Annotation of wikisrc/guide/raidframe.mdwn, revision 1.5

1.1       jdf         1: # NetBSD RAIDframe
                      2: 
                      3: ## RAIDframe Introduction
                      4: 
                      5: ### About RAIDframe
                      6: 
1.5     ! jdf         7: NetBSD uses the [CMU RAIDframe](http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/RAIDframe/) software fo
        !             8: its RAID subsystem. NetBSD is the primary platform for RAIDframe development
        !             9: RAIDframe can also be found in older versions of FreeBSD and OpenBSD. NetBS
        !            10: also has another way of bundling disks, th
        !            11: [ccd(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ccd+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) subsyste
        !            12: (see [Concatenated Disk Device](/guide/ccd)). You should possess some [basi
        !            13: knowledge](http://www.acnc.com/04_00.html) about RAID concepts and terminolog
        !            14: before continuing. You should also be at least familiar with the differen
        !            15: levels of RAID - Adaptec provides an [excellen
        !            16: reference](http://www.adaptec.com/en-US/_common/compatibility/_education/RAID_level_compar_wp.htm)
        !            17: and the [raid(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?raid+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386
1.1       jdf        18: manpage contains a short overview too.
                     19: 
                     20: ### A warning about Data Integrity, Backups, and High Availability
                     21: 
1.5     ! jdf        22: RAIDframe is a Software RAID implementation, as opposed to Hardware RAID. A
        !            23: such, it does not need special disk controllers supported by NetBSD. Syste
        !            24: administrators should give a great deal of consideration to whether softwar
        !            25: RAID or hardware RAID is more appropriate for their "Mission Critical
        !            26: applications. For some projects you might consider the use of many of th
        !            27: hardware RAID devices [supported b
        !            28: NetBSD](http://www.NetBSD.org/support/hardware/). It is truly at your discretio
        !            29: what type of RAID you use, but it is recommend that you consider factors suc
1.1       jdf        30: as: manageability, commercial vendor support, load-balancing and failover, etc.
                     31: 
1.5     ! jdf        32: Depending on the RAID level used, RAIDframe does provide redundancy in the even
        !            33: of a hardware failure. However, it is *not* a replacement for reliable backups
        !            34: Software and user-error can still cause data loss. RAIDframe may be used as 
        !            35: mechanism for facilitating backups in systems without backup hardware, but thi
        !            36: is not an ideal configuration. Finally, with regard to "high availability", RAI
1.1       jdf        37: is only a very small component to ensuring data availability.
                     38: 
                     39: Once more for good measure: *Back up your data!*
                     40: 
                     41: ### Hardware versus Software RAID
                     42: 
1.5     ! jdf        43: If you run a server, it will most probably already have a Hardware RAI
        !            44: controller. There are reasons for and against using a Software RAID, dependin
1.1       jdf        45: on the scenario.
                     46: 
1.5     ! jdf        47: In general, a Software RAID is well suited for low-IO system disks. If you run 
        !            48: Software RAID, you can exchange disks and disk controllers, or even move th
        !            49: disks to a completely different machine. The computational overhead for the RAI
1.1       jdf        50: is negligible if there is only few disk IO operations.
                     51: 
1.5     ! jdf        52: If you need much IO, you should use a Hardware RAID. With a Software RAID, th
        !            53: redundancy data has to be transferred via the bus your disk controller i
        !            54: connected to. With a Hardware RAID, you transfer data only once - the redundanc
1.1       jdf        55: computation and transfer is done by the controller.
                     56: 
                     57: ### Getting Help
                     58: 
1.5     ! jdf        59: If you encounter problems using RAIDframe, you have several options fo
1.1       jdf        60: obtaining help.
                     61: 
1.5     ! jdf        62:  1. Read the RAIDframe man pages
        !            63:     [raid(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?raid+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) an
        !            64:     [raidctl(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?raidctl+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386
1.1       jdf        65:     thoroughly.
