File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / guide / raidframe.mdwn
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Sat Mar 2 13:23:44 2013 UTC (7 years, 6 months ago) by jdf
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Finally, some more cosmetics. This is the last one.

    1: # NetBSD RAIDframe
    2: 
    3: ## RAIDframe Introduction
    4: 
    5: ### About RAIDframe
    6: 
    7: NetBSD uses the [CMU RAIDframe](http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/RAIDframe/) software for
    8: its RAID subsystem. NetBSD is the primary platform for RAIDframe development.
    9: RAIDframe can also be found in older versions of FreeBSD and OpenBSD. NetBSD
   10: also has another way of bundling disks, the
   11: [ccd(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ccd+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) subsystem
   12: (see [Concatenated Disk Device](/guide/ccd)). You should possess some [basic
   13: knowledge](http://www.acnc.com/04_00.html) about RAID concepts and terminology
   14: before continuing. You should also be at least familiar with the different
   15: levels of RAID - Adaptec provides an [excellent
   16: reference](http://www.adaptec.com/en-US/_common/compatibility/_education/RAID_level_compar_wp.htm),
   17: and the [raid(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?raid+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
   18: manpage contains a short overview too.
   19: 
   20: ### A warning about Data Integrity, Backups, and High Availability
   21: 
   22: RAIDframe is a Software RAID implementation, as opposed to Hardware RAID. As
   23: such, it does not need special disk controllers supported by NetBSD. System
   24: administrators should give a great deal of consideration to whether software
   25: RAID or hardware RAID is more appropriate for their "Mission Critical"
   26: applications. For some projects you might consider the use of many of the
   27: hardware RAID devices [supported by
   28: NetBSD](http://www.NetBSD.org/support/hardware/). It is truly at your discretion
   29: what type of RAID you use, but it is recommend that you consider factors such
   30: as: manageability, commercial vendor support, load-balancing and failover, etc.
   31: 
   32: Depending on the RAID level used, RAIDframe does provide redundancy in the event
   33: of a hardware failure. However, it is *not* a replacement for reliable backups!
   34: Software and user-error can still cause data loss. RAIDframe may be used as a
   35: mechanism for facilitating backups in systems without backup hardware, but this
   36: is not an ideal configuration. Finally, with regard to "high availability", RAID
   37: is only a very small component to ensuring data availability.
   38: 
   39: Once more for good measure: *Back up your data!*
   40: 
   41: ### Hardware versus Software RAID
   42: 
   43: If you run a server, it will most probably already have a Hardware RAID
   44: controller. There are reasons for and against using a Software RAID, depending
   45: on the scenario.
   46: 
   47: In general, a Software RAID is well suited for low-IO system disks. If you run a
   48: Software RAID, you can exchange disks and disk controllers, or even move the
   49: disks to a completely different machine. The computational overhead for the RAID
   50: is negligible if there is only few disk IO operations.
   51: 
   52: If you need much IO, you should use a Hardware RAID. With a Software RAID, the
   53: redundancy data has to be transferred via the bus your disk controller is
   54: connected to. With a Hardware RAID, you transfer data only once - the redundancy
   55: computation and transfer is done by the controller.
   56: 
   57: ### Getting Help
   58: 
   59: If you encounter problems using RAIDframe, you have several options for
   60: obtaining help.
   61: 
   62:  1. Read the RAIDframe man pages:
   63:     [raid(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?raid+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) and
   64:     [raidctl(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?raidctl+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
   65:     thoroughly.
   66: 
   67:  2. Search the mailing list archives. Unfortunately, there is no NetBSD list
   68:     dedicated to RAIDframe support. Depending on the nature of the problem, posts
   69:     tend to end up in a variety of lists. At a very minimum, search
   70:     [netbsd-help](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/netbsd-help/),
   71:     [netbsd-users@NetBSD.org](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/netbsd-users/),
   72:     [current-users@NetBSD.org](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/current-users/). Also
   73:     search the list for the NetBSD platform on which you are using RAIDframe:
   74:     port-*`${ARCH}`*@NetBSD.org.
   75: 
   76:     *Caution*: Because RAIDframe is constantly undergoing development, some information in
   77: 	mailing list archives has the potential of being dated and inaccurate.
   78: 
   79:  3. Search the [Problem Report
   80:     database](http://www.NetBSD.org/support/send-pr.html).
   81: 
   82:  4. If your problem persists: Post to the mailing list most appropriate
   83:     (judgment call). Collect as much verbosely detailed information as possible
   84:     before posting: Include your
   85:     [dmesg(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dmesg+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
   86:     output from `/var/run/dmesg.boot`, your kernel
   87:     [config(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?config+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) ,
   88:     your `/etc/raid[0-9].conf`, any relevant errors on `/dev/console`,
   89:     `/var/log/messages`, or to `stdout/stderr` of
   90:     [raidctl(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?raidctl+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).
   91:     The output of **raidctl -s** (if available) will be useful as well. Also
   92:     include details on the troubleshooting steps you've taken thus far, exactly
   93:     when the problem started, and any notes on recent changes that may have
   94:     prompted the problem to develop. Remember to be patient when waiting for a
   95:     response.
   96: 
   97: ## Setup RAIDframe Support
   98: 
   99: The use of RAID will require software and hardware configuration changes.
  100: 
  101: ### Kernel Support
  102: 
  103: The GENERIC kernel already has support for RAIDframe. If you have built a custom
  104: kernel for your environment the kernel configuration must have the following
  105: options:
  106: 
  107:     pseudo-device   raid            8       # RAIDframe disk driver
  108:     options         RAID_AUTOCONFIG         # auto-configuration of RAID components
  109: 
  110: The RAID support must be detected by the NetBSD kernel, which can be checked by
  111: looking at the output of the
  112: [dmesg(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dmesg+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  113: command.
  114: 
  115:     # dmesg|grep -i raid
  116:     Kernelized RAIDframe activated
  117: 
  118: Historically, the kernel must also contain static mappings between bus addresses
  119: and device nodes in `/dev`. This used to ensure consistency of devices within
  120: RAID sets in the event of a device failure after reboot. Since NetBSD 1.6,
  121: however, using the auto-configuration features of RAIDframe has been recommended
  122: over statically mapping devices. The auto-configuration features allow drives to
  123: move around on the system, and RAIDframe will automatically determine which
  124: components belong to which RAID sets.
