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    1: **Contents**
    2: 
    3: [[!toc levels=3]]
    4: 
    5: # NetBSD RAIDframe
    6: 
    7: ## RAIDframe Introduction
    8: 
    9: ### About RAIDframe
   10: 
   11: NetBSD uses the [CMU RAIDframe](http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/RAIDframe/) software for
   12: its RAID subsystem. NetBSD is the primary platform for RAIDframe development.
   13: RAIDframe can also be found in older versions of FreeBSD and OpenBSD. NetBSD
   14: also has another way of bundling disks, the
   15: [ccd(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ccd+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) subsystem
   16: (see [Concatenated Disk Device](/guide/ccd)). You should possess some [basic
   17: knowledge](http://www.acnc.com/04_00.html) about RAID concepts and terminology
   18: before continuing. You should also be at least familiar with the different
   19: levels of RAID - Adaptec provides an [excellent
   20: reference](http://www.adaptec.com/en-US/_common/compatibility/_education/RAID_level_compar_wp.htm),
   21: and the [raid(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?raid+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
   22: manpage contains a short overview too.
   23: 
   24: ### A warning about Data Integrity, Backups, and High Availability
   25: 
   26: RAIDframe is a Software RAID implementation, as opposed to Hardware RAID. As
   27: such, it does not need special disk controllers supported by NetBSD. System
   28: administrators should give a great deal of consideration to whether software
   29: RAID or hardware RAID is more appropriate for their "Mission Critical"
   30: applications. For some projects you might consider the use of many of the
   31: hardware RAID devices [supported by
   32: NetBSD](http://www.NetBSD.org/support/hardware/). It is truly at your discretion
   33: what type of RAID you use, but it is recommend that you consider factors such
   34: as: manageability, commercial vendor support, load-balancing and failover, etc.
   35: 
   36: Depending on the RAID level used, RAIDframe does provide redundancy in the event
   37: of a hardware failure. However, it is *not* a replacement for reliable backups!
   38: Software and user-error can still cause data loss. RAIDframe may be used as a
   39: mechanism for facilitating backups in systems without backup hardware, but this
   40: is not an ideal configuration. Finally, with regard to "high availability", RAID
   41: is only a very small component to ensuring data availability.
   42: 
   43: Once more for good measure: *Back up your data!*
   44: 
   45: ### Hardware versus Software RAID
   46: 
   47: If you run a server, it will most probably already have a Hardware RAID
   48: controller. There are reasons for and against using a Software RAID, depending
   49: on the scenario.
   50: 
   51: In general, a Software RAID is well suited for low-IO system disks. If you run a
   52: Software RAID, you can exchange disks and disk controllers, or even move the
   53: disks to a completely different machine. The computational overhead for the RAID
   54: is negligible if there is only few disk IO operations.
   55: 
   56: If you need much IO, you should use a Hardware RAID. With a Software RAID, the
   57: redundancy data has to be transferred via the bus your disk controller is
   58: connected to. With a Hardware RAID, you transfer data only once - the redundancy
   59: computation and transfer is done by the controller.
   60: 
   61: ### Getting Help
   62: 
   63: If you encounter problems using RAIDframe, you have several options for
   64: obtaining help.
   65: 
   66:  1. Read the RAIDframe man pages:
   67:     [raid(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?raid+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) and
   68:     [raidctl(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?raidctl+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
   69:     thoroughly.
   70: 
   71:  2. Search the mailing list archives. Unfortunately, there is no NetBSD list
   72:     dedicated to RAIDframe support. Depending on the nature of the problem, posts
   73:     tend to end up in a variety of lists. At a very minimum, search
   74:     [netbsd-help](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/netbsd-help/),
   75:     [netbsd-users@NetBSD.org](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/netbsd-users/),
   76:     [current-users@NetBSD.org](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/current-users/). Also
   77:     search the list for the NetBSD platform on which you are using RAIDframe:
   78:     port-*`${ARCH}`*@NetBSD.org.
   79: 
   80:     *Caution*: Because RAIDframe is constantly undergoing development, some information in
   81: 	mailing list archives has the potential of being dated and inaccurate.
   82: 
   83:  3. Search the [Problem Report
   84:     database](http://www.NetBSD.org/support/send-pr.html).
   85: 
   86:  4. If your problem persists: Post to the mailing list most appropriate
   87:     (judgment call). Collect as much verbosely detailed information as possible
   88:     before posting: Include your
   89:     [dmesg(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dmesg+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
   90:     output from `/var/run/dmesg.boot`, your kernel
   91:     [config(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?config+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) ,
   92:     your `/etc/raid[0-9].conf`, any relevant errors on `/dev/console`,
   93:     `/var/log/messages`, or to `stdout/stderr` of
   94:     [raidctl(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?raidctl+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).
   95:     The output of **raidctl -s** (if available) will be useful as well. Also
   96:     include details on the troubleshooting steps you've taken thus far, exactly
   97:     when the problem started, and any notes on recent changes that may have
   98:     prompted the problem to develop. Remember to be patient when waiting for a
   99:     response.
  100: 
  101: ## Setup RAIDframe Support
  102: 
  103: The use of RAID will require software and hardware configuration changes.
  104: 
  105: ### Kernel Support
  106: 
  107: The GENERIC kernel already has support for RAIDframe. If you have built a custom
  108: kernel for your environment the kernel configuration must have the following
  109: options:
  110: 
  111:     pseudo-device   raid            8       # RAIDframe disk driver
  112:     options         RAID_AUTOCONFIG         # auto-configuration of RAID components
  113: 
  114: The RAID support must be detected by the NetBSD kernel, which can be checked by
  115: looking at the output of the
  116: [dmesg(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dmesg+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  117: command.
  118: 
  119:     # dmesg|grep -i raid
  120:     Kernelized RAIDframe activated
  121: 
  122: Historically, the kernel must also contain static mappings between bus addresses
  123: and device nodes in `/dev`. This used to ensure consistency of devices within
  124: RAID sets in the event of a device failure after reboot. Since NetBSD 1.6,
  125: however, using the auto-configuration features of RAIDframe has been recommended
  126: over statically mapping devices. The auto-configuration features allow drives to
  127: move around on the system, and RAIDframe will automatically determine which
  128: components belong to which RAID sets.