                     66: 
1.5     ! jdf        67:  2. Search the mailing list archives. Unfortunately, there is no NetBSD lis
1.1       jdf        68:     dedicated to RAIDframe support. Depending on the nature of the problem, posts
                     69:     tend to end up in a variety of lists. At a very minimum, search
                     70:     [netbsd-help](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/netbsd-help/),
                     71:     [netbsd-users@NetBSD.org](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/netbsd-users/),
                     72:     [current-users@NetBSD.org](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/current-users/). Also
                     73:     search the list for the NetBSD platform on which you are using RAIDframe:
                     74:     port-*`${ARCH}`*@NetBSD.org.
                     75: 
                     76:     ### Caution
                     77: 
1.5     ! jdf        78:        Because RAIDframe is constantly undergoing development, some information i
1.1       jdf        79:        mailing list archives has the potential of being dated and inaccurate.
                     80: 
1.5     ! jdf        81:  3. Search the [Problem Repor
1.1       jdf        82:     database](http://www.NetBSD.org/support/send-pr.html).
                     83: 
1.5     ! jdf        84:  4. If your problem persists: Post to the mailing list most appropriat
        !            85:     (judgment call). Collect as much verbosely detailed information as possibl
        !            86:     before posting: Include you
        !            87:     [dmesg(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dmesg+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386
        !            88:     output from `/var/run/dmesg.boot`, your kerne
        !            89:     [config(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?config+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) 
        !            90:     your `/etc/raid[0-9].conf`, any relevant errors on `/dev/console`
        !            91:     `/var/log/messages`, or to `stdout/stderr` o
        !            92:     [raidctl(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?raidctl+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
        !            93:     The output of **raidctl -s** (if available) will be useful as well. Als
        !            94:     include details on the troubleshooting steps you've taken thus far, exactl
        !            95:     when the problem started, and any notes on recent changes that may hav
        !            96:     prompted the problem to develop. Remember to be patient when waiting for 
1.1       jdf        97:     response.
                     98: 
                     99: ## Setup RAIDframe Support
                    100: 
                    101: The use of RAID will require software and hardware configuration changes.
                    102: 
                    103: ### Kernel Support
                    104: 
1.5     ! jdf       105: The GENERIC kernel already has support for RAIDframe. If you have built a custo
        !           106: kernel for your environment the kernel configuration must have the followin
1.1       jdf       107: options:
                    108: 
                    109:     pseudo-device   raid            8       # RAIDframe disk driver
                    110:     options         RAID_AUTOCONFIG         # auto-configuration of RAID components
                    111: 
1.5     ! jdf       112: The RAID support must be detected by the NetBSD kernel, which can be checked b
        !           113: looking at the output of th
        !           114: [dmesg(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dmesg+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386
1.1       jdf       115: command.
                    116: 
                    117:     # dmesg|grep -i raid
                    118:     Kernelized RAIDframe activated
                    119: 
1.5     ! jdf       120: Historically, the kernel must also contain static mappings between bus addresse
        !           121: and device nodes in `/dev`. This used to ensure consistency of devices withi
        !           122: RAID sets in the event of a device failure after reboot. Since NetBSD 1.6
        !           123: however, using the auto-configuration features of RAIDframe has been recommende
        !           124: over statically mapping devices. The auto-configuration features allow drives t
        !           125: move around on the system, and RAIDframe will automatically determine whic
1.1       jdf       126: components belong to which RAID sets.
                    127: 
                    128: ### Power Redundancy and Disk Caching
                    129: 
1.5     ! jdf       130: If your system has an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS), if your system ha
        !           131: redundant power supplies, or your disk controller has a battery, you shoul
        !           132: consider enabling the read and write caches on your drives. On systems wit
        !           133: redundant power, this will improve drive performance. On systems withou
        !           134: redundant power, the write cache could endanger the integrity of RAID data i
1.1       jdf       135: the event of a power loss.
