Annotation of wikisrc/guide/updating.mdwn, revision 1.2

1.1       jdf         1: # Updating an existing system from sources
                      2: 
                      3: A common mechanism for upgrading a NetBSD system to a newer version is by
                      4: rebuilding the system from sources and installing the results. This works both
                      5: for stable releases such as [NetBSD 5.0](/releases/formal-5/) and for
                      6: NetBSD-current. In particular, if you are running a stable NetBSD release in a
                      7: production environment, you are encouraged to perform this procedure regularly
                      8: in order to incorporate any security fixes that have been applied to the branch
                      9: since its release.
                     10: 
                     11: There are a variety of ways of achieving the goal of rebuilding NetBSD from
                     12: source, and this chapter will guide you through the variety of options that are
                     13: available. The chapter starts by showing first what the manual procedure looks
                     14: like, and proceeds to describe some of automation tools that simplify the
                     15: process.
                     16: 
1.2     ! jdf        17: **Note**: Please remember to check
1.1       jdf        18: [src/UPDATING](http://cvsweb.NetBSD.org/bsdweb.cgi/src/UPDATING) for the latest
                     19: changes and special instructions that may be involved in upgrading the system.*
                     20: 
                     21: ## Manual build and update procedure
                     22: 
                     23: Most of the following steps can be done as ordinary user. Only the installation
                     24: of a new kernel and the userland will require root privileges. Although `/usr`
                     25: is choosen as the working directory in the following examples, the procedure
                     26: can also take place in a user's home directory. Ordinary users have normally
                     27: not the permissions to make changes in `/usr`, but this can be changed by root.
                     28: 
                     29: Having up-to-date sources is a prerequisite for the following steps.
                     30: [[Fetching by CVS|guide/fetch#cvs] informs about the ways to retrieve or update
                     31: the sources for a release, stable or current branch (using CVS).
                     32: 
                     33: Please always refer to the output of **build.sh -h** and the files `UPDATING`
                     34: and `BUILDING` for details - it's worth it, there are *many* options that can
                     35: be set on the command line or in `/etc/mk.conf`
                     36: 
                     37: ### Building a new userland
                     38: 
                     39: The first step is to build the userland:
                     40: 
                     41:     $ cd /usr/src
                     42:     $ ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -U distribution
                     43: 
                     44: ### Building a new kernel
                     45: 
                     46: The next step will build the kernel:
                     47: 
                     48:     $ cd /usr/src
                     49:     $ ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools kernel=<KERNEL>
                     50: 
                     51: ### Installing the kernel and userland
                     52: 
                     53: Installing the new kernel, rebooting (to ensure that the new kernel works) and
                     54: installing the new userland are the final steps of the updating procedure:
                     55: 
                     56:     $ cd /usr/src
                     57:     $ su
                     58:     # mv /netbsd /netbsd.old
                     59:     # mv /usr/obj/sys/arch/<ARCH>/compile/<KERNEL>/netbsd /
                     60:     # shutdown -r now
                     61:      ...
                     62:     $ cd /usr/src
                     63:     $ su
                     64:     # ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -U install=/
                     65: 
                     66: If the new kernel `netbsd` does not boot successfully, you can fall back on
                     67: booting the `netbsd.old` kernel.
                     68: 
                     69: ### Updating the system configuration files
                     70: 
                     71: Run the `etcupdate` script
                     72: ([etcupdate(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?etcupdate+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386))
                     73: and follow the instructions in the output for fixing obsolete files:
                     74: 
                     75:     # /usr/sbin/etcupdate -s /usr/src
                     76: 
                     77: Optionally reboot to ensure all running services are using the new binaries:
                     78: 
                     79:     # shutdown -r now
                     80: 
                     81: ### Summary
                     82: 
                     83:  1. From the root of the source tree:
                     84: 
                     85:         $ cd /usr/src
                     86: 
                     87:  2. Build the userland:
                     88: 
                     89:         $ ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -U -u distribution
                     90: 
                     91:  3. Build the kernel:
                     92: 
                     93:         $ ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -U -u kernel=GENERIC
                     94: 
                     95:  4. Install the kernel:
                     96: 
                     97:         $ cd ../obj/sys/arch/<ARCH>/compile/GENERIC
                     98:         $ su
                     99:         # mv /netbsd /netbsd.old
                    100:         # cp netbsd /netbsd
                    101: 
                    102:  5. Reboot into the new kernel:
                    103: 
                    104:         # shutdown -r now
                    105: 
                    106:  6. Install the new userland:
                    107: 
                    108:         $ cd /usr/src
                    109:         $ su
                    110:         # ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -U install=/
                    111: 
                    112:  7. Update the system and configuration files;:
                    113: 
                    114:         #  /usr/sbin/etcupdate -s /usr/src
                    115: 
1.2     ! jdf       116: **Note**: In the procedure above, the `-u` option indicates an update process,
        !           117: and that a `make clean` operation should not be run before starting the build.
