File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / kyua.mdwn
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Fri Jul 13 01:35:00 2012 UTC (7 years, 7 months ago) by jmmv
Branches: MAIN
CVS tags: HEAD
Add an introduction to Kyua for NetBSD users.  This explains what the major
differences to be aware of are, and how to run the NetBSD test suite with
Kyua.

I don't expect this document to be final yet.

    1: [[!meta title="Kyua: An introduction for NetBSD users"]]
    2: [[!toc ]]
    3: 
    4: The [Automated Testing Framework](ATF), or ATF for short, is a software
    5: package composed of two parts: the *ATF libraries* and the *ATF tools*.
    6: The ATF libraries provide a toolkit for developers to implement test cases
    7: in a variety of languages: C, C++ and POSIX shell.  The ATF tools provide
    8: the utilities to run such test cases in an automated way and to generate
    9: reports.
   10: 
   11: The ATF tools have some
   12: [design and, particularly, implementation problems](http://mail-index.netbsd.org/atf-devel/2010/11/13/msg000206.html)
   13: that make it hard to add support for highly desired features such as
   14: parallel execution of test cases, unified dashboards covering multiple test
   15: runs ([like this one](http://releng.netbsd.org/test-results.html)), the
   16: ability to run legacy or third-party test programs that do not use the ATF
   17: libraries, and the ability to tune the timeout of test cases.
   18: 
   19: *Kyua's current goal is to reimplement _only_ the ATF tools* while
   20: maintaining backwards compatibility with the tests written with the ATF
   21: libraries (i.e. with the NetBSD test suite).
   22: 
   23: Because Kyua is a replacement of some ATF components, the end goal is to
   24: integrate Kyua into the NetBSD base system (just as ATF is) and remove the
   25: deprecated ATF components.  Removing the deprecated components will allow
   26: us to make the above-mentioned improvements to Kyua, as well as many
   27: others, without having to deal with the obsolete ATF code base.
   28: *Discussing how and when this transition might happen is out of the scope
   29: of this document at the moment.*
   30: 
   31: This page provides instructions on how to use Kyua with the current NetBSD
   32: test suite so that you can experiment with the tool, familiarize yourself
   33: with it and provide feedback early on.
   34: 
   35: # Main differences (aka "what to expect")
   36: 
   37: As of version 0.5, Kyua has (or is supposed to have) feature parity with
   38: the ATF tools.  That said, having feature parity does not imply that they
   39: are the same.  This section outlines a few of the differences that you
   40: should be aware of before continuing.
   41: 
   42: ## Results database
   43: 
   44: Kyua collects the results of the execution of a test suite into an SQLite
   45: database.  User-friendly reports are later generated by extracting data
   46: from this same database.
   47: 
   48: In ATF, the results of the execution were written to an internal format
   49: that only atf-report could understand.  Despite of the database, Kyua still
   50: maintains the separation of "tests execution" from "report generation".
   51: 
   52: The contents of the database are immutable and incremental.  This means
   53: that, in the future, the Kyua tools will be able to provide historical data
   54: for particular test cases, or for whole test runs (which is what other
   55: NetBSD developers have ended up implementing multiple times outside of ATF
   56: because the framework did not provide such functionality by itself).
   57: 
   58: ## Support for multiple test interfaces
   59: 
   60: Kyua has support for different "test interfaces", which means that Kyua can
   61: execute test programs written using different paradigms and collect their
   62: results into a single report.  At the moment, two interfaces are supported:
   63: 
   64: * The "atf" interface provides compatibility with those test programs that
   65:   use the ATF libraries.  This is the only interface currently used by the
   66:   NetBSD test suite, as there is no way to run any other test program in an
   67:   automated manner.
   68: 
   69: * The "plain" interface permits the execution of legacy test programs that
   70:   do not use any testing library.  Such test programs are those that just
   71:   return 0 or non-0 to indicate the success or failure of the test
   72:   (respectively).  This feature will allow the NetBSD test suite to
   73:   transparently execute third-party test suites (such as the IPF or GCC
   74:   test suites) without having to implement ATF-based wrappers.  It will
   75:   also lower the barrier of entry to writing test programs for NetBSD, as
   76:   using the ATF libraries will become optional.