                    136: 
1.5     ! jdf       137: The [dkctl(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dkctl+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386
        !           138: utility to can be used for this on all kinds of disks that support the operatio
1.1       jdf       139: (SCSI, EIDE, SATA, ...):
                    140: 
                    141:     # dkctl wd0 getcache
                    142:     /dev/rwd0d: read cache enabled
                    143:     /dev/rwd0d: read cache enable is not changeable
                    144:     /dev/rwd0d: write cache enable is changeable
                    145:     /dev/rwd0d: cache parameters are not savable
                    146:     # dkctl wd0 setcache rw
                    147:     # dkctl wd0 getcache
                    148:     /dev/rwd0d: read cache enabled
                    149:     /dev/rwd0d: write-back cache enabled
                    150:     /dev/rwd0d: read cache enable is not changeable
                    151:     /dev/rwd0d: write cache enable is changeable
                    152:     /dev/rwd0d: cache parameters are not savable
                    153: 
                    154: ## Example: RAID-1 Root Disk
                    155: 
1.5     ! jdf       156: This example explains how to setup RAID-1 root disk. With RAID-1 components ar
        !           157: mirrored and therefore the server can be fully functional in the event of 
        !           158: single component failure. The goal is to provide a level of redundancy that wil
        !           159: allow the system to encounter a component failure on either component disk i
1.1       jdf       160: the RAID and:
                    161: 
                    162:  * Continue normal operations until a maintenance window can be scheduled.
1.5     ! jdf       163:  * Or, in the unlikely event that the component failure causes a system reboot
1.1       jdf       164:    be able to quickly reconfigure the system to boot from the remaining
                    165:    component (platform dependent).
                    166: 
1.5     ! jdf       167: ![RAID-1 Disk Logical Layout](/guide/images/raidframe_raidl1-diskdia.png)
        !           168: 
1.1       jdf       169: **RAID-1 Disk Logical Layout**
                    170: 
1.5     ! jdf       171: Because RAID-1 provides both redundancy and performance improvements, its mos
        !           172: practical application is on critical "system" partitions such as `/`, `/usr`
        !           173: `/var`, `swap`, etc., where read operations are more frequent than writ
        !           174: operations. For other file systems, such as `/home` or `/var/`, other RAI
        !           175: levels might be considered (see the references above). If one were simpl
        !           176: creating a generic RAID-1 volume for a non-root file system, the cookie-cutte
        !           177: examples from the man page could be followed, but because the root volume mus
1.1       jdf       178: be bootable, certain special steps must be taken during initial setup.
                    179: 
1.5     ! jdf       180: *Note*: This example will outline a process that differs only slightly betwee
        !           181: the i386 and sparc64 platforms. In an attempt to reduce excessive duplication o
        !           182: content, where differences do exist and are cosmetic in nature, they will b
        !           183: pointed out using a section such as this. If the process is drasticall
1.1       jdf       184: different, the process will branch into separate, platform dependent steps.
                    185: 
                    186: ### Pseudo-Process Outline
                    187: 
1.5     ! jdf       188: Although a much more refined process could be developed using a custom copy o
        !           189: NetBSD installed on custom-developed removable media, presently the NetBS
1.1       jdf       190: install media lacks RAIDframe tools and support, so the following pseudo process
                    191: has become the de facto standard for setting up RAID-1 Root.
                    192: 
                    193:  1. Install a stock NetBSD onto Disk0 of your system.
                    194: 
1.4       jdf       195:     ![Perform generic install onto Disk0/wd0](/guide/images/raidframe_r1r-pp1.png)
1.5     ! jdf       196: 
1.1       jdf       197:     **Perform generic install onto Disk0/wd0**
                    198: 
1.5     ! jdf       199:  2. Use the installed system on Disk0/wd0 to setup a RAID Set composed o
1.1       jdf       200:     Disk1/wd1 only.
                    201: 
1.4       jdf       202:     ![Setup RAID Set](raidframe_r1r-pp2.png)
1.1       jdf       203:     **Setup RAID Set**
                    204: 
                    205:  3. Reboot the system off the Disk1/wd1 with the newly created RAID volume.
                    206: 
1.4       jdf       207:     ![Reboot using Disk1/wd1 of RAID](/guide/images/raidframe_r1r-pp3.png)
1.5     ! jdf       208: 
1.1       jdf       209:     **Reboot using Disk1/wd1 of RAID**
                    210: 
                    211:  4. Add / re-sync Disk0/wd0 back into the RAID set.
