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# Introduction

This HOWTO explains how to set up a test environment for symbolic
debugging of the NetBSD kernel using a pair of QEMU virtual machines.

## Prerequisites

You need a computer running an OS capable of cross-building NetBSD
(the "host system").
This can be NetBSD itself, Linux, or some other Unix-like OS.
These instructions have been tested with NetBSD/amd64 6.1.4 and
Debian 7 hosts.

If your host system is running NetBSD, install the following packages
from pkgsrc:

* emulators/qemu >= 2.0.0nb4
* misc/py-anita

If your host system uses a package system other than pkgsrc,
use that to install cvs, make, gcc, qemu, the Python pexpect
library, and genisoimage or mkisofs.  Also download and 
install the most recent anita package from
<http://www.gson.org/netbsd/anita/download/>.

## Building the target system

Check out the NetBSD-current sources from CVS and build a full
NetBSD-current/i386 release with debug symbols using the build.sh
script.  The i386 port is the preferred test platform because the two
other ports supported by anita are affected by known bugs: amd64 by
[[PR 49276|http://gnats.NetBSD.org/49276]], and sparc by
[[qemu bug 1335444|https://bugs.launchpad.net/qemu/+bug/1335444]].

If you do the build in a directory other than /usr/src, 
use the -fdebug-prefix-map option to ensure that the source file names embedded
in the debug symbols point to /usr/src, which is where the sources will be
installed on the target system.  For example:

[[!template  id=programlisting text="""
 $ CVSROOT=anoncvs@anoncvs.NetBSD.org:/cvsroot cvs checkout -A -P src
 $ cd src
 $ ./build.sh -j 4 -V MKDEBUG=YES -V COPTS="-g -fdebug-prefix-map=$(pwd)=/usr/src" -O ../obj -m i386 -U release sourcesets
"""]]

For best performance, change the number after "-j" to the number of CPU cores
you have, or slightly more.

## Installing the target system

Install the system in a virtual machine, including the debug symbols and source code:

[[!template  id=programlisting text="""
 $ cd ..
 $ anita --workdir work --disk-size 4G --memory-size 256M \
     --sets kern-GENERIC,modules,base,etc,comp,debug,games,man,misc,tests,text,syssrc,src,sharesrc,gnusrc \
     install $(pwd)/obj/releasedir/i386/
"""]]

## Booting the VMs

Next, start two qemu virtual machines, one to run the kernel being
debugged (the "kgdb target") and another to run gdb (the "kgdb host").

The two VMS could be run on separate physical machines, but in this
example, they are run on the same physical machine and share the same
hard disk image.  This sharing is made possible by the "-snapshot"
option to qemu, which ensures that the disk image is not written to by
either VM.

First start the kgdb target, enabling qemu's built-in GDB target stub
on TCP port 1234:

[[!template  id=programlisting text="""
 $ qemu-system-i386 -nographic -snapshot -hda work/wd0.img -gdb tcp::1234
"""]]

If you don't want everyone on the Internet to be able to debug your
target, make sure incoming connections on port 1234 are blocked in
your firewall.

In a second terminal window, start the kgdb host:

[[!template  id=programlisting text="""
 $ qemu-system-i386 -nographic -snapshot -hda work/wd0.img
"""]]

Log in to the kgdb host as root and set up the network:

[[!template  id=programlisting text="""
 login: root
 # dhcpcd
"""]]

Start gdb on the kgdb host and connect to the target:

[[!template  id=programlisting text="""
 # gdb /netbsd
 (gdb) target remote my.host.name:1234
"""]]

where my.host.name is the domain name or IP address of the
physical machine running the kgdb target qemu VM.

Now you should be able to get a stack trace and start debugging
with full debug symbols and access to the source code:

[[!template  id=programlisting text="""
 (gdb) where
 (gdb) list
"""]]

If the stack trace prints very slowly (like 30 seconds per stack
frame), it's likely because you are using a version of qemu where
the user-mode networking code fails to disable the Nagle algorithm.
This is fixed in the qemu in pkgsrc, but you may run into it if your
qemu is not installed via pkgsrc.

## Qemu tips

Here is a couple of useful qemu commands to know:

* Ctrl-a b will send a break which will make the NetBSD VM enter the ddb kernel debugger.

* Ctrl-a c will switch to the qemu monitor where you can enter commands like "quit" to exit qemu,
or do things like saving/restoring the VM to/from a file.

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