        !           118: This is useful when doing an update from a previous build and/or a fresh build.
        !           119: The `-U` option allows the entire build by a non-root user followed with an
        !           120: install by root.
1.1       jdf       121: 
                    122: ## Using sysinst
                    123: 
                    124: It is also possible to use `sysinst` to install a freshly built system. The
                    125: steps are as follows:
                    126: 
                    127:  1. Build a complete release:
                    128: 
                    129:         $ ./build.sh -O ../obj -T ../tools -U -u -x release
                    130: 
                    131:  2. The resulting install sets will be in the `/usr/obj/releasedir/` directory.
                    132:  3. Copy the install kernel to the root directory of your NetBSD system, reboot
                    133:     from it, and upgrade with `sysinst` (see
                    134:        [[Upgrading NetBSD|guide/upgrading]]).
                    135: 
                    136: 
                    137: ## Using sysbuild and sysupgrade
                    138: 
                    139: The sysbuild and sysupgrade tools (currently available in
                    140: `pkgsrc/sysutils/sysbuild` and `pkgsrc/sysutils/sysupgrade` respectively)
                    141: automate the full process of rebuilding NetBSD from sources (*including the
                    142: retrieval of the sources from a CVS repository*) and installing the results
                    143: with minimal effort.
                    144: 
                    145: Both of these tools have configuration files to determine how to build a
                    146: release and how to install it. Among other things, these specify the CVS
                    147: repository to use, what architecture to build for, where to place the build
                    148: files and what steps to perform during an upgrade. The files can be found in
                    149: `/usr/pkg/etc/sysbuild/default.conf` and `/usr/pkg/etc/sysupgrade.conf`. The
                    150: default configuration of both tools should let you get started with minimal
                    151: effort.
                    152: 
                    153: In their simplest form, you can do a full NetBSD build and upgrade your system
                    154: to it by running these commands:
                    155: 
                    156:     # sysbuild build
                    157:     # sysupgrade auto ~/sysbuild/release/$(uname -m)
                    158: 
                    159: And that's all that it takes. These invocations will do the following:
                    160: 
                    161:  1. Download the source trees from CVS into `/usr/src` and `/usr/xsrc`. The
                    162:     latter is only fetched if your system has X11. And, if you already have
                    163:     the sources in your system, this will only update them to the newest
                    164:        version.
                    165:  2. Build a new release into `~/sysbuild/<machine>/`. This per-machine
                    166:     directory will include subdirectories like `obj`, `destdir`, etc. The
                    167:     build results will be left in `~/sysbuild/release/<machine>/`.
                    168:  3. Install a new kernel and unpack the new sets using the just-built release
                    169:     files.
                    170:  4. Run both etcupdate and postinstall to aid you in merging new configuration
                    171:     changes into your system.
                    172: 
                    173: For more details, please see the included `sysbuild(1)` and `sysupgrade(8)`
                    174: manual pages, as well as the comments in the referenced configuration files.
                    175: 
                    176: ### Tweak: Building as non-root
                    177: 
                    178: The commands above depict the most basic and simple invocation of the tools
                    179: using the *default configuration files*. One drawback is that you require root
                    180: access during the build of the source tree so that sysbuild can upgrade the
                    181: source trees under `/usr/src` and `/usr/xsrc`. It is recommended that you avoid
                    182: building as root once you are familiar with the procedure, and this section
                    183: show what is needed to do so with sysbuild.
                    184: 
                    185: In order to build as non-root, you can either choose to store your source trees
                    186: out of `/usr` (easiest) or give permissions to your user to modify the trees
                    187: under `/usr` (good if you want to share the source tree with more than one
                    188: user).