                    212: 
1.4       jdf       213:     ![Mirror Disk1/wd1 back to Disk0/wd0](/guide/images/raidframe_r1r-pp4.png)
1.5     ! jdf       214: 
1.1       jdf       215:     **Mirror Disk1/wd1 back to Disk0/wd0**
                    216: 
                    217: ### Hardware Review
                    218: 
1.5     ! jdf       219: At present, the alpha, amd64, i386, pmax, sparc, sparc64, and vax NetBS
        !           220: platforms support booting from RAID-1. Booting is not supported from any othe
        !           221: RAID level. Booting from a RAID set is accomplished by teaching the 1st stag
        !           222: boot loader to understand both 4.2BSD/FFS and RAID partitions. The 1st boo
        !           223: block code only needs to know enough about the disk partitions and file system
        !           224: to be able to read the 2nd stage boot blocks. Therefore, at any time, th
        !           225: system's BIOS / firmware must be able to read a drive with 1st stage boot block
        !           226: installed. On the i386 platform, configuring this is entirely dependent on th
        !           227: vendor of the controller card / host bus adapter to which your disks ar
1.1       jdf       228: connected. On sparc64 this is controlled by the IEEE 1275 Sun OpenBoot Firmware.
                    229: 
1.5     ! jdf       230: This article assumes two identical IDE disks (`/dev/wd{0,1}`) which we are goin
1.1       jdf       231: to mirror (RAID-1). These disks are identified as:
                    232: 
                    233:     # grep ^wd /var/run/dmesg.boot
                    234:     wd0 at atabus0 drive 0: <WDC WD100BB-75CLB0>
                    235:     wd0: drive supports 16-sector PIO transfers, LBA addressing
                    236:     wd0: 9541 MB, 19386 cyl, 16 head, 63 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 19541088 sectors
                    237:     wd0: drive supports PIO mode 4, DMA mode 2, Ultra-DMA mode 5 (Ultra/100)
                    238:     wd0(piixide0:0:0): using PIO mode 4, Ultra-DMA mode 2 (Ultra/33) (using DMA data transfers)
                    239:     
                    240:     wd1 at atabus1 drive 0: <WDC WD100BB-75CLB0>
                    241:     wd1: drive supports 16-sector PIO transfers, LBA addressing
                    242:     wd1: 9541 MB, 19386 cyl, 16 head, 63 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 19541088 sectors
                    243:     wd1: drive supports PIO mode 4, DMA mode 2, Ultra-DMA mode 5 (Ultra/100)
                    244:     wd1(piixide0:1:0): using PIO mode 4, Ultra-DMA mode 2 (Ultra/33) (using DMA data transfers)
                    245: 
1.5     ! jdf       246: *Note*: If you are using SCSI, replace `/dev/[r]wd{0,1}` with `/dev/[r]sd{0,1}`.
1.1       jdf       247: 
1.5     ! jdf       248: In this example, both disks are jumpered as Master on separate channels on th
        !           249: same controller. You usually wouldn't want to have both disks on the same bus o
        !           250: the same controller; this creates a single point of failure. Ideally you woul
        !           251: have the disks on separate channels on separate controllers. Nonetheless, i
        !           252: most cases the most critical point is the hard disk, so having redundan
        !           253: channels or controllers is not that important. Plus, having more channels o
        !           254: controllers increases costs. Some SCSI controllers have multiple channels on th
        !           255: same controller, however, a SCSI bus reset on one channel could adversely affec
        !           256: the other channel if the ASIC/IC becomes overloaded. The trade-off with tw
        !           257: controllers is that twice the bandwidth is used on the system bus. For purpose
        !           258: of simplification, this example shows two disks on different channels on th
1.1       jdf       259: same controller.
                    260: 
1.5     ! jdf       261: *Note*: RAIDframe requires that all components be of the same size. Actually, i
        !           262: will use the lowest common denominator among components of dissimilar sizes. Fo
        !           263: purposes of illustration, the example uses two disks of identical geometries
        !           264: Also, consider the availability of replacement disks if a component suffers 
1.1       jdf       265: critical hardware failure.
                    266: 
1.5     ! jdf       267: *Tip*: Two disks of identical vendor model numbers could have differen
        !           268: geometries if the drive possesses "grown defects". Use a low-level program t
        !           269: examine the grown defects table of the disk. These disks are obviousl
1.1       jdf       270: suboptimal candidates for use in RAID and should be avoided.