  125: 
  126: ### Power Redundancy and Disk Caching
  127: 
  128: If your system has an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS), if your system has
  129: redundant power supplies, or your disk controller has a battery, you should
  130: consider enabling the read and write caches on your drives. On systems with
  131: redundant power, this will improve drive performance. On systems without
  132: redundant power, the write cache could endanger the integrity of RAID data in
  133: the event of a power loss.
  134: 
  135: The [dkctl(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dkctl+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  136: utility to can be used for this on all kinds of disks that support the operation
  137: (SCSI, EIDE, SATA, ...):
  138: 
  139:     # dkctl wd0 getcache
  140:     /dev/rwd0d: read cache enabled
  141:     /dev/rwd0d: read cache enable is not changeable
  142:     /dev/rwd0d: write cache enable is changeable
  143:     /dev/rwd0d: cache parameters are not savable
  144:     # dkctl wd0 setcache rw
  145:     # dkctl wd0 getcache
  146:     /dev/rwd0d: read cache enabled
  147:     /dev/rwd0d: write-back cache enabled
  148:     /dev/rwd0d: read cache enable is not changeable
  149:     /dev/rwd0d: write cache enable is changeable
  150:     /dev/rwd0d: cache parameters are not savable
  151: 
  152: ## Example: RAID-1 Root Disk
  153: 
  154: This example explains how to setup RAID-1 root disk. With RAID-1 components are
  155: mirrored and therefore the server can be fully functional in the event of a
  156: single component failure. The goal is to provide a level of redundancy that will
  157: allow the system to encounter a component failure on either component disk in
  158: the RAID and:
  159: 
  160:  * Continue normal operations until a maintenance window can be scheduled.
  161:  * Or, in the unlikely event that the component failure causes a system reboot,
  162:    be able to quickly reconfigure the system to boot from the remaining
  163:    component (platform dependent).
  164: 
  165: ![RAID-1 Disk Logical Layout](/guide/images/raidframe_raidl1-diskdia.png)
  166: **RAID-1 Disk Logical Layout**
  167: 
  168: Because RAID-1 provides both redundancy and performance improvements, its most
  169: practical application is on critical "system" partitions such as `/`, `/usr`,
  170: `/var`, `swap`, etc., where read operations are more frequent than write
  171: operations. For other file systems, such as `/home` or `/var/`, other RAID
  172: levels might be considered (see the references above). If one were simply
  173: creating a generic RAID-1 volume for a non-root file system, the cookie-cutter
  174: examples from the man page could be followed, but because the root volume must
  175: be bootable, certain special steps must be taken during initial setup.
  176: 
  177: *Note*: This example will outline a process that differs only slightly between
  178: the i386 and sparc64 platforms. In an attempt to reduce excessive duplication of
  179: content, where differences do exist and are cosmetic in nature, they will be
  180: pointed out using a section such as this. If the process is drastically
  181: different, the process will branch into separate, platform dependent steps.
  182: 
  183: ### Pseudo-Process Outline
  184: 
  185: Although a much more refined process could be developed using a custom copy of
  186: NetBSD installed on custom-developed removable media, presently the NetBSD
  187: install media lacks RAIDframe tools and support, so the following pseudo process
  188: has become the de facto standard for setting up RAID-1 Root.
  189: 
  190:  1. Install a stock NetBSD onto Disk0 of your system.
  191: 
  192: 
  193:     ![Perform generic install onto Disk0/wd0](/guide/images/raidframe_r1r-pp1.png)
  194:     **Perform generic install onto Disk0/wd0**
  195: 
  196:  2. Use the installed system on Disk0/wd0 to setup a RAID Set composed of
  197:     Disk1/wd1 only.
  198: 
  199:     ![Setup RAID Set](/guide/images/raidframe_r1r-pp2.png)
  200:     **Setup RAID Set**
  201: 
  202:  3. Reboot the system off the Disk1/wd1 with the newly created RAID volume.
  203: 
  204: 
  205:     ![Reboot using Disk1/wd1 of RAID](/guide/images/raidframe_r1r-pp3.png)
  206:     **Reboot using Disk1/wd1 of RAID**
  207: 
  208: 
  209:  4. Add/re-sync Disk0/wd0 back into the RAID set.
  210: 
  211:     ![Mirror Disk1/wd1 back to Disk0/wd0](/guide/images/raidframe_r1r-pp4.png)
  212:     **Mirror Disk1/wd1 back to Disk0/wd0**
  213: 
  214: ### Hardware Review
  215: 
  216: At present, the alpha, amd64, i386, pmax, sparc, sparc64, and vax NetBSD
  217: platforms support booting from RAID-1. Booting is not supported from any other
  218: RAID level. Booting from a RAID set is accomplished by teaching the 1st stage
  219: boot loader to understand both 4.2BSD/FFS and RAID partitions. The 1st boot
  220: block code only needs to know enough about the disk partitions and file systems
  221: to be able to read the 2nd stage boot blocks. Therefore, at any time, the
  222: system's BIOS/firmware must be able to read a drive with 1st stage boot blocks
  223: installed. On the i386 platform, configuring this is entirely dependent on the
  224: vendor of the controller card/host bus adapter to which your disks are
  225: connected. On sparc64 this is controlled by the IEEE 1275 Sun OpenBoot Firmware.
