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 **Contents**  This page was moved to:
   [The NetBSD Guide - X](//www.NetBSD.org/docs/guide/en/chap-x.html)
 [[!toc levels=3]]  
 # X  
 ## What is X?  
 NetBSD uses the X Window System (often referred as X11) to provide a graphical  
 interface. In NetBSD 5.0, the amd64, i386, macppc, shark, sgimips, and sparc64  
 ports use X.Org and the rest use XFree86.  
 Please note that the X Window System is a rather bare bones framework. It acts  
 as a base for modern desktop environments like GNOME or KDE, but they are not  
 part of the X Window System. NetBSD ships with the X Window System, but it does  
 not include these desktop environments; they must be added via pkgsrc.  
 When you start using X you'll find many new terms which you may find confusing  
 at first. The basic elements are:  
  * *Video hardware*, i.e., your video card.  
  * An *X server* running on top of the hardware. The X server provides a  
    standard way to display graphics (including fonts for text display) and get  
    mouse/keyboard/other input. X is network-transparent, which means that you  
    can run X clients on one machine, and the X server (i.e., the display, with  
    video hardware) on another machine.  
  * *X clients*. These are the programs you directly interact with. They run on  
    top of the X server. A web browser like Firefox is an example of an X client.  
  * A *window manager* running on top of the X server. The window manager is a  
    special X client that is allowed to control the placement of windows. It can  
    also *decorate* windows with standard *widgets* (usually these provide  
    actions like window motion, resizing, iconifying, window killing, etc.).  
  * A *desktop environment* such as GNOME or KDE. These are suites of integrated  
    software designed to give you a well-defined range of software and a more or  
    less common interface to each program. These typically include a window  
    manager, file manager, web browser, email client, multimedia player, text  
    editor, address book, help browser, etc. As you may have guessed, a desktop  
    environment is not needed to use X, but many users will want to install one.  
 ## Configuration  
 In some cases, you may be able to start using X without any configuration at  
 all, and **startx** will work just fine. In many cases, however, some  
 configuration of the X server is required. Depending on the port you use, this  
 configuration file will be either `/etc/X11/xorg.conf` (for platforms using  
 X.org) or `/etc/X11/XF86Config` (for those using XFree86). The structure of the  
 configuration file is described formally in  
 [[!template id=man name="xorg.conf" section="5"]]  
 [[!template id=man name="XF86Config" section="5"]].  
 To generate an initial configuration file for your X server, run the command  
     # X -configure  
 This command should create a configuration file and place it in your home  
 directory. To test the generated configuration file, run, e.g.,  
     # X -config ~/xorg.conf.new  
 If this succeeds, you should see a crosshatched background and a cursor in the  
 shape of an X. Try moving the cursor around to verify that the mouse is  
 functional. To quit, press `Ctrl-Alt-Backspace`.  
 If the above test was successful, move the file into place (as either  
 `/etc/X11/xorg.conf` or `/etc/X11/XF86Config`) and you are ready to go. The  
 following sections may be of interest or use, but are not required reading.  
 ## The mouse  
 PS/2 and USB mice will normally be autodetected, and a configuration entry like  
 the following will be generated:  
     Section "InputDevice"  
             Identifier  "Mouse0"  
             Driver      "mouse"  
             Option      "Protocol" "wsmouse"  
             Option      "Device" "/dev/wsmouse"  
             Option      "ZAxisMapping" "4 5 6 7"  
 For a serial mouse on the first serial port, try something like:  
     Section "InputDevice"  
             Identifier  "Mouse0"  
             Driver      "mouse"  
             Option      "Protocol" "auto"  
             Option      "Device" "/dev/tty00"  
 In this example. `/dev/tty00` is the first serial port. Use `/dev/tty01` for the  
 second, and so on. Protocol `auto` will try to automatically detect the protocol  
 of your serial mouse. If this doesn't work, try values like `Microsoft`,  
 `IntelliMouse` or `Logitech`. See  
 [[!template id=man name="mousedrv" section="4"]]  
 for more information.  
 ## The keyboard  
 Even if you have already configured your keyboard for wscons (see  
 [[wscons|guide/cons#wscons]]), you need to configure it for X as well, at  
 least if you want to use a non-US layout.  
 An easy solution is to use the XKB protocol to specify the keyboard type and  
 Here is an example that shows how to use a German keyboard:  
     Section "InputDevice"  
             Identifier  "Keyboard0"  
             Driver      "kbd"  
             Option      "XkbRules" "xorg"  
             Option      "XkbModel" "pc105"  
             Option      "XkbLayout" "de"  
             Option      "XkbOptions" "ctrl:nocaps"  
 If you wish to change the repeat rate of your keyboard, you can set it with the  
 `AutoRepeat` option, which takes two arguments: delay and rate, respectively.  
 The following example sets the initial delay to 200 milliseconds and the repeat  
 rate to 30 per second:  
     Option      "AutoRepeat"    "200 30"  
 If X is already running, the keyboard repeat rate can be changed with the  
 [[!template id=man name="xset" section="1"]]  
     $ xset r 200 30  
 You can also run this command in your `.xinitrc` file. See below ([[Customizing  
 X|guide/x#customizing]]) for more information.  
 ## The monitor  
 If X does not run at the resolution you think it should, first run **xrandr**  
 and see if the resolution you want is listed. If your preferred resolution is  
 listed in that command's output, you can change resolutions with, e.g.,  
     $ xrandr -s 1680x1050  
 If your preferred resolution is not listed, or you have issues with flickering,  
 you may need to manually specify your monitor's horizontal and vertical  
 frequencies. These can be set with the `HorizSync` and `VertRefresh` directives  
 in the `Monitor` section. An example is provided below.  