                    271: 
                    272: ### Initial Install on Disk0/wd0
                    273: 
1.5     ! jdf       274: Perform a very generic installation onto your Disk0/wd0. Follow the `INSTALL
        !           275: instructions for your platform. Install all the sets but do not bothe
1.1       jdf       276: customizing anything other than the kernel as it will be overwritten.
                    277: 
1.5     ! jdf       278: *Tip*: On i386, during the sysinst install, when prompted if you want to `us
1.1       jdf       279: the entire disk for NetBSD`, answer `yes`.
                    280: 
1.3       jdf       281:  * [Installing NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations](/guide/inst)
1.1       jdf       282:  * [NetBSD/i386 Install Directions](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/i386/INSTALL.html)
                    283:  * [NetBSD/sparc64 Install Directions](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-5.0.2/sparc64/INSTALL.html)
                    284: 
1.5     ! jdf       285: Once the installation is complete, you should examine th
        !           286: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386
        !           287: and [fdisk(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?fdisk+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) 
        !           288: [sunlabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?sunlabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386
1.1       jdf       289: outputs on the system:
                    290: 
                    291:     # df
                    292:     Filesystem   1K-blocks        Used       Avail %Cap Mounted on
                    293:     /dev/wd0a       9487886      502132     8511360   5% /
                    294: 
                    295: On i386:
                    296: 
                    297:     # disklabel -r wd0
                    298:     type: unknown
                    299:     disk: Disk00
                    300:     label:
                    301:     flags:
                    302:     bytes/sector: 512
                    303:     sectors/track: 63
                    304:     tracks/cylinder: 16
                    305:     sectors/cylinder: 1008
                    306:     cylinders: 19386
                    307:     total sectors: 19541088
                    308:     rpm: 3600
                    309:     interleave: 1
                    310:     trackskew: 0
                    311:     cylinderskew: 0
                    312:     headswitch: 0           # microseconds
                    313:     track-to-track seek: 0  # microseconds
                    314:     drivedata: 0
                    315:     
                    316:     16 partitions:
                    317:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
                    318:      a:  19276992        63     4.2BSD   1024  8192 46568  # (Cyl.      0* - 19124*)
                    319:      b:    264033  19277055       swap                     # (Cyl.  19124* - 19385)
                    320:      c:  19541025        63     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0* - 19385)
                    321:      d:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 - 19385)
                    322:     
                    323:     # fdisk /dev/rwd0d
                    324:     Disk: /dev/rwd0d
                    325:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
                    326:     cylinders: 19386, heads: 16, sectors/track: 63 (1008 sectors/cylinder)
                    327:     total sectors: 19541088
                    328:     
                    329:     BIOS disk geometry:
                    330:     cylinders: 1023, heads: 255, sectors/track: 63 (16065 sectors/cylinder)
                    331:     total sectors: 19541088
                    332:     
                    333:     Partition table:
                    334:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
                    335:         start 63, size 19541025 (9542 MB, Cyls 0-1216/96/1), Active
                    336:     1: <UNUSED>
                    337:     2: <UNUSED>
                    338:     3: <UNUSED>
                    339:     Bootselector disabled.
                    340:     First active partition: 0
                    341: 
                    342: On Sparc64 the command and output differ slightly:
                    343: 
                    344:     # disklabel -r wd0
                    345:     type: unknown
                    346:     disk: Disk0
                    347:     [...snip...]
                    348:     8 partitions:
                    349:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
                    350:      a:  19278000         0     4.2BSD   1024  8192 46568  # (Cyl.      0 -  19124)
                    351:      b:    263088  19278000       swap                     # (Cyl.  19125 -  19385)
                    352:      c:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -  19385)
                    353:     
                    354:     # sunlabel /dev/rwd0c
                    355:     sunlabel> P
                    356:     a: start cyl =      0, size = 19278000 (19125/0/0 - 9413.09Mb)
                    357:     b: start cyl =  19125, size =   263088 (261/0/0 - 128.461Mb)
                    358:     c: start cyl =      0, size = 19541088 (19386/0/0 - 9541.55Mb)
                    359: 
                    360: ### Preparing Disk1/wd1
                    361: 
1.5     ! jdf       362: Once you have a stock install of NetBSD on Disk0/wd0, you are ready to begin
        !           363: Disk1/wd1 will be visible and unused by the system. To setup Disk1/wd1, you wil
        !           364: us
        !           365: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386
1.1       jdf       366: to allocate the entire second disk to the RAID-1 set.