  226: 
  227: This article assumes two identical IDE disks (`/dev/wd{0,1}`) which we are going
  228: to mirror (RAID-1). These disks are identified as:
  229: 
  230:     # grep ^wd /var/run/dmesg.boot
  231:     wd0 at atabus0 drive 0: <WDC WD100BB-75CLB0>
  232:     wd0: drive supports 16-sector PIO transfers, LBA addressing
  233:     wd0: 9541 MB, 19386 cyl, 16 head, 63 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 19541088 sectors
  234:     wd0: drive supports PIO mode 4, DMA mode 2, Ultra-DMA mode 5 (Ultra/100)
  235:     wd0(piixide0:0:0): using PIO mode 4, Ultra-DMA mode 2 (Ultra/33) (using DMA data transfers)
  236:     
  237:     wd1 at atabus1 drive 0: <WDC WD100BB-75CLB0>
  238:     wd1: drive supports 16-sector PIO transfers, LBA addressing
  239:     wd1: 9541 MB, 19386 cyl, 16 head, 63 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 19541088 sectors
  240:     wd1: drive supports PIO mode 4, DMA mode 2, Ultra-DMA mode 5 (Ultra/100)
  241:     wd1(piixide0:1:0): using PIO mode 4, Ultra-DMA mode 2 (Ultra/33) (using DMA data transfers)
  242: 
  243: *Note*: If you are using SCSI, replace `/dev/{,r}wd{0,1}` with
  244: `/dev/{,r}sd{0,1}`.
  245: 
  246: In this example, both disks are jumpered as Master on separate channels on the
  247: same controller. You usually wouldn't want to have both disks on the same bus on
  248: the same controller; this creates a single point of failure. Ideally you would
  249: have the disks on separate channels on separate controllers. Nonetheless, in
  250: most cases the most critical point is the hard disk, so having redundant
  251: channels or controllers is not that important. Plus, having more channels or
  252: controllers increases costs. Some SCSI controllers have multiple channels on the
  253: same controller, however, a SCSI bus reset on one channel could adversely affect
  254: the other channel if the ASIC/IC becomes overloaded. The trade-off with two
  255: controllers is that twice the bandwidth is used on the system bus. For purposes
  256: of simplification, this example shows two disks on different channels on the
  257: same controller.
  258: 
  259: *Note*: RAIDframe requires that all components be of the same size. Actually, it
  260: will use the lowest common denominator among components of dissimilar sizes. For
  261: purposes of illustration, the example uses two disks of identical geometries.
  262: Also, consider the availability of replacement disks if a component suffers a
  263: critical hardware failure.
  264: 
  265: *Tip*: Two disks of identical vendor model numbers could have different
  266: geometries if the drive possesses "grown defects". Use a low-level program to
  267: examine the grown defects table of the disk. These disks are obviously
  268: suboptimal candidates for use in RAID and should be avoided.
  269: 
  270: ### Initial Install on Disk0/wd0
  271: 
  272: Perform a very generic installation onto your Disk0/wd0. Follow the `INSTALL`
  273: instructions for your platform. Install all the sets but do not bother
  274: customizing anything other than the kernel as it will be overwritten.
  275: 
  276: *Tip*: On i386, during the sysinst install, when prompted if you want to `use
  277: the entire disk for NetBSD`, answer `yes`.
  278: 
  279:  * [Installing NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations](/guide/inst)
  280:  * [NetBSD/i386 Install](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/i386/INSTALL.html)
  281:  * [NetBSD/sparc64 Install](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/sparc64/INSTALL.html)
  282: 
  283: Once the installation is complete, you should examine the
  284: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  285: and [fdisk(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?fdisk+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) /
  286: [sunlabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?sunlabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  287: outputs on the system:
  288: 
  289:     # df
  290:     Filesystem   1K-blocks        Used       Avail %Cap Mounted on
  291:     /dev/wd0a       9487886      502132     8511360   5% /
  292: 
  293: On i386:
  294: 
  295:     # disklabel -r wd0
  296:     type: unknown
  297:     disk: Disk00
  298:     label:
  299:     flags:
  300:     bytes/sector: 512
  301:     sectors/track: 63
  302:     tracks/cylinder: 16
  303:     sectors/cylinder: 1008
  304:     cylinders: 19386
  305:     total sectors: 19541088
  306:     rpm: 3600
  307:     interleave: 1
  308:     trackskew: 0
  309:     cylinderskew: 0
  310:     headswitch: 0           # microseconds
  311:     track-to-track seek: 0  # microseconds
  312:     drivedata: 0
  313:     
  314:     16 partitions:
  315:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  316:      a:  19276992        63     4.2BSD   1024  8192 46568  # (Cyl.      0* - 19124*)
  317:      b:    264033  19277055       swap                     # (Cyl.  19124* - 19385)
  318:      c:  19541025        63     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0* - 19385)
  319:      d:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 - 19385)
  320:     
  321:     # fdisk /dev/rwd0d
  322:     Disk: /dev/rwd0d
  323:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
  324:     cylinders: 19386, heads: 16, sectors/track: 63 (1008 sectors/cylinder)
  325:     total sectors: 19541088
  326:     
  327:     BIOS disk geometry:
  328:     cylinders: 1023, heads: 255, sectors/track: 63 (16065 sectors/cylinder)
  329:     total sectors: 19541088
  330:     
  331:     Partition table:
  332:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
  333:         start 63, size 19541025 (9542 MB, Cyls 0-1216/96/1), Active
  334:     1: <UNUSED>
  335:     2: <UNUSED>
  336:     3: <UNUSED>
  337:     Bootselector disabled.
  338:     First active partition: 0
  339: 
  340: On Sparc64 the command and output differ slightly:
  341: 
  342:     # disklabel -r wd0
  343:     type: unknown
  344:     disk: Disk0
  345:     [...snip...]
  346:     8 partitions:
  347:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  348:      a:  19278000         0     4.2BSD   1024  8192 46568  # (Cyl.      0 -  19124)
  349:      b:    263088  19278000       swap                     # (Cyl.  19125 -  19385)
  350:      c:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -  19385)
  351:     
  352:     # sunlabel /dev/rwd0c
  353:     sunlabel> P
  354:     a: start cyl =      0, size = 19278000 (19125/0/0 - 9413.09Mb)
  355:     b: start cyl =  19125, size =   263088 (261/0/0 - 128.461Mb)
  356:     c: start cyl =      0, size = 19541088 (19386/0/0 - 9541.55Mb)
  357: 
  358: ### Preparing Disk1/wd1
  359: 
  360: Once you have a stock install of NetBSD on Disk0/wd0, you are ready to begin.
  361: Disk1/wd1 will be visible and unused by the system. To setup Disk1/wd1, you will
  362: use
  363: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  364: to allocate the entire second disk to the RAID-1 set.
