Annotation of wikisrc/guide/x.mdwn, revision 1.2
1.2 ! jdf 1: **Contents**
! 3: [[!toc levels=3]]
1.1 jdf 5: # X
7: ## What is X?
9: NetBSD uses the X Window System (often referred as X11) to provide a graphical
10: interface. In NetBSD 5.0, the amd64, i386, macppc, shark, sgimips, and sparc64
11: ports use X.Org and the rest use XFree86.
13: Please note that the X Window System is a rather bare bones framework. It acts
14: as a base for modern desktop environments like GNOME or KDE, but they are not
15: part of the X Window System. NetBSD ships with the X Window System, but it does
16: not include these desktop environments; they must be added via pkgsrc.
18: When you start using X you'll find many new terms which you may find confusing
19: at first. The basic elements are:
21: * *Video hardware*, i.e., your video card.
22: * An *X server* running on top of the hardware. The X server provides a
23: standard way to display graphics (including fonts for text display) and get
24: mouse/keyboard/other input. X is network-transparent, which means that you
25: can run X clients on one machine, and the X server (i.e., the display, with
26: video hardware) on another machine.
27: * *X clients*. These are the programs you directly interact with. They run on
28: top of the X server. A web browser like Firefox is an example of an X client.
29: * A *window manager* running on top of the X server. The window manager is a
30: special X client that is allowed to control the placement of windows. It can
31: also *decorate* windows with standard *widgets* (usually these provide
32: actions like window motion, resizing, iconifying, window killing, etc.).
33: * A *desktop environment* such as GNOME or KDE. These are suites of integrated
34: software designed to give you a well-defined range of software and a more or
35: less common interface to each program. These typically include a window
36: manager, file manager, web browser, email client, multimedia player, text
37: editor, address book, help browser, etc. As you may have guessed, a desktop
38: environment is not needed to use X, but many users will want to install one.
41: ## Configuration
43: In some cases, you may be able to start using X without any configuration at
44: all, and **startx** will work just fine. In many cases, however, some
45: configuration of the X server is required. Depending on the port you use, this
46: configuration file will be either `/etc/X11/xorg.conf` (for platforms using
47: X.org) or `/etc/X11/XF86Config` (for those using XFree86). The structure of the
48: configuration file is described formally in
53: To generate an initial configuration file for your X server, run the command
55: # X -configure
57: This command should create a configuration file and place it in your home
58: directory. To test the generated configuration file, run, e.g.,
60: # X -config ~/xorg.conf.new
62: If this succeeds, you should see a crosshatched background and a cursor in the
63: shape of an X. Try moving the cursor around to verify that the mouse is
64: functional. To quit, press `Ctrl-Alt-Backspace`.
66: If the above test was successful, move the file into place (as either
67: `/etc/X11/xorg.conf` or `/etc/X11/XF86Config`) and you are ready to go. The
68: following sections may be of interest or use, but are not required reading.
70: ## The mouse
72: PS/2 and USB mice will normally be autodetected, and a configuration entry like
73: the following will be generated:
75: Section "InputDevice"
76: Identifier "Mouse0"
77: Driver "mouse"
78: Option "Protocol" "wsmouse"
79: Option "Device" "/dev/wsmouse"
80: Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5 6 7"
83: For a serial mouse on the first serial port, try something like:
85: Section "InputDevice"
86: Identifier "Mouse0"
87: Driver "mouse"
88: Option "Protocol" "auto"
89: Option "Device" "/dev/tty00"
92: In this example. `/dev/tty00` is the first serial port. Use `/dev/tty01` for the
93: second, and so on. Protocol `auto` will try to automatically detect the protocol
94: of your serial mouse. If this doesn't work, try values like `Microsoft`,
95: `IntelliMouse` or `Logitech`. See
97: for more information.
99: ## The keyboard
101: Even if you have already configured your keyboard for wscons (see
102: [[wscons|guide/cons#wscons]]), you need to configure it for X as well, at
103: least if you want to use a non-US layout.
105: An easy solution is to use the XKB protocol to specify the keyboard type and
108: Here is an example that shows how to use a German keyboard:
110: Section "InputDevice"
111: Identifier "Keyboard0"
112: Driver "kbd"
113: Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
114: Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
115: Option "XkbLayout" "de"
116: Option "XkbOptions" "ctrl:nocaps"
119: If you wish to change the repeat rate of your keyboard, you can set it with the
120: `AutoRepeat` option, which takes two arguments: delay and rate, respectively.
121: The following example sets the initial delay to 200 milliseconds and the repeat
122: rate to 30 per second:
124: Option "AutoRepeat" "200 30"
126: If X is already running, the keyboard repeat rate can be changed with the
130: $ xset r 200 30
132: You can also run this command in your `.xinitrc` file. See below ([[Customizing
133: X|guide/x#customizing]]) for more information.
135: ## The monitor
137: If X does not run at the resolution you think it should, first run **xrandr**
138: and see if the resolution you want is listed. If your preferred resolution is
139: listed in that command's output, you can change resolutions with, e.g.,
141: $ xrandr -s 1680x1050
143: If your preferred resolution is not listed, or you have issues with flickering,
144: you may need to manually specify your monitor's horizontal and vertical
145: frequencies. These can be set with the `HorizSync` and `VertRefresh` directives
146: in the `Monitor` section. An example is provided below.
148: Section "Monitor"
149: Identifier "Monitor0"
150: VendorName "Monitor Vendor"
151: ModelName "Monitor Model"
152: HorizSync 30-83
153: VertRefresh 56-75
156: Possible values for your specific monitor can often be found in the manual,
157: sometimes even on the monitor itself.