  129: 
  130: ### Power Redundancy and Disk Caching
  131: 
  132: If your system has an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS), if your system has
  133: redundant power supplies, or your disk controller has a battery, you should
  134: consider enabling the read and write caches on your drives. On systems with
  135: redundant power, this will improve drive performance. On systems without
  136: redundant power, the write cache could endanger the integrity of RAID data in
  137: the event of a power loss.
  138: 
  139: The [dkctl(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dkctl+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  140: utility to can be used for this on all kinds of disks that support the operation
  141: (SCSI, EIDE, SATA, ...):
  142: 
  143:     # dkctl wd0 getcache
  144:     /dev/rwd0d: read cache enabled
  145:     /dev/rwd0d: read cache enable is not changeable
  146:     /dev/rwd0d: write cache enable is changeable
  147:     /dev/rwd0d: cache parameters are not savable
  148:     # dkctl wd0 setcache rw
  149:     # dkctl wd0 getcache
  150:     /dev/rwd0d: read cache enabled
  151:     /dev/rwd0d: write-back cache enabled
  152:     /dev/rwd0d: read cache enable is not changeable
  153:     /dev/rwd0d: write cache enable is changeable
  154:     /dev/rwd0d: cache parameters are not savable
  155: 
  156: ## Example: RAID-1 Root Disk
  157: 
  158: This example explains how to setup RAID-1 root disk. With RAID-1 components are
  159: mirrored and therefore the server can be fully functional in the event of a
  160: single component failure. The goal is to provide a level of redundancy that will
  161: allow the system to encounter a component failure on either component disk in
  162: the RAID and:
  163: 
  164:  * Continue normal operations until a maintenance window can be scheduled.
  165:  * Or, in the unlikely event that the component failure causes a system reboot,
  166:    be able to quickly reconfigure the system to boot from the remaining
  167:    component (platform dependent).
  168: 
  169: ![RAID-1 Disk Logical Layout](/guide/images/raidframe_raidl1-diskdia.png)  
  170: **RAID-1 Disk Logical Layout**
  171: 
  172: Because RAID-1 provides both redundancy and performance improvements, its most
  173: practical application is on critical "system" partitions such as `/`, `/usr`,
  174: `/var`, `swap`, etc., where read operations are more frequent than write
  175: operations. For other file systems, such as `/home` or `/var/`, other RAID
  176: levels might be considered (see the references above). If one were simply
  177: creating a generic RAID-1 volume for a non-root file system, the cookie-cutter
  178: examples from the man page could be followed, but because the root volume must
  179: be bootable, certain special steps must be taken during initial setup.
  180: 
  181: *Note*: This example will outline a process that differs only slightly between
  182: the i386 and sparc64 platforms. In an attempt to reduce excessive duplication of
  183: content, where differences do exist and are cosmetic in nature, they will be
  184: pointed out using a section such as this. If the process is drastically
  185: different, the process will branch into separate, platform dependent steps.
  186: 
  187: ### Pseudo-Process Outline
  188: 
  189: Although a much more refined process could be developed using a custom copy of
  190: NetBSD installed on custom-developed removable media, presently the NetBSD
  191: install media lacks RAIDframe tools and support, so the following pseudo process
  192: has become the de facto standard for setting up RAID-1 Root.
  193: 
  194:  1. Install a stock NetBSD onto Disk0 of your system.
  195: 
  196: 
  197:     ![Perform generic install onto Disk0/wd0](/guide/images/raidframe_r1r-pp1.png)  
  198:     **Perform generic install onto Disk0/wd0**
  199: 
  200:  2. Use the installed system on Disk0/wd0 to setup a RAID Set composed of
  201:     Disk1/wd1 only.
  202: 
  203:     ![Setup RAID Set](/guide/images/raidframe_r1r-pp2.png)  
  204:     **Setup RAID Set**
  205: 
  206:  3. Reboot the system off the Disk1/wd1 with the newly created RAID volume.
  207: 
  208: 
  209:     ![Reboot using Disk1/wd1 of RAID](/guide/images/raidframe_r1r-pp3.png)  
  210:     **Reboot using Disk1/wd1 of RAID**
  211: 
  212: 
  213:  4. Add/re-sync Disk0/wd0 back into the RAID set.
  214: 
  215:     ![Mirror Disk1/wd1 back to Disk0/wd0](/guide/images/raidframe_r1r-pp4.png)  
  216:     **Mirror Disk1/wd1 back to Disk0/wd0**
  217: 
  218: ### Hardware Review
  219: 
  220: At present, the alpha, amd64, i386, pmax, sparc, sparc64, and vax NetBSD
  221: platforms support booting from RAID-1. Booting is not supported from any other
  222: RAID level. Booting from a RAID set is accomplished by teaching the 1st stage
  223: boot loader to understand both 4.2BSD/FFS and RAID partitions. The 1st boot
  224: block code only needs to know enough about the disk partitions and file systems
  225: to be able to read the 2nd stage boot blocks. Therefore, at any time, the
  226: system's BIOS/firmware must be able to read a drive with 1st stage boot blocks
  227: installed. On the i386 platform, configuring this is entirely dependent on the
  228: vendor of the controller card/host bus adapter to which your disks are
  229: connected. On sparc64 this is controlled by the IEEE 1275 Sun OpenBoot Firmware.