                    367: 
1.5     ! jdf       368: *Tip*: The best way to ensure that Disk1/wd1 is completely empty is to 'zero
        !           369: out the first few sectors of the disk wit
        !           370: [dd(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dd+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) . This wil
        !           371: erase the MBR (i386) or Sun disk label (sparc64), as well as the NetBSD dis
        !           372: label. If you make a mistake at any point during the RAID setup process, you ca
1.1       jdf       373: always refer to this process to restore the disk to an empty state.
                    374: 
                    375: *Note*: On sparc64, use `/dev/rwd1c` instead of `/dev/rwd1d`!
                    376: 
                    377:     # dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rwd1d bs=8k count=1
                    378:     1+0 records in
                    379:     1+0 records out
                    380:     8192 bytes transferred in 0.003 secs (2730666 bytes/sec)
                    381: 
1.5     ! jdf       382: Once this is complete, on i386, verify that both the MBR and NetBSD disk label
1.1       jdf       383: are gone. On sparc64, verify that the Sun Disk label is gone as well.
                    384: 
                    385: On i386:
                    386: 
                    387:     # fdisk /dev/rwd1d
                    388:     
                    389:     fdisk: primary partition table invalid, no magic in sector 0
                    390:     Disk: /dev/rwd1d
                    391:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
                    392:     cylinders: 19386, heads: 16, sectors/track: 63 (1008 sectors/cylinder)
                    393:     total sectors: 19541088
                    394:     
                    395:     BIOS disk geometry:
                    396:     cylinders: 1023, heads: 255, sectors/track: 63 (16065 sectors/cylinder)
                    397:     total sectors: 19541088
                    398:     
                    399:     Partition table:
                    400:     0: <UNUSED>
                    401:     1: <UNUSED>
                    402:     2: <UNUSED>
                    403:     3: <UNUSED>
                    404:     Bootselector disabled.
                    405:     
                    406:     # disklabel -r wd1
                    407:     
                    408:     [...snip...]
                    409:     16 partitions:
                    410:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
                    411:      c:  19541025        63     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0* - 19385)
                    412:      d:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 - 19385)
                    413: 
                    414: On sparc64:
                    415: 
                    416:     # sunlabel /dev/rwd1c
                    417:     
                    418:     sunlabel: bogus label on `/dev/wd1c' (bad magic number)
                    419:     
                    420:     # disklabel -r wd1
                    421:     
                    422:     [...snip...]
                    423:     3 partitions:
                    424:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
                    425:      c:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -  19385)
                    426:     disklabel: boot block size 0
                    427:     disklabel: super block size 0
                    428: 
1.5     ! jdf       429: Now that you are certain the second disk is empty, on i386 you must establis
        !           430: the MBR on the second disk using the values obtained from Disk0/wd0 above. W
        !           431: must remember to mark the NetBSD partition active or the system will not boot
        !           432: You must also create a NetBSD disklabel on Disk1/wd1 that will enable a RAI
        !           433: volume to exist upon it. On sparc64, you will need to simpl
        !           434: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386
1.1       jdf       435: the second disk which will write the proper Sun Disk Label.
                    436: 
1.5     ! jdf       437: *Tip*
        !           438: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386
        !           439: will use your shell' s environment variable `$EDITOR` variable to edit th
        !           440: disklabel. The default i
1.1       jdf       441: [vi(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vi+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
                    442: 
                    443: On i386:
                    444: 
                    445:     # fdisk -0ua /dev/rwd1d
                    446:     fdisk: primary partition table invalid, no magic in sector 0
                    447:     Disk: /dev/rwd1d
                    448:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
                    449:     cylinders: 19386, heads: 16, sectors/track: 63 (1008 sectors/cylinder)
                    450:     total sectors: 19541088
                    451:     
                    452:     BIOS disk geometry:
                    453:     cylinders: 1023, heads: 255, sectors/track: 63 (16065 sectors/cylinder)
                    454:     total sectors: 19541088
                    455:     
                    456:     Do you want to change our idea of what BIOS thinks? [n]
                    457:     
                    458:     Partition 0:
                    459:     <UNUSED>
                    460:     The data for partition 0 is:
                    461:     <UNUSED>
                    462:     sysid: [0..255 default: 169]
                    463:     start: [0..1216cyl default: 63, 0cyl, 0MB]
                    464:     size: [0..1216cyl default: 19541025, 1216cyl, 9542MB]
                    465:     bootmenu: []
                    466:     Do you want to change the active partition? [n] y
                    467:     Choosing 4 will make no partition active.