159: ## The video card
161: Normally, your video card will be automatically detected. In the event that this
162: autodetection fails, all available drivers can be found in
163: `/usr/X11R7/lib/modules/drivers`. (Replace `X11R7` with `X11R6` if you use a
164: port that has not yet switched to X.Org.) The driver can be set with the
165: `Driver` directive in the `Device` section, as shown below.
167: Section "Device"
168: Identifier "Card0"
169: Driver "intel"
172: ## Starting X
174: You can start X with the following command:
176: $ startx
178: If your basic X server configuration is correct, you are left in the X
179: environment with the default window manager (twm). If you want a more advanced
180: window manager or desktop environment, many are available in pkgsrc. See [[Other
181: window managers or desktop
182: environments|guide/x#other_window_managers_or_desktop_environments]] for
183: information about adding and changing window managers.
185: ## Customizing X
187: One of the first things you will want to do is to change the programs that run
188: when X is first started. The easiest way to do this is to copy the default
189: `.xinitrc` file to your home directory and modify it, or create a simple new one
190: from scratch. For example:
192: $ cp /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc ~/.xinitrc
193: $ vi ~/.xinitrc
195: The following example shows how to start the window manager (twm) and open an
196: instance of the xclock and xterm programs. The screen background color is set to
197: `bisque4`, which is defined in `/usr/X11R7/lib/X11/rgb.txt`.
200: # start some nice programs
201: xclock -geometry 50x50-1-1 &
202: xsetroot -solid bisque4 &
203: xterm -geometry 80x34-1+1 -bg OldLace &
205: exec twm # no '&' here
207: With this type of setup, to quit X you must exit the window manager, which is
208: usually done by selecting `exit` from its menu.
210: The above example is very simple, but illustrates the basics of controlling the
211: clients that are run when X is started. You can run any number of commands from
212: your `.xinitrc`, including basic X configuration commands like **xset b off** to
213: turn off the bell.
215: ## Other window managers or desktop environments
217: If you don't like twm, which is a very simple window manager, you can install
218: another window manager or a desktop environment from pkgsrc. The following
219: example uses the Openbox window manager, but there are many others available in
222: Openbox can be installed via binary packages or compiled with pkgsrc. As always,
223: assuming a properly set `PKG_PATH`, the binary package method is:
225: # pkg_add -v openbox
227: Or, with pkgin:
229: # pkgin install openbox
231: To build it with pkgsrc, run:
233: # cd /usr/pkgsrc/wm/openbox
234: # make install
236: Openbox is now installed; to start it you must modify your `.xinitrc` file:
237: substitute the line which calls `twm` with a line which calls `openbox`. For
240: # start some useful programs
241: xclock -geometry 50x50-1-1 &
242: # start window manager:
243: exec openbox # no '&' here
245: The [startx(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?startx+1+NetBSD-current)
246: command will start the X11 session with Openbox. As configured in the example
247: `.xinitrc` file above, choosing `Exit` or similar from the window manager's menu
248: will quit the window manager and end the X11 session.
250: Installing a desktop environment is almost as easy. The following example shows
251: how to use the Xfce desktop environment.
253: # pkg_add -v xfce4
254: # cp /usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/famd /etc/rc.d
255: # cp /usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/dbus /etc/rc.d
256: # cp /usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/hal /etc/rc.d
257: # echo rpcbind=YES >> /etc/rc.conf
258: # echo famd=YES >> /etc/rc.conf
259: # echo dbus=YES >> /etc/rc.conf
260: # echo hal=YES >> /etc/rc.conf
261: # /etc/rc.d/rpcbind start
262: # /etc/rc.d/famd start
263: # /etc/rc.d/dbus start
264: # /etc/rc.d/hal start
266: After running the above commands, edit your `.xinitrc` as above and change
267: `openbox` (or `twm`) to `xfce4-session`. The next time you run `startx`, the
268: Xfce desktop environment will be started.
270: ## Graphical login with xdm
272: If you always use X and the first thing you do after you log in is run `startx`,
273: you can set up a graphical login to do this automatically. It is very easy:
275: 1. Create the `.xsession` file in your home directory. This file is similar to
276: `.xinitrc` and can, in fact, be a link to it.
278: $ ln -s .xinitrc ~/.xsession
280: 2. Modify `/etc/rc.conf`, adding the following line:
282: xdm=YES # x11 display manager
284: 3. Start xdm (or reboot your system, as this will be done automatically from
285: now on):
287: # /etc/rc.d/xdm start
289: The configuration files for xdm are in the `/etc/X11/xdm` directory. The
290: `Xservers` file specifies the virtual console that X is started on. It defaults
291: to `vt05`, which is the console you reach via `Ctrl+Alt+F5`. If you want to use
292: a different virtual console, change vt05 as desired. In order to avoid keyboard
293: contention between getty and xdm, be sure to start xdm on a virtual terminal
294: where getty is disabled. For example, if in `Xservers` you have:
296: :0 local /usr/X11R6/bin/X :0 vt04
298: Then, in `/etc/ttys` you should have:
300: ttyE3 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" vt220 off secure
302: (Please note that `vt04` corresponds to `ttyE3`; In `/etc/X11/xdm/Xservers`,
303: numbering starts at 1, but in `/etc/ttys`, numbering starts at 0).
305: If you want to change the look of your xdm login screen, you can modify the xdm
306: configuration file. For example, to change the background color you can add the
307: following line to the `Xsetup_0` file:
309: xsetroot -solid SeaGreen
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