance impact
  175: 
  176: For better protection, full RELRO requires every symbol to be resolved when the
  177: program starts, rather than simply when required at run-time. This will have
  178: more impact on programs using a lot of symbols, or linked to libraries exposing
  179: a lot of symbols. Therefore, daemons or programs otherwise running in
  180: background are affected only when started. Programs loading plug-ins at
  181: run-time are affected when loading the plug-ins.
  182: 
  183: The impact is not expected to be noticeable on modern hardware, except in some
  184: cases for big programs.
  185: 
  186: ### Run-time crashes
  187: 
  188: Some programs handle plug-ins and dependencies in a way that conflicts with
  189: RELRO: for instance, with an initialization routine listing any other plug-in
  190: required. With full RELRO, the missing symbols are resolved before the
  191: initialization routine can run, and the dynamic loader will not be able to find
  192: them directly and abort as a result. Unfortunately, this is how Xorg loads its
  193: drivers. Partial RELRO can be applied instead in this case.
  194: 
  195: ## Problems with `PKGSRC_USE_SSP`
  196: 
  197: ### Packages failing to build
  198: 
  199: The stack-smashing protection provided by this option does not work for some
  200: programs. The two most common situations in which this happens are:
  201: 
  202: * the program makes use of the `alloca(3)` library call (memory allocator on the
  203:   stack)
  204: * the program allocates variables on the stack, with the size determined at
  205:   run-time.
  206: 
  207: Both cases will require a modification to the program, or disabling this feature
  208: for part or all of the build.
  209: 
  210: ### Run-time crashes
  211: 
  212: Again, this feature may cause some programs to crash, usually indicating an
  213: actual bug in the program. Patching the original program is then required.
  214: 
  215: ### Performance impact
  216: 
  217: The compiler emits extra code when using this feature: a check for buffer
  218: overflows is performed when entering and exiting functions, requiring an extra
  219: variable on the stack. The level of protection can otherwise be adjusted to
  220: affect only those functions considered more sensitive by the compiler (with
  221: `-fstack-protector` instead of `-fstack-protector-all`).
  222: 
  223: The impact is not expected to be noticeable on modern hardware. However,
  224: programs with a hard requirement to run at the fastest possible speed should
  225: avoid using this feature, or using libraries built with this feature.
  226: 
  227: # Auditing the system
  228: 
  229: The illusion of security is worse than having no security at all. This section
  230: lists a number of ways to ensure the security features requested are actually
  231: effective.
  232: 
  233: _These instructions were obtained and tested on a system derived from NetBSD 7
  234: (amd64). YMMV._
  235: 
  236: ## Checking for PIE
  237: 
  238: The ELF executable type in use changes for binaries built as PIE; without:
  239: 
  240:     $ file /path/to/bin/ary
  241:     /path/to/bin/ary: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for NetBSD 7.0, not stripped
  242: 
  243: as opposed to the following binary, built as PIE:
  244: 
  245:     $ file /path/to/pie/bin/ary
  246:     /path/to/pie/bin/ary: ELF 64-bit LSB shared object, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked (uses shared libs), for NetBSD 7.0, not stripped
  247: 
  248: The latter result is then what is expected.
  249: 
  250: ## Checking for partial RELRO
  251: 
  252: The following command should list a section called `RELRO`:
  253: 
  254:     $ objdump -p /path/to/bin/ary
  255: 
  256:     /path/to/bin/ary:     file format elf64-x86-64
  257: 
  258:     Program Header:
  259:     [...]
  260:        RELRO off    0x0000000000000d78 vaddr 0x0000000000600d78 paddr 0x0000000000600d78 align 2**0
  261: 
  262: This check is now performed automatically if `PKG_DEVELOPER` is set and `RELRO`
  263: is enabled.
  264: 
  265: ## Checking for full RELRO
  266: 
  267: The dynamic loader will apply RELRO immediately when detecting the presence of
  268: the `BIND_NOW` flag:
  269: 
  270:     $ objdump -x /path/to/bin/ary
  271: 
  272:     /path/to/bin/ary:     file format elf64-x86-64
  273: 
  274:     Dynamic Section:
  275:     [...]
  276:       BIND_NOW             0x0000000000000000
  277: 
  278: This has to be combined with partial RELRO (see above) to be fully efficient.
  279: 
  280: ## Checking for SSP
  281: 
  282: Building objects, binaries and libraries with SSP will affect the presence of
  283: additional symbols in the resulting file:
  284: 
  285:     $ nm /path/to/bin/ary
  286:     [...]
  287:                      U __stack_chk_fail
  288:     0000000000600ea0 B __stack_chk_guard
  289: 
  290: This is an indicator that the program was indeed built with support for SSP.
  291: 
  292: This check is now performed automatically (where supported) if `PKG_DEVELOPER`
  293: is set and `SSP` is enabled.

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