  230: 
  231: This article assumes two identical IDE disks (`/dev/wd{0,1}`) which we are going
  232: to mirror (RAID-1). These disks are identified as:
  233: 
  234:     # grep ^wd /var/run/dmesg.boot
  235:     wd0 at atabus0 drive 0: <WDC WD100BB-75CLB0>
  236:     wd0: drive supports 16-sector PIO transfers, LBA addressing
  237:     wd0: 9541 MB, 19386 cyl, 16 head, 63 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 19541088 sectors
  238:     wd0: drive supports PIO mode 4, DMA mode 2, Ultra-DMA mode 5 (Ultra/100)
  239:     wd0(piixide0:0:0): using PIO mode 4, Ultra-DMA mode 2 (Ultra/33) (using DMA data transfers)
  240:     
  241:     wd1 at atabus1 drive 0: <WDC WD100BB-75CLB0>
  242:     wd1: drive supports 16-sector PIO transfers, LBA addressing
  243:     wd1: 9541 MB, 19386 cyl, 16 head, 63 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 19541088 sectors
  244:     wd1: drive supports PIO mode 4, DMA mode 2, Ultra-DMA mode 5 (Ultra/100)
  245:     wd1(piixide0:1:0): using PIO mode 4, Ultra-DMA mode 2 (Ultra/33) (using DMA data transfers)
  246: 
  247: *Note*: If you are using SCSI, replace `/dev/{,r}wd{0,1}` with
  248: `/dev/{,r}sd{0,1}`.
  249: 
  250: In this example, both disks are jumpered as Master on separate channels on the
  251: same controller. You usually wouldn't want to have both disks on the same bus on
  252: the same controller; this creates a single point of failure. Ideally you would
  253: have the disks on separate channels on separate controllers. Nonetheless, in
  254: most cases the most critical point is the hard disk, so having redundant
  255: channels or controllers is not that important. Plus, having more channels or
  256: controllers increases costs. Some SCSI controllers have multiple channels on the
  257: same controller, however, a SCSI bus reset on one channel could adversely affect
  258: the other channel if the ASIC/IC becomes overloaded. The trade-off with two
  259: controllers is that twice the bandwidth is used on the system bus. For purposes
  260: of simplification, this example shows two disks on different channels on the
  261: same controller.
  262: 
  263: *Note*: RAIDframe requires that all components be of the same size. Actually, it
  264: will use the lowest common denominator among components of dissimilar sizes. For
  265: purposes of illustration, the example uses two disks of identical geometries.
  266: Also, consider the availability of replacement disks if a component suffers a
  267: critical hardware failure.
  268: 
  269: *Tip*: Two disks of identical vendor model numbers could have different
  270: geometries if the drive possesses "grown defects". Use a low-level program to
  271: examine the grown defects table of the disk. These disks are obviously
  272: suboptimal candidates for use in RAID and should be avoided.
  273: 
  274: ### Initial Install on Disk0/wd0
  275: 
  276: Perform a very generic installation onto your Disk0/wd0. Follow the `INSTALL`
  277: instructions for your platform. Install all the sets but do not bother
  278: customizing anything other than the kernel as it will be overwritten.
  279: 
  280: *Tip*: On i386, during the sysinst install, when prompted if you want to `use
  281: the entire disk for NetBSD`, answer `yes`.
  282: 
  283:  * [Installing NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations](/guide/inst)
  284:  * [NetBSD/i386 Install](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/i386/INSTALL.html)
  285:  * [NetBSD/sparc64 Install](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/sparc64/INSTALL.html)
  286: 
  287: Once the installation is complete, you should examine the
  288: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  289: and [fdisk(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?fdisk+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) /
  290: [sunlabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?sunlabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  291: outputs on the system:
  292: 
  293:     # df
  294:     Filesystem   1K-blocks        Used       Avail %Cap Mounted on
  295:     /dev/wd0a       9487886      502132     8511360   5% /
  296: 
  297: On i386:
  298: 
  299:     # disklabel -r wd0
  300:     type: unknown
  301:     disk: Disk00
  302:     label:
  303:     flags:
  304:     bytes/sector: 512
  305:     sectors/track: 63
  306:     tracks/cylinder: 16
  307:     sectors/cylinder: 1008
  308:     cylinders: 19386
  309:     total sectors: 19541088
  310:     rpm: 3600
  311:     interleave: 1
  312:     trackskew: 0
  313:     cylinderskew: 0
  314:     headswitch: 0           # microseconds
  315:     track-to-track seek: 0  # microseconds
  316:     drivedata: 0
  317:     
  318:     16 partitions:
  319:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  320:      a:  19276992        63     4.2BSD   1024  8192 46568  # (Cyl.      0* - 19124*)
  321:      b:    264033  19277055       swap                     # (Cyl.  19124* - 19385)
  322:      c:  19541025        63     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0* - 19385)
  323:      d:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 - 19385)
  324:     
  325:     # fdisk /dev/rwd0d
  326:     Disk: /dev/rwd0d
  327:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
  328:     cylinders: 19386, heads: 16, sectors/track: 63 (1008 sectors/cylinder)
  329:     total sectors: 19541088
  330:     
  331:     BIOS disk geometry:
  332:     cylinders: 1023, heads: 255, sectors/track: 63 (16065 sectors/cylinder)
  333:     total sectors: 19541088
  334:     
  335:     Partition table:
  336:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
  337:         start 63, size 19541025 (9542 MB, Cyls 0-1216/96/1), Active
  338:     1: <UNUSED>
  339:     2: <UNUSED>
  340:     3: <UNUSED>
  341:     Bootselector disabled.
  342:     First active partition: 0
  343: 
  344: On Sparc64 the command and output differ slightly:
  345: 
  346:     # disklabel -r wd0
  347:     type: unknown
  348:     disk: Disk0
  349:     [...snip...]
  350:     8 partitions:
  351:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  352:      a:  19278000         0     4.2BSD   1024  8192 46568  # (Cyl.      0 -  19124)
  353:      b:    263088  19278000       swap                     # (Cyl.  19125 -  19385)
  354:      c:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -  19385)
  355:     
  356:     # sunlabel /dev/rwd0c
  357:     sunlabel> P
  358:     a: start cyl =      0, size = 19278000 (19125/0/0 - 9413.09Mb)
  359:     b: start cyl =  19125, size =   263088 (261/0/0 - 128.461Mb)
  360:     c: start cyl =      0, size = 19541088 (19386/0/0 - 9541.55Mb)
  361: 
  362: ### Preparing Disk1/wd1
  363: 
  364: Once you have a stock install of NetBSD on Disk0/wd0, you are ready to begin.
  365: Disk1/wd1 will be visible and unused by the system. To setup Disk1/wd1, you will
  366: use
  367: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  368: to allocate the entire second disk to the RAID-1 set.