                    468:     active partition: [0..4 default: 0] 0
                    469:     Are you happy with this choice? [n] y
                    470:     
                    471:     We haven't written the MBR back to disk yet.  This is your last chance.
                    472:     Partition table:
                    473:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
                    474:         start 63, size 19541025 (9542 MB, Cyls 0-1216/96/1), Active
                    475:     1: <UNUSED>
                    476:     2: <UNUSED>
                    477:     3: <UNUSED>
                    478:     Bootselector disabled.
                    479:     Should we write new partition table? [n] y
                    480:     
                    481:     # disklabel -r -e -I wd1
                    482:     type: unknown
                    483:     disk: Disk1
                    484:     label:
                    485:     flags:
                    486:     bytes/sector: 512
                    487:     sectors/track: 63
                    488:     tracks/cylinder: 16
                    489:     sectors/cylinder: 1008
                    490:     cylinders: 19386
                    491:     total sectors: 19541088
                    492:     [...snip...]
                    493:     16 partitions:
                    494:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
                    495:      a:  19541025        63       RAID                     # (Cyl.      0*-19385)
                    496:      c:  19541025        63     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0*-19385)
                    497:      d:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -19385)
                    498: 
                    499: On sparc64:
                    500: 
                    501:     # disklabel -r -e -I wd1
                    502:     type: unknown
                    503:     disk: Disk1
                    504:     label:
                    505:     flags:
                    506:     bytes/sector: 512
                    507:     sectors/track: 63
                    508:     tracks/cylinder: 16
                    509:     sectors/cylinder: 1008
                    510:     cylinders: 19386
                    511:     total sectors: 19541088
                    512:     [...snip...]
                    513:     3 partitions:
                    514:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
                    515:      a:  19541088         0       RAID                     # (Cyl.      0 -  19385)
                    516:      c:  19541088         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -  19385)
                    517:     
1.5     ! jdf       518:     # sunlabel /dev/rwd1
1.1       jdf       519:     sunlabel> P
                    520:     a: start cyl =      0, size = 19541088 (19386/0/0 - 9541.55Mb)
                    521:     c: start cyl =      0, size = 19541088 (19386/0/0 - 9541.55Mb)
                    522: 
1.5     ! jdf       523: *Note*: On i386, the `c:` and `d:` slices are reserved. `c:` represents th
        !           524: NetBSD portion of the disk. `d:` represents the entire disk. Because we want t
        !           525: allocate the entire NetBSD MBR partition to RAID, and because `a:` reside
        !           526: within the bounds of `c:`, the `a:` and `c:` slices have same size and offse
        !           527: values and sizes. The offset must start at a track boundary (an increment o
        !           528: sectors matching the sectors/track value in the disk label). On sparc64 however
        !           529: `c:` represents the entire NetBSD partition in the Sun disk label and `d:` i
        !           530: not reserved. Also note that sparc64's `c:` and `a:` require no offset from th
        !           531: beginning of the disk, however if they should need to be, the offset must star
        !           532: at a cylinder boundary (an increment of sectors matching the sectors/cylinde
1.1       jdf       533: value).
                    534: 
                    535: ### Initializing the RAID Device
                    536: 
1.5     ! jdf       537: Next we create the configuration file for the RAID set / volume. Traditionally
        !           538: RAIDframe configuration files belong in `/etc` and would be read and initialize
        !           539: at boot time, however, because we are creating a bootable RAID volume, th
        !           540: configuration data will actually be written into the RAID volume using th
        !           541: *auto-configure* feature. Therefore, files are needed only during the initia
1.1       jdf       542: setup and should not reside in `/etc`.