   77: 
   78: ## Lua configuration files
   79: 
   80: Kyua has two kind of configuration files: the Kyuafiles, which are the
   81: files shipped with a test suite that describe what test programs need to be
   82: run; and the user configuration files, which specify the run-time settings
   83: of Kyua and the test suites.  ATF had this same split of configuration
   84: files, and they were written in a custom language, with a custom parser.
   85: 
   86: The Kyua configuration files are all Lua scripts.  The major advantage of
   87: this at the moment is that their syntax will be familiar to end users, and
   88: that the parser for these files is well-tested.  In the future, the use of
   89: Lua will allow the implementation of more-intelligent test (and maybe even
   90: build) scripts.
   91: 
   92: ## Heavier code base
   93: 
   94: If you take a look at the Kyua distribution file, you may notice that it is
   95: about the same size as the distribution file of ATF, yet Kyua does not
   96: currently replace the ATF libraries.  This may be surprising because it
   97: seems to imply that the codebase of Kyua is bigger because it "just"
   98: reimplements atf-run and atf-report: i.e. by just reimplementing parts of
   99: ATF, it is already as big as the whole of ATF.
  100: 
  101: This is true, for two reasons.
  102: 
  103: The first is that Kyua is more featureful and flexible: the features
  104: outlined above have a cost in terms of implementation, and the codebase of
  105: Kyua is more carefully crafted to allow for later growth.  In particular,
  106: all OS-specific details have been abstracted for easier portability, and
  107: the SQLite and Lua libraries have been wrapped for safety.
  108: 
  109: The second is that Kyua is much better tested (which is very important for
  110: a software package that you will rely on to validate your own software!).
  111: To give you some numbers, ATF 0.16 contains around 400 test cases for both
  112: atf-run and atf-report while Kyua 0.5 contains around 1100 test cases.
  113: 
  114: # Components
  115: 
  116: Kyua, as a project, is made up of a variety of components (which *include*
  117: ATF, because the ATF libraries are *not* being rewritten).  All of these
  118: components exist in pkgsrc, and are:
  119: 
  120: * pkgsrc/devel/atf-libs: The C, C++ and POSIX shell libraries provided by
  121:   ATF.  These are *NOT* meant to be replaced by Kyua.
  122: 
  123: * pkgsrc/devel/atf: The ATF tools, namely atf-run and atf-report.  These
  124:   are deprecated and this package should eventually disappear.
  125: 
  126: * pkgsrc/devel/kyua-cli: The Kyua command-line interface, which provides a
  127:   superset of the functionality of atf-run and atf-report.
  128: 
  129: * pkgsrc/devel/kyua-atf-compat: Drop-in replacements for atf-run and
  130:   atf-report that use kyua-cli in the backend.
  131: 
  132: # Running the NetBSD test suite
  133: 
  134: There are two ways to run the NetBSD test suite with Kyua.  The easy (or
  135: trivial) way is to use the backwards compatibility ATF tools, and the more
  136: sophisticated way is to convert the test suite to Kyua and use the native
  137: Kyua binary.  This section explains both approaches.
  138: 
  139: ## Using the ATF compatibility tools
  140: 
  141: The easiest (but also the least "future-proof") way to run the NetBSD test
  142: suite with Kyua is to use the backwards compatibility ATF tools provided by
  143: the kyua-atf-compat module.  First of all, install the package:
  144: 
  145:     $ cd /usr/pkgsrc/deve/kyua-atf-compat
  146:     $ make install && make clean
  147: 
  148: And then, running the test suite is as easy as:
  149: 
  150:     $ cd /usr/tests
  151:     $ /usr/pkg/bin/atf-run | /usr/pkg/bin/atf-report
  152: 
  153: Please be aware that if the atf-run and atf-report tools provided by
  154: kyua-atf-compat appear in your PATH before the real atf-run and atf-report
  155: tools shipped by NetBSD, you will experience test failures for all the
  156: tests in /usr/tests/atf/atf-run and /usr/tests/atf/atf-report.  This is
  157: expected: while the compatibility tools behave similarly to the real tools
  158: from a user's perspective, they are not fully interchangeable.  (For
  159: example, the serialization format between atf-run and atf-report is
  160: different.)