  369: 
  370: *Tip*: The best way to ensure that Disk1/wd1 is completely empty is to 'zero'
  371: out the first few sectors of the disk with
  372: [dd(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dd+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) . This will
  373: erase the MBR (i386) or Sun disk label (sparc64), as well as the NetBSD disk
  374: label. If you make a mistake at any point during the RAID setup process, you can
  375: always refer to this process to restore the disk to an empty state.
  376: 
  377: *Note*: On sparc64, use `/dev/rwd1c` instead of `/dev/rwd1d`!
  378: 
  379:     # dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rwd1d bs=8k count=1
  380:     1+0 records in
  381:     1+0 records out
  382:     8192 bytes transferred in 0.003 secs (2730666 bytes/sec)
  383: 
  384: Once this is complete, on i386, verify that both the MBR and NetBSD disk labels
  385: are gone. On sparc64, verify that the Sun Disk label is gone as well.
  386: 
  387: On i386:
  388: 
  389:     # fdisk /dev/rwd1d
  390:     
  391:     fdisk: primary partition table invalid, no magic in sector 0
  392:     Disk: /dev/rwd1d
  393:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
  394:     cylinders: 19386, heads: 16, sectors/track: 63 (1008 sectors/cylinder)
  395:     total sectors: 19541088
  396:     
  397:     BIOS disk geometry:
  398:     cylinders: 1023, heads: 255, sectors/track: 63 (16065 sectors/cylinder)
  399:     total sectors: 19541088
  400:     
  401:     Partition table:
  402:     0: <UNUSED>
  403:     1: <UNUSED>
  404:     2: <UNUSED>
  405:     3: <UNUSED>
  406:     Bootselector disabled.
  407:     
  408:     # disklabel -r wd1
  409:     
  410:     [...snip...]
  411:     16 partitions:
  412:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  413:      c:  19541025        63     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0* - 19385)
  414:      d:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 - 19385)
  415: 
  416: On sparc64:
  417: 
  418:     # sunlabel /dev/rwd1c
  419:     
  420:     sunlabel: bogus label on `/dev/wd1c' (bad magic number)
  421:     
  422:     # disklabel -r wd1
  423:     
  424:     [...snip...]
  425:     3 partitions:
  426:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  427:      c:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -  19385)
  428:     disklabel: boot block size 0
  429:     disklabel: super block size 0
  430: 
  431: Now that you are certain the second disk is empty, on i386 you must establish
  432: the MBR on the second disk using the values obtained from Disk0/wd0 above. We
  433: must remember to mark the NetBSD partition active or the system will not boot.
  434: You must also create a NetBSD disklabel on Disk1/wd1 that will enable a RAID
  435: volume to exist upon it. On sparc64, you will need to simply
  436: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  437: the second disk which will write the proper Sun Disk Label.
  438: 
  439: *Tip*:
  440: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  441: will use your shell' s environment variable `$EDITOR` variable to edit the
  442: disklabel. The default is
  443: [vi(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vi+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  444: 
  445: On i386:
  446: 
  447:     # fdisk -0ua /dev/rwd1d
  448:     fdisk: primary partition table invalid, no magic in sector 0
  449:     Disk: /dev/rwd1d
  450:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
  451:     cylinders: 19386, heads: 16, sectors/track: 63 (1008 sectors/cylinder)
  452:     total sectors: 19541088
  453:     
  454:     BIOS disk geometry:
  455:     cylinders: 1023, heads: 255, sectors/track: 63 (16065 sectors/cylinder)
  456:     total sectors: 19541088
  457:     
  458:     Do you want to change our idea of what BIOS thinks? [n]
  459:     
  460:     Partition 0:
  461:     <UNUSED>
  462:     The data for partition 0 is:
  463:     <UNUSED>
  464:     sysid: [0..255 default: 169]
  465:     start: [0..1216cyl default: 63, 0cyl, 0MB]
  466:     size: [0..1216cyl default: 19541025, 1216cyl, 9542MB]
  467:     bootmenu: []
  468:     Do you want to change the active partition? [n] y
  469:     Choosing 4 will make no partition active.
  470:     active partition: [0..4 default: 0] 0
  471:     Are you happy with this choice? [n] y
  472:     
  473:     We haven't written the MBR back to disk yet.  This is your last chance.
  474:     Partition table:
  475:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
  476:         start 63, size 19541025 (9542 MB, Cyls 0-1216/96/1), Active
  477:     1: <UNUSED>
  478:     2: <UNUSED>
  479:     3: <UNUSED>
  480:     Bootselector disabled.
  481:     Should we write new partition table? [n] y
  482:     
  483:     # disklabel -r -e -I wd1
  484:     type: unknown
  485:     disk: Disk1
  486:     label:
  487:     flags:
  488:     bytes/sector: 512
  489:     sectors/track: 63
  490:     tracks/cylinder: 16
  491:     sectors/cylinder: 1008
  492:     cylinders: 19386
  493:     total sectors: 19541088
  494:     [...snip...]
  495:     16 partitions:
  496:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  497:      a:  19541025        63       RAID                     # (Cyl.      0*-19385)
  498:      c:  19541025        63     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0*-19385)
  499:      d:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -19385)
  500: 
  501: On sparc64:
  502: 
  503:     # disklabel -r -e -I wd1
  504:     type: unknown
  505:     disk: Disk1
  506:     label:
  507:     flags:
  508:     bytes/sector: 512
  509:     sectors/track: 63
  510:     tracks/cylinder: 16
  511:     sectors/cylinder: 1008
  512:     cylinders: 19386
  513:     total sectors: 19541088
  514:     [...snip...]