  365: 
  366: *Tip*: The best way to ensure that Disk1/wd1 is completely empty is to 'zero'
  367: out the first few sectors of the disk with
  368: [dd(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dd+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) . This will
  369: erase the MBR (i386) or Sun disk label (sparc64), as well as the NetBSD disk
  370: label. If you make a mistake at any point during the RAID setup process, you can
  371: always refer to this process to restore the disk to an empty state.
  372: 
  373: *Note*: On sparc64, use `/dev/rwd1c` instead of `/dev/rwd1d`!
  374: 
  375:     # dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rwd1d bs=8k count=1
  376:     1+0 records in
  377:     1+0 records out
  378:     8192 bytes transferred in 0.003 secs (2730666 bytes/sec)
  379: 
  380: Once this is complete, on i386, verify that both the MBR and NetBSD disk labels
  381: are gone. On sparc64, verify that the Sun Disk label is gone as well.
  382: 
  383: On i386:
  384: 
  385:     # fdisk /dev/rwd1d
  386:     
  387:     fdisk: primary partition table invalid, no magic in sector 0
  388:     Disk: /dev/rwd1d
  389:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
  390:     cylinders: 19386, heads: 16, sectors/track: 63 (1008 sectors/cylinder)
  391:     total sectors: 19541088
  392:     
  393:     BIOS disk geometry:
  394:     cylinders: 1023, heads: 255, sectors/track: 63 (16065 sectors/cylinder)
  395:     total sectors: 19541088
  396:     
  397:     Partition table:
  398:     0: <UNUSED>
  399:     1: <UNUSED>
  400:     2: <UNUSED>
  401:     3: <UNUSED>
  402:     Bootselector disabled.
  403:     
  404:     # disklabel -r wd1
  405:     
  406:     [...snip...]
  407:     16 partitions:
  408:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  409:      c:  19541025        63     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0* - 19385)
  410:      d:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 - 19385)
  411: 
  412: On sparc64:
  413: 
  414:     # sunlabel /dev/rwd1c
  415:     
  416:     sunlabel: bogus label on `/dev/wd1c' (bad magic number)
  417:     
  418:     # disklabel -r wd1
  419:     
  420:     [...snip...]
  421:     3 partitions:
  422:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  423:      c:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -  19385)
  424:     disklabel: boot block size 0
  425:     disklabel: super block size 0
  426: 
  427: Now that you are certain the second disk is empty, on i386 you must establish
  428: the MBR on the second disk using the values obtained from Disk0/wd0 above. We
  429: must remember to mark the NetBSD partition active or the system will not boot.
  430: You must also create a NetBSD disklabel on Disk1/wd1 that will enable a RAID
  431: volume to exist upon it. On sparc64, you will need to simply
  432: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  433: the second disk which will write the proper Sun Disk Label.
  434: 
  435: *Tip*:
  436: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  437: will use your shell' s environment variable `$EDITOR` variable to edit the
  438: disklabel. The default is
  439: [vi(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vi+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  440: 
  441: On i386:
  442: 
  443:     # fdisk -0ua /dev/rwd1d
  444:     fdisk: primary partition table invalid, no magic in sector 0
  445:     Disk: /dev/rwd1d
  446:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
  447:     cylinders: 19386, heads: 16, sectors/track: 63 (1008 sectors/cylinder)
  448:     total sectors: 19541088
  449:     
  450:     BIOS disk geometry:
  451:     cylinders: 1023, heads: 255, sectors/track: 63 (16065 sectors/cylinder)
  452:     total sectors: 19541088
  453:     
  454:     Do you want to change our idea of what BIOS thinks? [n]
  455:     
  456:     Partition 0:
  457:     <UNUSED>
  458:     The data for partition 0 is:
  459:     <UNUSED>
  460:     sysid: [0..255 default: 169]
  461:     start: [0..1216cyl default: 63, 0cyl, 0MB]
  462:     size: [0..1216cyl default: 19541025, 1216cyl, 9542MB]
  463:     bootmenu: []
  464:     Do you want to change the active partition? [n] y
  465:     Choosing 4 will make no partition active.
  466:     active partition: [0..4 default: 0] 0
  467:     Are you happy with this choice? [n] y
  468:     
  469:     We haven't written the MBR back to disk yet.  This is your last chance.
  470:     Partition table:
  471:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
  472:         start 63, size 19541025 (9542 MB, Cyls 0-1216/96/1), Active
  473:     1: <UNUSED>
  474:     2: <UNUSED>
  475:     3: <UNUSED>
  476:     Bootselector disabled.
  477:     Should we write new partition table? [n] y
  478:     
  479:     # disklabel -r -e -I wd1
  480:     type: unknown
  481:     disk: Disk1
  482:     label:
  483:     flags:
  484:     bytes/sector: 512
  485:     sectors/track: 63
  486:     tracks/cylinder: 16
  487:     sectors/cylinder: 1008
  488:     cylinders: 19386
  489:     total sectors: 19541088
  490:     [...snip...]
  491:     16 partitions:
  492:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  493:      a:  19541025        63       RAID                     # (Cyl.      0*-19385)
  494:      c:  19541025        63     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0*-19385)
  495:      d:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -19385)
  496: 
  497: On sparc64:
  498: 
  499:     # disklabel -r -e -I wd1
  500:     type: unknown
  501:     disk: Disk1
  502:     label:
  503:     flags:
  504:     bytes/sector: 512
  505:     sectors/track: 63
  506:     tracks/cylinder: 16
  507:     sectors/cylinder: 1008
  508:     cylinders: 19386
  509:     total sectors: 19541088
  510:     [...snip...]