     Section "Monitor"  
             Identifier   "Monitor0"  
             VendorName   "Monitor Vendor"  
             ModelName    "Monitor Model"  
             HorizSync    30-83  
             VertRefresh  56-75  
 Possible values for your specific monitor can often be found in the manual,  
 sometimes even on the monitor itself.  
 ## The video card  
 Normally, your video card will be automatically detected. In the event that this  
 autodetection fails, all available drivers can be found in  
 `/usr/X11R7/lib/modules/drivers`. (Replace `X11R7` with `X11R6` if you use a  
 port that has not yet switched to X.Org.) The driver can be set with the  
 `Driver` directive in the `Device` section, as shown below.  
     Section "Device"  
             Identifier  "Card0"  
             Driver      "intel"  
 ## Starting X  
 You can start X with the following command:  
     $ startx  
 If your basic X server configuration is correct, you are left in the X  
 environment with the default window manager (twm). If you want a more advanced  
 window manager or desktop environment, many are available in pkgsrc. See [[Other  
 window managers or desktop  
 environments|guide/x#other_window_managers_or_desktop_environments]] for  
 information about adding and changing window managers.  
 ## Customizing X  
 One of the first things you will want to do is to change the programs that run  
 when X is first started. The easiest way to do this is to copy the default  
 `.xinitrc` file to your home directory and modify it, or create a simple new one  
 from scratch. For example:  
     $ cp /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc ~/.xinitrc  
     $ vi ~/.xinitrc  
 The following example shows how to start the window manager (twm) and open an  
 instance of the xclock and xterm programs. The screen background color is set to  
 `bisque4`, which is defined in `/usr/X11R7/lib/X11/rgb.txt`.  
     # start some nice programs  
     xclock -geometry 50x50-1-1 &  
     xsetroot -solid bisque4 &  
     xterm -geometry 80x34-1+1 -bg OldLace &  
     exec twm    # no '&' here  
 With this type of setup, to quit X you must exit the window manager, which is  
 usually done by selecting `exit` from its menu.  
 The above example is very simple, but illustrates the basics of controlling the  
 clients that are run when X is started. You can run any number of commands from  
 your `.xinitrc`, including basic X configuration commands like **xset b off** to  
 turn off the bell.  
 ## Other window managers or desktop environments  
 If you don't like twm, which is a very simple window manager, you can install  
 another window manager or a desktop environment from pkgsrc. The following  
 example uses the Openbox window manager, but there are many others available in  
 Openbox can be installed via binary packages or compiled with pkgsrc. As always,  
 assuming a properly set `PKG_PATH`, the binary package method is:  
     # pkg_add -v openbox  
 Or, with pkgin:  
     # pkgin install openbox  
 To build it with pkgsrc, run:  
     # cd /usr/pkgsrc/wm/openbox  
     # make install  
 Openbox is now installed; to start it you must modify your `.xinitrc` file:  
 substitute the line which calls `twm` with a line which calls `openbox`. For  
     # start some useful programs  
     xclock -geometry 50x50-1-1 &  
     # start window manager:  
     exec openbox   # no '&' here  
 The [[!template id=man name="startx" section="1"]]  
 command will start the X11 session with Openbox. As configured in the example  
 `.xinitrc` file above, choosing `Exit` or similar from the window manager's menu  
 will quit the window manager and end the X11 session.  
 Installing a desktop environment is almost as easy. The following example shows  
 how to use the Xfce desktop environment.  
     # pkg_add -v xfce4  
     # cp /usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/famd /etc/rc.d  
     # cp /usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/dbus /etc/rc.d  
     # cp /usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/hal /etc/rc.d  
     # echo rpcbind=YES >> /etc/rc.conf  
     # echo famd=YES >> /etc/rc.conf  
     # echo dbus=YES >> /etc/rc.conf  
     # echo hal=YES >> /etc/rc.conf  
     # /etc/rc.d/rpcbind start  
     # /etc/rc.d/famd start  
     # /etc/rc.d/dbus start  
     # /etc/rc.d/hal start  
 After running the above commands, edit your `.xinitrc` as above and change  
 `openbox` (or `twm`) to `xfce4-session`. The next time you run `startx`, the  
 Xfce desktop environment will be started.  
 ## Graphical login with xdm  
 If you always use X and the first thing you do after you log in is run `startx`,  
 you can set up a graphical login to do this automatically. It is very easy:  
  1. Create the `.xsession` file in your home directory. This file is similar to  
     `.xinitrc` and can, in fact, be a link to it.  
         $ ln -s .xinitrc ~/.xsession  
  2. Modify `/etc/rc.conf`, adding the following line:  
         xdm=YES       # x11 display manager  
  3. Start xdm (or reboot your system, as this will be done automatically from  
     now on):  
         # /etc/rc.d/xdm start  
 The configuration files for xdm are in the `/etc/X11/xdm` directory. The  
 `Xservers` file specifies the virtual console that X is started on. It defaults  
 to `vt05`, which is the console you reach via `Ctrl+Alt+F5`. If you want to use  
 a different virtual console, change vt05 as desired. In order to avoid keyboard  
 contention between getty and xdm, be sure to start xdm on a virtual terminal  
 where getty is disabled. For example, if in `Xservers` you have:  
     :0 local /usr/X11R6/bin/X :0 vt04  
 Then, in `/etc/ttys` you should have:  
     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure  
 (Please note that `vt04` corresponds to `ttyE3`; In `/etc/X11/xdm/Xservers`,  
 numbering starts at 1, but in `/etc/ttys`, numbering starts at 0).  
 If you want to change the look of your xdm login screen, you can modify the xdm  
 configuration file. For example, to change the background color you can add the  
 following line to the `Xsetup_0` file:  
     xsetroot -solid SeaGreen  

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