  515:     3 partitions:
  516:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  517:      a:  19541088         0       RAID                     # (Cyl.      0 -  19385)
  518:      c:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -  19385)
  519:     
  520:     # sunlabel /dev/rwd1c
  521:     sunlabel> P
  522:     a: start cyl =      0, size = 19541088 (19386/0/0 - 9541.55Mb)
  523:     c: start cyl =      0, size = 19541088 (19386/0/0 - 9541.55Mb)
  524: 
  525: *Note*: On i386, the `c:` and `d:` slices are reserved. `c:` represents the
  526: NetBSD portion of the disk. `d:` represents the entire disk. Because we want to
  527: allocate the entire NetBSD MBR partition to RAID, and because `a:` resides
  528: within the bounds of `c:`, the `a:` and `c:` slices have same size and offset
  529: values and sizes. The offset must start at a track boundary (an increment of
  530: sectors matching the sectors/track value in the disk label). On sparc64 however,
  531: `c:` represents the entire NetBSD partition in the Sun disk label and `d:` is
  532: not reserved. Also note that sparc64's `c:` and `a:` require no offset from the
  533: beginning of the disk, however if they should need to be, the offset must start
  534: at a cylinder boundary (an increment of sectors matching the sectors/cylinder
  535: value).
  536: 
  537: ### Initializing the RAID Device
  538: 
  539: Next we create the configuration file for the RAID set/volume. Traditionally,
  540: RAIDframe configuration files belong in `/etc` and would be read and initialized
  541: at boot time, however, because we are creating a bootable RAID volume, the
  542: configuration data will actually be written into the RAID volume using the
  543: *auto-configure* feature. Therefore, files are needed only during the initial
  544: setup and should not reside in `/etc`.
  545: 
  546:     # vi /var/tmp/raid0.conf
  547:     START array
  548:     1 2 0
  549:     
  550:     START disks
  551:     absent
  552:     /dev/wd1a
  553:     
  554:     START layout
  555:     128 1 1 1
  556:     
  557:     START queue
  558:     fifo 100
  559: 
  560: Note that `absent` means a non-existing disk. This will allow us to establish
  561: the RAID volume with a bogus component that we will substitute for Disk0/wd0 at
  562: a later time.
  563: 
  564: Next we configure the RAID device and initialize the serial number to something
  565: unique. In this example we use a "YYYYMMDD*`Revision`*" scheme. The format you
  566: choose is entirely at your discretion, however the scheme you choose should
  567: ensure that no two RAID sets use the same serial number at the same time.
  568: 
  569: After that we initialize the RAID set for the first time, safely ignoring the
  570: errors regarding the bogus component.
  571: 
  572:     # raidctl -v -C /var/tmp/raid0.conf raid0
  573:     Ignoring missing component at column 0
  574:     raid0: Component absent being configured at col: 0
  575:              Column: 0 Num Columns: 0
  576:              Version: 0 Serial Number: 0 Mod Counter: 0
  577:              Clean: No Status: 0
  578:     Number of columns do not match for: absent
  579:     absent is not clean!
  580:     raid0: Component /dev/wd1a being configured at col: 1
  581:              Column: 0 Num Columns: 0
  582:              Version: 0 Serial Number: 0 Mod Counter: 0
  583:              Clean: No Status: 0
  584:     Column out of alignment for: /dev/wd1a
  585:     Number of columns do not match for: /dev/wd1a
  586:     /dev/wd1a is not clean!
  587:     raid0: There were fatal errors
  588:     raid0: Fatal errors being ignored.
  589:     raid0: RAID Level 1
  590:     raid0: Components: component0[**FAILED**] /dev/wd1a
  591:     raid0: Total Sectors: 19540864 (9541 MB)
  592:     # raidctl -v -I 2009122601 raid0
  593:     # raidctl -v -i raid0
  594:     Initiating re-write of parity
  595:     raid0: Error re-writing parity!
  596:     Parity Re-write status:
  597:     
  598:     # tail -1 /var/log/messages
  599:     Dec 26 00:00:30  /netbsd: raid0: Error re-writing parity!
  600:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
  601:     Components:
  602:               component0: failed
  603:                /dev/wd1a: optimal
  604:     No spares.
  605:     component0 status is: failed.  Skipping label.
  606:     Component label for /dev/wd1a:
  607:        Row: 0, Column: 1, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
  608:        Version: 2, Serial Number: 2009122601, Mod Counter: 7
  609:        Clean: No, Status: 0
  610:        sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
  611:        Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
  612:        RAID Level: 1
  613:        Autoconfig: No
  614:        Root partition: No
  615:        Last configured as: raid0
  616:     Parity status: DIRTY
  617:     Reconstruction is 100% complete.
  618:     Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
  619:     Copyback is 100% complete.
  620: 
  621: ### Setting up Filesystems
  622: 
  623: *Caution*: The root filesystem must begin at sector 0 of the RAID device. If
  624: not, the primary boot loader will be unable to find the secondary boot loader.
  625: 
  626: The RAID device is now configured and available. The RAID device is a pseudo
  627: disk-device. It will be created with a default disk label. You must now
  628: determine the proper sizes for disklabel slices for your production environment.
  629: For purposes of simplification in this example, our system will have 8.5
  630: gigabytes dedicated to `/` as `/dev/raid0a` and the rest allocated to `swap`
  631: as `/dev/raid0b`.
  632: 
  633: *Caution*: This is an unrealistic disk layout for a production server; the
  634: NetBSD Guide can expand on proper partitioning technique. See [Installing
  635: NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations*](inst).
  636: 
  637: *Note*: 1 GB is 2\*1024\*1024=2097152 blocks (1 block is 512 bytes, or
  638: 0.5 kilobytes). Despite what the underlying hardware composing a RAID set is,
  639: the RAID pseudo disk will always have 512 bytes/sector.
  640: 
  641: *Note*: In our example, the space allocated to the underlying `a:` slice
  642: composing the RAID set differed between i386 and sparc64, therefore the total
  643: sectors of the RAID volumes differs:
  644: 
  645: On i386:
  646: 
  647:      # disklabel -r -e -I raid0
  648:     type: RAID
  649:     disk: raid
  650:     label: fictitious
  651:     flags:
  652:     bytes/sector: 512
  653:     sectors/track: 128
  654:     tracks/cylinder: 8
  655:     sectors/cylinder: 1024
  656:     cylinders: 19082
  657:     total sectors: 19540864
  658:     rpm: 3600
  659:     interleave: 1
  660:     trackskew: 0
  661:     cylinderskew: 0
  662:     headswitch: 0 # microseconds
  663:     track-to-track seek: 0 # microseconds
  664:     drivedata: 0
  665:     
  666:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  667:      a:  19015680         0     4.2BSD      0     0     0  # (Cyl.      0 - 18569)
  668:      b:    525184  19015680       swap                     # (Cyl.  18570 - 19082*)
  669:      d:  19540864         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 - 19082*)
  670: 
  671: On sparc64:
  672: 
  673:     # disklabel -r -e -I raid0
  674:     [...snip...]