                    189: 
                    190: If you want to store the source trees under your home directory, which is
                    191: convenient for development purposes, simply edit `/usr/pkg/etc/sysbuild.conf`
                    192: and add these settings:
                    193: 
                    194:     SRCDIR="${HOME}/sysbuild/src"
                    195:     [ ! -f /etc/mtree/set.xbase ] || XSRCDIR="${HOME}/sysbuild/xsrc"
                    196: 
                    197: Once this is done, the `sysbuild build` invocation show above should just work
                    198: under your unprivileged user. The upgrade procedure then becomes:
                    199: 
                    200:     $ sysbuild build
                    201:     ... become root ...
                    202:     # sysupgrade auto ~/sysbuild/release/$(uname -m)
                    203: 
                    204: The other alternative, in case you want to maintain your source trees in the
                    205: locations described by
                    206: [hier(7)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?hier+7+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386), is
                    207: to do the following as root:
                    208: 
                    209:     # mkdir -p /usr/src /usr/xsrc
                    210:     # chown -R <your-user>:wsrc /usr/src /usr/xsrc
                    211:     ... and optionally add <your-user> to wsrc in /etc/group ...
                    212: 
                    213: After this, the default configuration file of sysbuild will let you place the
                    214: files in these locations and let you do unprivileged builds.
                    215: 
1.2     ! jdf       216: **Note**: If you have an an encrypted home partition, or another "special"
        !           217: filesystem you store your sources on, you should backup them somehwere you can
        !           218: easily access them! In case of a failed build you might want to rebuild without
        !           219: being able to access an encrypted partition.
1.1       jdf       220: 
                    221: ### Tweak: Setting up nightly builds
                    222: 
                    223: The `pkgsrc/sysutils/sysbuild-user` package can be used to configure and
                    224: maintain an unprivileged system user to perform periodic (e.g. nightly) builds
                    225: from source. This can come in very handy to closely track NetBSD-current.
                    226: 
                    227: The installed user is appropriately named sysbuild, and is configured by
                    228: default to run a full system build overnight. The results are left in
                    229: `/home/sysbuild/release/<machine>/`, which is the convenient default of
                    230: sysupgrade's release directory. Any build failures will be reported to you by
                    231: email.
                    232: 
                    233: The behavior of sysbuild for this unprivileged user is configured in
                    234: `/home/sysbuild/default.conf`.
                    235: 
                    236: You can interact with sysbuild under this unprivileged user by running
                    237: commands of the form:
                    238: 
                    239:     # su - sysbuild /usr/pkg/bin/sysbuild ...
                    240: 
                    241: ## More details about the updating of configuration and startup files
                    242: 
                    243: [etcupdate(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?etcupdate+8+NetBSD-current)
                    244: is a script to help users compare, merge and install new configuration and
                    245: startup files (files found in the `etc.tgz` distribution set) in `/dev`, `/etc`
                    246: and `/root` after performing an operating system upgrade. The upgrade of the
                    247: operating system could have been performed either by compiling sources or by
                    248: extracting the distribution binaries.
                    249: 
                    250: ### Using etcupdate with source files
                    251: 
                    252: In case where the sources are in `/usr/src` the following command should be enough:
                    253: 
                    254:     # etcupdate
                    255: 
                    256: But what if your NetBSD sources are in an alternative location, such as in
                    257: `/home/jdoe/netbsd/src`? Don't worry, tell etcupdate the location of your
                    258: source tree with `-s srcdir` and it will work just fine:
                    259: 
                    260:     # etcupdate -s /home/jdoe/netbsd/src
                    261: 
                    262: ### Using etcupdate with binary distribution sets
                    263: 
                    264: Sometimes it's not convenient to have the sources around but you still want to
                    265: update the configuration and startup files. The solution is to feed `etc.tgz`
                    266: (or `xetc.tgz`) to etcupdate via the `-s tgzfile` switch:
                    267: 
                    268:     # etcupdate -s /some/where/etc.tgz
                    269: 
                    270: ### Using `etcmanage` instead of `etcupdate`
                    271: 
                    272: The `etcmanage` perl script (available from
                    273: [pkgsrc/sysutils/etcmanage](http://pkgsrc.se/sysutils/etcmanage) or as binary
                    274: package) is an alternative to etcupdate(8). It should be used in the following
                    275: way, in combination with
                    276: [postinstall(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?postinstall+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386):
                    277: 
                    278:     # /usr/pkg/bin/etcmanage
                    279:     # /usr/sbin/postinstall
                    280: 

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