  511:     3 partitions:
  512:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  513:      a:  19541088         0       RAID                     # (Cyl.      0 -  19385)
  514:      c:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -  19385)
  515:     
  516:     # sunlabel /dev/rwd1c
  517:     sunlabel> P
  518:     a: start cyl =      0, size = 19541088 (19386/0/0 - 9541.55Mb)
  519:     c: start cyl =      0, size = 19541088 (19386/0/0 - 9541.55Mb)
  520: 
  521: *Note*: On i386, the `c:` and `d:` slices are reserved. `c:` represents the
  522: NetBSD portion of the disk. `d:` represents the entire disk. Because we want to
  523: allocate the entire NetBSD MBR partition to RAID, and because `a:` resides
  524: within the bounds of `c:`, the `a:` and `c:` slices have same size and offset
  525: values and sizes. The offset must start at a track boundary (an increment of
  526: sectors matching the sectors/track value in the disk label). On sparc64 however,
  527: `c:` represents the entire NetBSD partition in the Sun disk label and `d:` is
  528: not reserved. Also note that sparc64's `c:` and `a:` require no offset from the
  529: beginning of the disk, however if they should need to be, the offset must start
  530: at a cylinder boundary (an increment of sectors matching the sectors/cylinder
  531: value).
  532: 
  533: ### Initializing the RAID Device
  534: 
  535: Next we create the configuration file for the RAID set/volume. Traditionally,
  536: RAIDframe configuration files belong in `/etc` and would be read and initialized
  537: at boot time, however, because we are creating a bootable RAID volume, the
  538: configuration data will actually be written into the RAID volume using the
  539: *auto-configure* feature. Therefore, files are needed only during the initial
  540: setup and should not reside in `/etc`.
  541: 
  542:     # vi /var/tmp/raid0.conf
  543:     START array
  544:     1 2 0
  545:     
  546:     START disks
  547:     absent
  548:     /dev/wd1a
  549:     
  550:     START layout
  551:     128 1 1 1
  552:     
  553:     START queue
  554:     fifo 100
  555: 
  556: Note that `absent` means a non-existing disk. This will allow us to establish
  557: the RAID volume with a bogus component that we will substitute for Disk0/wd0 at
  558: a later time.
  559: 
  560: Next we configure the RAID device and initialize the serial number to something
  561: unique. In this example we use a "YYYYMMDD*`Revision`*" scheme. The format you
  562: choose is entirely at your discretion, however the scheme you choose should
  563: ensure that no two RAID sets use the same serial number at the same time.
  564: 
  565: After that we initialize the RAID set for the first time, safely ignoring the
  566: errors regarding the bogus component.
  567: 
  568:     # raidctl -v -C /var/tmp/raid0.conf raid0
  569:     Ignoring missing component at column 0
  570:     raid0: Component absent being configured at col: 0
  571:              Column: 0 Num Columns: 0
  572:              Version: 0 Serial Number: 0 Mod Counter: 0
  573:              Clean: No Status: 0
  574:     Number of columns do not match for: absent
  575:     absent is not clean!
  576:     raid0: Component /dev/wd1a being configured at col: 1
  577:              Column: 0 Num Columns: 0
  578:              Version: 0 Serial Number: 0 Mod Counter: 0
  579:              Clean: No Status: 0
  580:     Column out of alignment for: /dev/wd1a
  581:     Number of columns do not match for: /dev/wd1a
  582:     /dev/wd1a is not clean!
  583:     raid0: There were fatal errors
  584:     raid0: Fatal errors being ignored.
  585:     raid0: RAID Level 1
  586:     raid0: Components: component0[**FAILED**] /dev/wd1a
  587:     raid0: Total Sectors: 19540864 (9541 MB)
  588:     # raidctl -v -I 2009122601 raid0
  589:     # raidctl -v -i raid0
  590:     Initiating re-write of parity
  591:     raid0: Error re-writing parity!
  592:     Parity Re-write status:
  593:     
  594:     # tail -1 /var/log/messages
  595:     Dec 26 00:00:30  /netbsd: raid0: Error re-writing parity!
  596:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
  597:     Components:
  598:               component0: failed
  599:                /dev/wd1a: optimal
  600:     No spares.
  601:     component0 status is: failed.  Skipping label.
  602:     Component label for /dev/wd1a:
  603:        Row: 0, Column: 1, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
  604:        Version: 2, Serial Number: 2009122601, Mod Counter: 7
  605:        Clean: No, Status: 0
  606:        sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
  607:        Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
  608:        RAID Level: 1
  609:        Autoconfig: No
  610:        Root partition: No
  611:        Last configured as: raid0
  612:     Parity status: DIRTY
  613:     Reconstruction is 100% complete.
  614:     Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
  615:     Copyback is 100% complete.
  616: 
  617: ### Setting up Filesystems
  618: 
  619: *Caution*: The root filesystem must begin at sector 0 of the RAID device. If
  620: not, the primary boot loader will be unable to find the secondary boot loader.
  621: 
  622: The RAID device is now configured and available. The RAID device is a pseudo
  623: disk-device. It will be created with a default disk label. You must now
  624: determine the proper sizes for disklabel slices for your production environment.
  625: For purposes of simplification in this example, our system will have 8.5
  626: gigabytes dedicated to `/` as `/dev/raid0a` and the rest allocated to `swap`
  627: as `/dev/raid0b`.
  628: 
  629: *Caution*: This is an unrealistic disk layout for a production server; the
  630: NetBSD Guide can expand on proper partitioning technique. See [Installing
  631: NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations*](inst).
  632: 
  633: *Note*: Note that 1 GB is 2\*1024\*1024=2097152 blocks (1 block is 512 bytes, or
  634: 0.5 kilobytes). Despite what the underlying hardware composing a RAID set is,
  635: the RAID pseudo disk will always have 512 bytes/sector.
  636: 
  637: *Note*: In our example, the space allocated to the underlying `a:` slice
  638: composing the RAID set differed between i386 and sparc64, therefore the total
  639: sectors of the RAID volumes differs:
  640: 
  641: On i386:
  642: 
  643:      # disklabel -r -e -I raid0
  644:     type: RAID
  645:     disk: raid
  646:     label: fictitious
  647:     flags:
  648:     bytes/sector: 512
  649:     sectors/track: 128
  650:     tracks/cylinder: 8
  651:     sectors/cylinder: 1024
  652:     cylinders: 19082
  653:     total sectors: 19540864
  654:     rpm: 3600
  655:     interleave: 1
  656:     trackskew: 0
  657:     cylinderskew: 0
  658:     headswitch: 0 # microseconds
  659:     track-to-track seek: 0 # microseconds
  660:     drivedata: 0
  661:     
  662:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  663:      a:  19015680         0     4.2BSD      0     0     0  # (Cyl.      0 - 18569)
  664:      b:    525184  19015680       swap                     # (Cyl.  18570 - 19082*)
  665:      d:  19540864         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 - 19082*)
  666: 
  667: On sparc64:
  668: 
  669:     # disklabel -r -e -I raid0
  670:     [...snip...]