  675:     total sectors: 19539968
  676:     [...snip...]
  677:     3 partitions:
  678:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
  679:      a:  19251200         0     4.2BSD      0     0     0  # (Cyl.      0 -  18799)
  680:      b:    288768  19251200       swap                     # (Cyl.  18800 -  19081)
  681:      c:  19539968         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -  19081)
  682: 
  683: Next, format the newly created `/` partition as a 4.2BSD FFSv1 File System:
  684: 
  685:     # newfs -O 1 /dev/rraid0a
  686:     /dev/rraid0a: 9285.0MB (19015680 sectors) block size 16384, fragment size 2048
  687:             using 51 cylinder groups of 182.06MB, 11652 blks, 23040 inodes.
  688:     super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
  689:     32, 372896, 745760, 1118624, 1491488, 1864352, 2237216, 2610080, 2982944,
  690:     ...............................................................................
  691:     
  692:     # fsck -fy /dev/rraid0a
  693:     ** /dev/rraid0a
  694:     ** File system is already clean
  695:     ** Last Mounted on
  696:     ** Phase 1 - Check Blocks and Sizes
  697:     ** Phase 2 - Check Pathnames
  698:     ** Phase 3 - Check Connectivity
  699:     ** Phase 4 - Check Reference Counts
  700:     ** Phase 5 - Check Cyl groups
  701:     1 files, 1 used, 4679654 free (14 frags, 584955 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)
  702: 
  703: ### Migrating System to RAID
  704: 
  705: The new RAID filesystems are now ready for use. We mount them under `/mnt` and
  706: copy all files from the old system. This can be done using
  707: [dump(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dump+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) or
  708: [pax(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pax+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).
  709: 
  710:     # mount /dev/raid0a /mnt
  711:     # df -h /mnt
  712:     Filesystem        Size       Used      Avail %Cap Mounted on
  713:     /dev/raid0a       8.9G       2.0K       8.5G   0% /mnt
  714:     # cd /; pax -v -X -rw -pe . /mnt
  715:     [...snip...]
  716: 
  717: The NetBSD install now exists on the RAID filesystem. We need to fix the
  718: mount-points in the new copy of `/etc/fstab` or the system will not come up
  719: correctly. Replace instances of `wd0` with `raid0`.
  720: 
  721: The swap should be unconfigured upon shutdown to avoid parity errors on the RAID
  722: device. This can be done with a simple, one-line setting in `/etc/rc.conf`.
  723: 
  724:     # vi /mnt/etc/rc.conf
  725:     swapoff=YES
  726: 
  727: Next, the boot loader must be installed on Disk1/wd1. Failure to install the
  728: loader on Disk1/wd1 will render the system un-bootable if Disk0/wd0 fails. You
  729: should hope your system won't have to reboot when wd0 fails.
  730: 
  731: *Tip*: Because the BIOS/CMOS menus in many i386 based systems are misleading
  732: with regard to device boot order. I highly recommend utilizing the `-o
  733: timeout=X` option supported by the i386 1st stage boot loader. Setup unique
  734: values for each disk as a point of reference so that you can easily determine
  735: from which disk the system is booting.
  736: 
  737: *Caution*: Although it may seem logical to install the 1st stage boot block into
  738: `/dev/rwd1{c,d}` (which is historically correct with NetBSD 1.6.x
  739: [installboot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?installboot+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  740: , this is no longer the case. If you make this mistake, the boot sector will
  741: become irrecoverably damaged and you will need to start the process over again.
  742: 
  743: On i386, install the boot loader into `/dev/rwd1a`:
  744: 
  745:     # /usr/sbin/installboot -o timeout=30 -v /dev/rwd1a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  746:     File system:         /dev/rwd1a
  747:     Primary bootstrap:   /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  748:     Ignoring PBR with invalid magic in sector 0 of `/dev/rwd1a'
  749:     Boot options:        timeout 30, flags 0, speed 9600, ioaddr 0, console pc
  750: 
  751: On sparc64, install the boot loader into `/dev/rwd1a` as well, however the `-o`
  752: flag is unsupported (and un-needed thanks to OpenBoot):
  753: 
  754:     # /usr/sbin/installboot -v /dev/rwd1a /usr/mdec/bootblk
  755:     File system:         /dev/rwd1a
  756:     Primary bootstrap:   /usr/mdec/bootblk
  757:     Bootstrap start sector: 1
  758:     Bootstrap byte count:   5140
  759:     Writing bootstrap
  760: 
  761: Finally the RAID set must be made auto-configurable and the system should be
  762: rebooted. After the reboot everything is mounted from the RAID devices.
  763: 
  764:     # raidctl -v -A root raid0
  765:     raid0: Autoconfigure: Yes
  766:     raid0: Root: Yes
  767:     # tail -2 /var/log/messages
  768:     raid0: New autoconfig value is: 1
  769:     raid0: New rootpartition value is: 1
  770:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
  771:     [...snip...]
  772:        Autoconfig: Yes
  773:        Root partition: Yes
  774:        Last configured as: raid0
  775:     [...snip...]
  776:     # shutdown -r now
  777: 
  778: *Warning*: Always use
  779: [shutdown(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?shutdown+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  780: when shutting down. Never simply use
  781: [reboot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?reboot+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).
  782: [reboot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?reboot+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
  783: will not properly run shutdown RC scripts and will not safely disable swap. This
  784: will cause dirty parity at every reboot.
  785: 
  786: ### The first boot with RAID
  787: 
  788: At this point, temporarily configure your system to boot Disk1/wd1. See notes in
  789: [[Testing Boot Blocks|guide/rf#adding-text-boot]] for details on this process.
  790: The system should boot now and all filesystems should be on the RAID devices.