  161: 
  162: One property of the atf-run wrapper is that it uses the default results
  163: database in ~/.kyua/store.db to record the execution of the tests.  This
  164: means that, once the execution of the tests is done with the compatibility
  165: tools, you can still use the native Kyua binary to poke at the results
  166: database.  More on this below.
  167: 
  168: ## Using the native Kyua command-line interface
  169: 
  170: The preferred way to run the NetBSD test suite with Kyua is to use the
  171: native Kyua command-line binary.  This is the preferred method because it
  172: trains you to use the new interface rather than relying on the old pipeline
  173: and because it exposes you to all the new features of Kyua.  Regardless,
  174: this and the previous approach will yield the same results for a particular
  175: execution.
  176: 
  177: Using the native command-line interface is a multi-step process because
  178: the existing NetBSD test suite is not prepared for Kyua.  Let's take a look
  179: at these steps.
  180: 
  181: To get started, install the Kyua packages:
  182: 
  183:     $ cd /usr/pkgsrc/deve/kyua-cli
  184:     $ make install && make clean
  185:     $ cd /usr/pkgsrc/deve/kyua-atf-compat
  186:     $ make install && make clean
  187: 
  188: Once this is done, configure Kyua in the same way ATF is configured "out of
  189: the box" in NetBSD.  Create the /usr/pkg/etc/kyua/kyua.conf file with these
  190: contents:
  191: 
  192:     syntax('kyuafile', 1)
  193:     unprivileged_user = '_tests'
  194: 
  195: The next step is to populate /usr/tests with Kyuafiles, as Kyua is unable
  196: to read existing Atffiles.  This is easy to do with the atf2kyua(1) tool
  197: shipped in the kyua-atf-compat package:
  198: 
  199:     # atf2kyua /usr/tests
  200: 
  201: And that is it.  You can now execute the test suite using Kyua with any of
  202: the following two forms:
  203: 
  204:     $ cd /usr/tests && kyua test
  205:     $ kyua test -k /usr/tests/Kyuafile
  206: 
  207: Note that none of these will generate "pretty" reports.  These commands
  208: will only record the results of the execution into the database.  In order
  209: to generate reports, keep reading.
  210: 
  211: # Generating reports
  212: 
  213: Once you have ran the NetBSD test suite with any of the mechanisms above,
  214: the results of the execution have been stored in the "Kyua store", which is
  215: a database located in ~/.kyua/store.db by default.  (This path can be
  216: changed at any time with the --store flag.)
  217: 
  218: To extract a report from the database using the results of the latest tests
  219: run, you can run any of the following:
  220: 
  221:     $ kyua report -o my-report.txt
  222:     $ kyua html-report -o /var/www/results/
  223: 
  224: # Support and feedback
  225: 
  226: The Kyua manual is available in the GNU Info format and can be accessed by
  227: running:
  228: 
  229:     $ info kyua
  230: 
  231: Alternatively, use the help subcommand to get built-in documentation.  The
  232: following invocation will print all the available subcommands:
  233: 
  234:     $ kyua help
  235: 
  236: And an invocation like this will show you all the possible options for a
  237: given subcommand:
  238: 
  239:     $ kyua help report-html
  240: 
  241: If you have gone through the instructions above and started playing with
  242: Kyua, please do not hesitate to report your experiences (either good or
  243: bad) to [Julio Merino](mailto:jmmv@NetBSD.org)!  Any comments will be
  244: highly appreciated and will be taken into account for the near future of
  245: Kyua.

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