  671:     total sectors: 19539968
  672:     [...snip...]
  673:     3 partitions:
  674:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  675:      a:  19251200         0     4.2BSD      0     0     0  # (Cyl.      0 -  18799)
  676:      b:    288768  19251200       swap                     # (Cyl.  18800 -  19081)
  677:      c:  19539968         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -  19081)
  678: 
  679: Next, format the newly created `/` partition as a 4.2BSD FFSv1 File System:
  680: 
  681:     # newfs -O 1 /dev/rraid0a
  682:     /dev/rraid0a: 9285.0MB (19015680 sectors) block size 16384, fragment size 2048
  683:             using 51 cylinder groups of 182.06MB, 11652 blks, 23040 inodes.
  684:     super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
  685:     32, 372896, 745760, 1118624, 1491488, 1864352, 2237216, 2610080, 2982944,
  686:     ...............................................................................
  687:     
  688:     # fsck -fy /dev/rraid0a
  689:     ** /dev/rraid0a
  690:     ** File system is already clean
  691:     ** Last Mounted on
  692:     ** Phase 1 - Check Blocks and Sizes
  693:     ** Phase 2 - Check Pathnames
  694:     ** Phase 3 - Check Connectivity
  695:     ** Phase 4 - Check Reference Counts
  696:     ** Phase 5 - Check Cyl groups
  697:     1 files, 1 used, 4679654 free (14 frags, 584955 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)
  698: 
  699: ### Migrating System to RAID
  700: 
  701: The new RAID filesystems are now ready for use. We mount them under `/mnt` and
  702: copy all files from the old system. This can be done using
  703: [dump(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dump+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) or
  704: [pax(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pax+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).
  705: 
  706:     # mount /dev/raid0a /mnt
  707:     # df -h /mnt
  708:     Filesystem        Size       Used      Avail %Cap Mounted on
  709:     /dev/raid0a       8.9G       2.0K       8.5G   0% /mnt
  710:     # cd /; pax -v -X -rw -pe . /mnt
  711:     [...snip...]
  712: 
  713: The NetBSD install now exists on the RAID filesystem. We need to fix the
  714: mount-points in the new copy of `/etc/fstab` or the system will not come up
  715: correctly. Replace instances of `wd0` with `raid0`.
  716: 
  717: The swap should be unconfigured upon shutdown to avoid parity errors on the RAID
  718: device. This can be done with a simple, one-line setting in `/etc/rc.conf`.
  719: 
  720:     # vi /mnt/etc/rc.conf
  721:     swapoff=YES
  722: 
  723: Next, the boot loader must be installed on Disk1/wd1. Failure to install the
  724: loader on Disk1/wd1 will render the system un-bootable if Disk0/wd0 fails. You
  725: should hope your system won't have to reboot when wd0 fails.
  726: 
  727: *Tip*: Because the BIOS/CMOS menus in many i386 based systems are misleading
  728: with regard to device boot order. I highly recommend utilizing the `-o
  729: timeout=X` option supported by the i386 1st stage boot loader. Setup unique
  730: values for each disk as a point of reference so that you can easily determine
  731: from which disk the system is booting.
  732: 
  733: *Caution*: Although it may seem logical to install the 1st stage boot block into
  734: `/dev/rwd1{c,d}` (which is historically correct with NetBSD 1.6.x
  735: [installboot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?installboot+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  736: , this is no longer the case. If you make this mistake, the boot sector will
  737: become irrecoverably damaged and you will need to start the process over again.
  738: 
  739: On i386, install the boot loader into `/dev/rwd1a`:
  740: 
  741:     # /usr/sbin/installboot -o timeout=30 -v /dev/rwd1a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  742:     File system:         /dev/rwd1a
  743:     Primary bootstrap:   /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  744:     Ignoring PBR with invalid magic in sector 0 of `/dev/rwd1a'
  745:     Boot options:        timeout 30, flags 0, speed 9600, ioaddr 0, console pc
  746: 
  747: On sparc64, install the boot loader into `/dev/rwd1a` as well, however the `-o`
  748: flag is unsupported (and un-needed thanks to OpenBoot):
  749: 
  750:     # /usr/sbin/installboot -v /dev/rwd1a /usr/mdec/bootblk
  751:     File system:         /dev/rwd1a
  752:     Primary bootstrap:   /usr/mdec/bootblk
  753:     Bootstrap start sector: 1
  754:     Bootstrap byte count:   5140
  755:     Writing bootstrap
  756: 
  757: Finally the RAID set must be made auto-configurable and the system should be
  758: rebooted. After the reboot everything is mounted from the RAID devices.
  759: 
  760:     # raidctl -v -A root raid0
  761:     raid0: Autoconfigure: Yes
  762:     raid0: Root: Yes
  763:     # tail -2 /var/log/messages
  764:     raid0: New autoconfig value is: 1
  765:     raid0: New rootpartition value is: 1
  766:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
  767:     [...snip...]
  768:        Autoconfig: Yes
  769:        Root partition: Yes
  770:        Last configured as: raid0
  771:     [...snip...]
  772:     # shutdown -r now
  773: 
  774: *Warning*: Always use
  775: [shutdown(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?shutdown+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  776: when shutting down. Never simply use
  777: [reboot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?reboot+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).
  778: [reboot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?reboot+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  779: will not properly run shutdown RC scripts and will not safely disable swap. This
  780: will cause dirty parity at every reboot.
  781: 
  782: ### The first boot with RAID
  783: 
  784: At this point, temporarily configure your system to boot Disk1/wd1. See notes in
  785: [[Testing Boot Blocks|guide/rf#adding-text-boot]] for details on this process.
  786: The system should boot now and all filesystems should be on the RAID devices.