  791: The RAID will be functional with a single component, however the set is not
  792: fully functional because the bogus drive (wd9) has failed.
  793: 
  794:     # egrep -i "raid|root" /var/run/dmesg.boot
  795:     raid0: RAID Level 1
  796:     raid0: Components: component0[**FAILED**] /dev/wd1a
  797:     raid0: Total Sectors: 19540864 (9541 MB)
  798:     boot device: raid0
  799:     root on raid0a dumps on raid0b
  800:     root file system type: ffs
  801:     
  802:     # df -h
  803:     Filesystem    Size     Used     Avail Capacity  Mounted on
  804:     /dev/raid0a   8.9G     196M      8.3G     2%    /
  805:     kernfs        1.0K     1.0K        0B   100%    /kern
  806:     
  807:     # swapctl -l
  808:     Device      1K-blocks     Used    Avail Capacity  Priority
  809:     /dev/raid0b    262592        0   262592     0%    0
  810:     # raidctl -s raid0
  811:     Components:
  812:               component0: failed
  813:                /dev/wd1a: optimal
  814:     No spares.
  815:     component0 status is: failed.  Skipping label.
  816:     Component label for /dev/wd1a:
  817:        Row: 0, Column: 1, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
  818:        Version: 2, Serial Number: 2009122601, Mod Counter: 65
  819:        Clean: No, Status: 0
  820:        sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
  821:        Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
  822:        RAID Level: 1
  823:        Autoconfig: Yes
  824:        Root partition: Yes
  825:        Last configured as: raid0
  826:     Parity status: DIRTY
  827:     Reconstruction is 100% complete.
  828:     Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
  829:     Copyback is 100% complete.
  830: 
  831: ### Adding Disk0/wd0 to RAID
  832: 
  833: We will now add Disk0/wd0 as a component of the RAID. This will destroy the
  834: original file system structure. On i386, the MBR disklabel will be unaffected
  835: (remember we copied wd0's label to wd1 anyway) , therefore there is no need to
  836: "zero" Disk0/wd0. However, we need to relabel Disk0/wd0 to have an identical
  837: NetBSD disklabel layout as Disk1/wd1. Then we add Disk0/wd0 as "hot-spare" to
  838: the RAID set and initiate the parity reconstruction for all RAID devices,
  839: effectively bringing Disk0/wd0 into the RAID-1 set and "syncing up" both disks.
  840: 
  841:     # disklabel -r wd1 > /tmp/disklabel.wd1
  842:     # disklabel -R -r wd0 /tmp/disklabel.wd1
  843: 
  844: As a last-minute sanity check, you might want to use
  845: [diff(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?diff+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) to
  846: ensure that the disklabels of Disk0/wd0 match Disk1/wd1. You should also backup
  847: these files for reference in the event of an emergency.
  848: 
  849:     # disklabel -r wd0 > /tmp/disklabel.wd0
  850:     # disklabel -r wd1 > /tmp/disklabel.wd1
  851:     # diff /tmp/disklabel.wd0 /tmp/disklabel.wd1
  852:     # fdisk /dev/rwd0 > /tmp/fdisk.wd0
  853:     # fdisk /dev/rwd1 > /tmp/fdisk.wd1
  854:     # diff /tmp/fdisk.wd0 /tmp/fdisk.wd1
  855:     # mkdir /root/RFbackup
  856:     # cp -p /tmp/{disklabel,fdisk}* /root/RFbackup
  857: 
  858: Once you are sure, add Disk0/wd0 as a spare component, and start reconstruction:
  859: 
  860:     # raidctl -v -a /dev/wd0a raid0
  861:     /netbsd: Warning: truncating spare disk /dev/wd0a to 241254528 blocks
  862:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
  863:     Components:
  864:               component0: failed
  865:                /dev/wd1a: optimal
  866:     Spares:
  867:                /dev/wd0a: spare
  868:     [...snip...]
  869:     # raidctl -F component0 raid0
  870:     RECON: initiating reconstruction on col 0 -> spare at col 2
  871:      11% |****                                   | ETA:    04:26 \
  872: 
  873: Depending on the speed of your hardware, the reconstruction time will vary. You
  874: may wish to watch it on another terminal (note that you can interrupt
  875: `raidctl -S` any time without stopping the synchronisation):
  876: 
  877:     # raidctl -S raid0
  878:     Reconstruction is 0% complete.
  879:     Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
  880:     Copyback is 100% complete.
  881:     Reconstruction status:
  882:       17% |******                                 | ETA: 03:08 -
  883: 
  884: After reconstruction, both disks should be *optimal*.
  885: 
  886:     # tail -f /var/log/messages
  887:     raid0: Reconstruction of disk at col 0 completed
  888:     raid0: Recon time was 1290.625033 seconds, accumulated XOR time was 0 us (0.000000)
  889:     raid0:  (start time 1093407069 sec 145393 usec, end time 1093408359 sec 770426 usec)
  890:     raid0: Total head-sep stall count was 0
  891:     raid0: 305318 recon event waits, 1 recon delays
  892:     raid0: 1093407069060000 max exec ticks
  893:     
  894:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
  895:     Components:
  896:                component0: spared
  897:                /dev/wd1a: optimal
  898:     Spares:
  899:          /dev/wd0a: used_spare
  900:          [...snip...]
  901: 
  902: When the reconstruction is finished we need to install the boot loader on the
  903: Disk0/wd0. On i386, install the boot loader into `/dev/rwd0a`:
  904: 
  905:     # /usr/sbin/installboot -o timeout=15 -v /dev/rwd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  906:     File system:         /dev/rwd0a
  907:     Primary bootstrap:   /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  908:     Boot options:        timeout 15, flags 0, speed 9600, ioaddr 0, console pc
  909: 
  910: On sparc64:
  911: 
  912:     # /usr/sbin/installboot -v /dev/rwd0a /usr/mdec/bootblk
  913:     File system:         /dev/rwd0a
  914:     Primary bootstrap:   /usr/mdec/bootblk
  915:     Bootstrap start sector: 1
  916:     Bootstrap byte count:   5140
  917:     Writing bootstrap
  918: 
  919: And finally, reboot the machine one last time before proceeding. This is
  920: required to migrate Disk0/wd0 from status "used\_spare" as "Component0" to state
  921: "optimal". Refer to notes in the next section regarding verification of clean
  922: parity after each reboot.
  923: 
  924:     # shutdown -r now
  925: 
  926: ### Testing Boot Blocks
  927: 
  928: At this point, you need to ensure that your system's hardware can properly boot
  929: using the boot blocks on either disk. On i386, this is a hardware-dependent
  930: process that may be done via your motherboard CMOS/BIOS menu or your controller
  931: card's configuration menu.
  932: 
  933: On i386, use the menu system on your machine to set the boot device order /
  934: priority to Disk1/wd1 before Disk0/wd0. The examples here depict a generic Award
  935: 
  936: BIOS.
  937: 
  938: ![Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk1/wd1](/guide/images/raidframe_awardbios2.png)  
  939: **Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk1/wd1**
  940: 
  941: Save changes and exit:
  942: 
  943:     >> NetBSD/i386 BIOS Boot, Revision 5.2 (from NetBSD 5.0.2)
  944:     >> (builds@b7, Sun Feb 7 00:30:50 UTC 2010)
  945:     >> Memory: 639/130048 k
  946:     Press return to boot now, any other key for boot menu
  947:     booting hd0a:netbsd - starting in 30
  948: 
  949: You can determine that the BIOS is reading Disk1/wd1 because the timeout of th
  950: 
  951: boot loader is 30 seconds instead of 15. After the reboot, re-enter the BIOS an
  952: configure the drive boot order back to the default:
  953: 
  954: ![Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk0/wd0](/guide/images/raidframe_awardbios1.png)  
  955: **Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk0/wd0**
  956: 
  957: Save changes and exit:
  958: 
  959:     >> NetBSD/i386 BIOS Boot, Revision 5.2 (from NetBSD 5.0.2)
  960:     >> Memory: 639/130048 k
  961:     Press return to boot now, any other key for boot menu
  962:     booting hd0a:netbsd - starting in 15
  963: 
  964: Notice how your custom kernel detects controller/bus/drive assignments
  965: independent of what the BIOS assigns as the boot disk. This is the expected
  966: behavior.
  967: 
  968: On sparc64, use the Sun OpenBoot **devalias** to confirm that both disks are bootable:
  969: 
  970:     Sun Ultra 5/10 UPA/PCI (UltraSPARC-IIi 400MHz), No Keyboard
  971:     OpenBoot 3.15, 128 MB memory installed, Serial #nnnnnnnn.
  972:     Ethernet address 8:0:20:a5:d1:3b, Host ID: nnnnnnnn.
  973:     
  974:     ok devalias
  975:     [...snip...]
  976:     cdrom /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/cdrom@2,0:f
  977:     disk /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@0,0
  978:     disk3 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@3,0
  979:     disk2 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@2,0
  980:     disk1 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@1,0
  981:     disk0 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@0,0
  982:     [...snip...]
  983:     
  984:     ok boot disk0 netbsd
  985:     Initializing Memory [...]
  986:     Boot device /pci/pci/ide@3/disk@0,0 File and args: netbsd
  987:     NetBSD IEEE 1275 Bootblock
  988:     >> NetBSD/sparc64 OpenFirmware Boot, Revision 1.13
  989:     >> (builds@b7.netbsd.org, Wed Jul 29 23:43:42 UTC 2009)
  990:     loadfile: reading header
  991:     elf64_exec: Booting [...]
  992:     symbols @ [....]
  993:      Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
  994:          2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
  995:          The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
  996:      Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
  997:          The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
  998:     [...snip...]
  999: 
 1000: And the second disk:
 1001: 
 1002:     ok boot disk2 netbsd
 1003:     Initializing Memory [...]
 1004:     Boot device /pci/pci/ide@3/disk@2,0: File and args:netbsd
 1005:     NetBSD IEEE 1275 Bootblock
 1006:     >> NetBSD/sparc64 OpenFirmware Boot, Revision 1.13
 1007:     >> (builds@b7.netbsd.org, Wed Jul 29 23:43:42 UTC 2009)
 1008:     loadfile: reading header
 1009:     elf64_exec: Booting [...]
 1010:     symbols @ [....]
 1011:      Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
 1012:          2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
 1013:          The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
 1014:      Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
 1015:          The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
 1016:     [...snip...]
 1017: 
 1018: At each boot, the following should appear in the NetBSD kernel
 1019: [dmesg(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dmesg+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) :
 1020: 
 1021:     Kernelized RAIDframe activated
 1022:     raid0: RAID Level 1
 1023:     raid0: Components: /dev/wd0a /dev/wd1a
 1024:     raid0: Total Sectors: 19540864 (9541 MB)
 1025:     boot device: raid0
 1026:     root on raid0a dumps on raid0b
 1027:     root file system type: ffs
 1028: 
 1029: Once you are certain that both disks are bootable, verify the RAID parity is
 1030: clean after each reboot:
 1031: 
 1032:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
 1033:     Components:
 1034:               /dev/wd0a: optimal
 1035:               /dev/wd1a: optimal
 1036:     No spares.
 1037:     [...snip...]
 1038:     Component label for /dev/wd0a:
 1039:        Row: 0, Column: 0, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
 1040:        Version: 2, Serial Number: 2009122601, Mod Counter: 67
 1041:        Clean: No, Status: 0
 1042:        sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
 1043:        Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
 1044:        RAID Level: 1
 1045:        Autoconfig: Yes
 1046:        Root partition: Yes
 1047:        Last configured as: raid0
 1048:     Component label for /dev/wd1a:
 1049:        Row: 0, Column: 1, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
 1050:        Version: 2, Serial Number: 2009122601, Mod Counter: 67
 1051:        Clean: No, Status: 0
 1052:        sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
 1053:        Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
 1054:        RAID Level: 1
 1055:        Autoconfig: Yes
 1056:        Root partition: Yes
 1057:        Last configured as: raid0
 1058:     Parity status: clean
 1059:     Reconstruction is 100% complete.
 1060:     Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
 1061:     Copyback is 100% complete.
 1062: 

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