  787: The RAID will be functional with a single component, however the set is not
  788: fully functional because the bogus drive (wd9) has failed.
  789: 
  790:     # egrep -i "raid|root" /var/run/dmesg.boot
  791:     raid0: RAID Level 1
  792:     raid0: Components: component0[**FAILED**] /dev/wd1a
  793:     raid0: Total Sectors: 19540864 (9541 MB)
  794:     boot device: raid0
  795:     root on raid0a dumps on raid0b
  796:     root file system type: ffs
  797:     
  798:     # df -h
  799:     Filesystem    Size     Used     Avail Capacity  Mounted on
  800:     /dev/raid0a   8.9G     196M      8.3G     2%    /
  801:     kernfs        1.0K     1.0K        0B   100%    /kern
  802:     
  803:     # swapctl -l
  804:     Device      1K-blocks     Used    Avail Capacity  Priority
  805:     /dev/raid0b    262592        0   262592     0%    0
  806:     # raidctl -s raid0
  807:     Components:
  808:               component0: failed
  809:                /dev/wd1a: optimal
  810:     No spares.
  811:     component0 status is: failed.  Skipping label.
  812:     Component label for /dev/wd1a:
  813:        Row: 0, Column: 1, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
  814:        Version: 2, Serial Number: 2009122601, Mod Counter: 65
  815:        Clean: No, Status: 0
  816:        sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
  817:        Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
  818:        RAID Level: 1
  819:        Autoconfig: Yes
  820:        Root partition: Yes
  821:        Last configured as: raid0
  822:     Parity status: DIRTY
  823:     Reconstruction is 100% complete.
  824:     Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
  825:     Copyback is 100% complete.
  826: 
  827: ### Adding Disk0/wd0 to RAID
  828: 
  829: We will now add Disk0/wd0 as a component of the RAID. This will destroy the
  830: original file system structure. On i386, the MBR disklabel will be unaffected
  831: (remember we copied wd0's label to wd1 anyway) , therefore there is no need to
  832: "zero" Disk0/wd0. However, we need to relabel Disk0/wd0 to have an identical
  833: NetBSD disklabel layout as Disk1/wd1. Then we add Disk0/wd0 as "hot-spare" to
  834: the RAID set and initiate the parity reconstruction for all RAID devices,
  835: effectively bringing Disk0/wd0 into the RAID-1 set and "syncing up" both disks.
  836: 
  837:     # disklabel -r wd1 > /tmp/disklabel.wd1
  838:     # disklabel -R -r wd0 /tmp/disklabel.wd1
  839: 
  840: As a last-minute sanity check, you might want to use
  841: [diff(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?diff+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) to
  842: ensure that the disklabels of Disk0/wd0 match Disk1/wd1. You should also backup
  843: these files for reference in the event of an emergency.
  844: 
  845:     # disklabel -r wd0 > /tmp/disklabel.wd0
  846:     # disklabel -r wd1 > /tmp/disklabel.wd1
  847:     # diff /tmp/disklabel.wd0 /tmp/disklabel.wd1
  848:     # fdisk /dev/rwd0 > /tmp/fdisk.wd0
  849:     # fdisk /dev/rwd1 > /tmp/fdisk.wd1
  850:     # diff /tmp/fdisk.wd0 /tmp/fdisk.wd1
  851:     # mkdir /root/RFbackup
  852:     # cp -p /tmp/{disklabel,fdisk}* /root/RFbackup
  853: 
  854: Once you are sure, add Disk0/wd0 as a spare component, and start reconstruction:
  855: 
  856:     # raidctl -v -a /dev/wd0a raid0
  857:     /netbsd: Warning: truncating spare disk /dev/wd0a to 241254528 blocks
  858:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
  859:     Components:
  860:               component0: failed
  861:                /dev/wd1a: optimal
  862:     Spares:
  863:                /dev/wd0a: spare
  864:     [...snip...]
  865:     # raidctl -F component0 raid0
  866:     RECON: initiating reconstruction on col 0 -> spare at col 2
  867:      11% |****                                   | ETA:    04:26 \
  868: 
  869: Depending on the speed of your hardware, the reconstruction time will vary. You
  870: may wish to watch it on another terminal (note that you can interrupt
  871: `raidctl -S` any time without stopping the synchronisation):
  872: 
  873:     # raidctl -S raid0
  874:     Reconstruction is 0% complete.
  875:     Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
  876:     Copyback is 100% complete.
  877:     Reconstruction status:
  878:       17% |******                                 | ETA: 03:08 -
  879: 
  880: After reconstruction, both disks should be *optimal*.
  881: 
  882:     # tail -f /var/log/messages
  883:     raid0: Reconstruction of disk at col 0 completed
  884:     raid0: Recon time was 1290.625033 seconds, accumulated XOR time was 0 us (0.000000)
  885:     raid0:  (start time 1093407069 sec 145393 usec, end time 1093408359 sec 770426 usec)
  886:     raid0: Total head-sep stall count was 0
  887:     raid0: 305318 recon event waits, 1 recon delays
  888:     raid0: 1093407069060000 max exec ticks
  889:     
  890:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
  891:     Components:
  892:                component0: spared
  893:                /dev/wd1a: optimal
  894:     Spares:
  895:          /dev/wd0a: used_spare
  896:          [...snip...]
  897: 
  898: When the reconstruction is finished we need to install the boot loader on the
  899: Disk0/wd0. On i386, install the boot loader into `/dev/rwd0a`:
  900: 
  901:     # /usr/sbin/installboot -o timeout=15 -v /dev/rwd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  902:     File system:         /dev/rwd0a
  903:     Primary bootstrap:   /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  904:     Boot options:        timeout 15, flags 0, speed 9600, ioaddr 0, console pc
  905: 
  906: On sparc64:
  907: 
  908:     # /usr/sbin/installboot -v /dev/rwd0a /usr/mdec/bootblk
  909:     File system:         /dev/rwd0a
  910:     Primary bootstrap:   /usr/mdec/bootblk
  911:     Bootstrap start sector: 1
  912:     Bootstrap byte count:   5140
  913:     Writing bootstrap
  914: 
  915: And finally, reboot the machine one last time before proceeding. This is
  916: required to migrate Disk0/wd0 from status "used\_spare" as "Component0" to state
  917: "optimal". Refer to notes in the next section regarding verification of clean
  918: parity after each reboot.
  919: 
  920:     # shutdown -r now
  921: 
  922: ### Testing Boot Blocks
  923: 
  924: At this point, you need to ensure that your system's hardware can properly boot
  925: using the boot blocks on either disk. On i386, this is a hardware-dependent
  926: process that may be done via your motherboard CMOS/BIOS menu or your controller
  927: card's configuration menu.
  928: 
  929: On i386, use the menu system on your machine to set the boot device order /
  930: priority to Disk1/wd1 before Disk0/wd0. The examples here depict a generic Award
  931: 
  932: BIOS.
  933: 
  934: ![Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk1/wd1](/guide/images/raidframe_awardbios2.png)
  935: **Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk1/wd1**
  936: 
  937: Save changes and exit:
  938: 
  939:     >> NetBSD/i386 BIOS Boot, Revision 5.2 (from NetBSD 5.0.2)
  940:     >> (builds@b7, Sun Feb 7 00:30:50 UTC 2010)
  941:     >> Memory: 639/130048 k
  942:     Press return to boot now, any other key for boot menu
  943:     booting hd0a:netbsd - starting in 30
  944: 
  945: You can determine that the BIOS is reading Disk1/wd1 because the timeout of th
  946: 
  947: boot loader is 30 seconds instead of 15. After the reboot, re-enter the BIOS an
  948: configure the drive boot order back to the default:
  949: 
  950: ![Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk0/wd0](/guide/images/raidframe_awardbios1.png)
  951: **Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk0/wd0**
  952: 
  953: Save changes and exit:
  954: 
  955:     >> NetBSD/i386 BIOS Boot, Revision 5.2 (from NetBSD 5.0.2)
  956:     >> Memory: 639/130048 k
  957:     Press return to boot now, any other key for boot menu
  958:     booting hd0a:netbsd - starting in 15
  959: 
  960: Notice how your custom kernel detects controller/bus/drive assignments
  961: independent of what the BIOS assigns as the boot disk. This is the expected
  962: behavior.
  963: 
  964: On sparc64, use the Sun OpenBoot **devalias** to confirm that both disks are bootable:
  965: 
  966:     Sun Ultra 5/10 UPA/PCI (UltraSPARC-IIi 400MHz), No Keyboard
  967:     OpenBoot 3.15, 128 MB memory installed, Serial #nnnnnnnn.
  968:     Ethernet address 8:0:20:a5:d1:3b, Host ID: nnnnnnnn.
  969:     
  970:     ok devalias
  971:     [...snip...]
  972:     cdrom /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/cdrom@2,0:f
  973:     disk /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@0,0
  974:     disk3 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@3,0
  975:     disk2 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@2,0
  976:     disk1 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@1,0
  977:     disk0 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@0,0
  978:     [...snip...]
  979:     
  980:     ok boot disk0 netbsd
  981:     Initializing Memory [...]
  982:     Boot device /pci/pci/ide@3/disk@0,0 File and args: netbsd
  983:     NetBSD IEEE 1275 Bootblock
  984:     >> NetBSD/sparc64 OpenFirmware Boot, Revision 1.13
  985:     >> (builds@b7.netbsd.org, Wed Jul 29 23:43:42 UTC 2009)
  986:     loadfile: reading header
  987:     elf64_exec: Booting [...]
  988:     symbols @ [....]
  989:      Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
  990:          2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
  991:          The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
  992:      Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
  993:          The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
  994:     [...snip...]
  995: 
  996: And the second disk:
  997: 
  998:     ok boot disk2 netbsd
  999:     Initializing Memory [...]
 1000:     Boot device /pci/pci/ide@3/disk@2,0: File and args:netbsd
 1001:     NetBSD IEEE 1275 Bootblock
 1002:     >> NetBSD/sparc64 OpenFirmware Boot, Revision 1.13
 1003:     >> (builds@b7.netbsd.org, Wed Jul 29 23:43:42 UTC 2009)
 1004:     loadfile: reading header
 1005:     elf64_exec: Booting [...]
 1006:     symbols @ [....]
 1007:      Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
 1008:          2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
 1009:          The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
 1010:      Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
 1011:          The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
 1012:     [...snip...]
 1013: 
 1014: At each boot, the following should appear in the NetBSD kernel
 1015: [dmesg(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dmesg+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) :
 1016: 
 1017:     Kernelized RAIDframe activated
 1018:     raid0: RAID Level 1
 1019:     raid0: Components: /dev/wd0a /dev/wd1a
 1020:     raid0: Total Sectors: 19540864 (9541 MB)
 1021:     boot device: raid0
 1022:     root on raid0a dumps on raid0b
 1023:     root file system type: ffs
 1024: 
 1025: Once you are certain that both disks are bootable, verify the RAID parity is
 1026: clean after each reboot:
 1027: 
 1028:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
 1029:     Components:
 1030:               /dev/wd0a: optimal
 1031:               /dev/wd1a: optimal
 1032:     No spares.
 1033:     [...snip...]
 1034:     Component label for /dev/wd0a:
 1035:        Row: 0, Column: 0, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
 1036:        Version: 2, Serial Number: 2009122601, Mod Counter: 67
 1037:        Clean: No, Status: 0
 1038:        sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
 1039:        Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
 1040:        RAID Level: 1
 1041:        Autoconfig: Yes
 1042:        Root partition: Yes
 1043:        Last configured as: raid0
 1044:     Component label for /dev/wd1a:
 1045:        Row: 0, Column: 1, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
 1046:        Version: 2, Serial Number: 2009122601, Mod Counter: 67
 1047:        Clean: No, Status: 0
 1048:        sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
 1049:        Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
 1050:        RAID Level: 1
 1051:        Autoconfig: Yes
 1052:        Root partition: Yes
 1053:        Last configured as: raid0
 1054:     Parity status: clean
 1055:     Reconstruction is 100% complete.
 1056:     Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
 1057:     Copyback is 100% complete.
 1058: 

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