                    543: 
                    544:     # vi /var/tmp/raid0.conf
                    545:     START array
                    546:     1 2 0
                    547:     
                    548:     START disks
                    549:     absent
                    550:     /dev/wd1a
                    551:     
                    552:     START layout
                    553:     128 1 1 1
                    554:     
                    555:     START queue
                    556:     fifo 100
                    557: 
1.5     ! jdf       558: Note that `absent` means a non-existing disk. This will allow us to establis
        !           559: the RAID volume with a bogus component that we will substitute for Disk0/wd0 a
1.1       jdf       560: a later time.
                    561: 
1.5     ! jdf       562: Next we configure the RAID device and initialize the serial number to somethin
        !           563: unique. In this example we use a "YYYYMMDD*`Revision`*" scheme. The format yo
        !           564: choose is entirely at your discretion, however the scheme you choose shoul
1.1       jdf       565: ensure that no two RAID sets use the same serial number at the same time.
                    566: 
1.5     ! jdf       567: After that we initialize the RAID set for the first time, safely ignoring th
1.1       jdf       568: errors regarding the bogus component.
                    569: 
                    570:     # raidctl -v -C /var/tmp/raid0.conf raid0
                    571:     Ignoring missing component at column 0
                    572:     raid0: Component absent being configured at col: 0
                    573:              Column: 0 Num Columns: 0
                    574:              Version: 0 Serial Number: 0 Mod Counter: 0
                    575:              Clean: No Status: 0
                    576:     Number of columns do not match for: absent
                    577:     absent is not clean!
                    578:     raid0: Component /dev/wd1a being configured at col: 1
                    579:              Column: 0 Num Columns: 0
                    580:              Version: 0 Serial Number: 0 Mod Counter: 0
                    581:              Clean: No Status: 0
                    582:     Column out of alignment for: /dev/wd1a
                    583:     Number of columns do not match for: /dev/wd1a
                    584:     /dev/wd1a is not clean!
                    585:     raid0: There were fatal errors
                    586:     raid0: Fatal errors being ignored.
                    587:     raid0: RAID Level 1
                    588:     raid0: Components: component0[**FAILED**] /dev/wd1a
                    589:     raid0: Total Sectors: 19540864 (9541 MB)
                    590:     # raidctl -v -I 2009122601 raid0
                    591:     # raidctl -v -i raid0
                    592:     Initiating re-write of parity
                    593:     raid0: Error re-writing parity!
                    594:     Parity Re-write status:
                    595:     
                    596:     # tail -1 /var/log/messages
                    597:     Dec 26 00:00:30  /netbsd: raid0: Error re-writing parity!
                    598:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
                    599:     Components:
                    600:               component0: failed
                    601:                /dev/wd1a: optimal
                    602:     No spares.
                    603:     component0 status is: failed.  Skipping label.
                    604:     Component label for /dev/wd1a:
                    605:        Row: 0, Column: 1, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
                    606:        Version: 2, Serial Number: 2009122601, Mod Counter: 7
                    607:        Clean: No, Status: 0
                    608:        sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
                    609:        Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
                    610:        RAID Level: 1
                    611:        Autoconfig: No
                    612:        Root partition: No
                    613:        Last configured as: raid0
                    614:     Parity status: DIRTY
                    615:     Reconstruction is 100% complete.
                    616:     Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
                    617:     Copyback is 100% complete.
                    618: 
                    619: ### Setting up Filesystems
                    620: 
1.5     ! jdf       621: *Caution*: The root filesystem must begin at sector 0 of the RAID device. I
1.1       jdf       622: not, the primary boot loader will be unable to find the secondary boot loader.
                    623: 
1.5     ! jdf       624: The RAID device is now configured and available. The RAID device is a pseud
        !           625: disk-device. It will be created with a default disk label. You must no
        !           626: determine the proper sizes for disklabel slices for your production environment
        !           627: For purposes of simplification in this example, our system will have 8.
        !           628: gigabytes dedicated to `/` as `/dev/raid0a` and the rest allocated to `swap
1.1       jdf       629: as `/dev/raid0b`.
                    630: 
1.5     ! jdf       631: *Caution*: This is an unrealistic disk layout for a production server; th
        !           632: NetBSD Guide can expand on proper partitioning technique. See [Installin
1.1       jdf       633: NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations*](inst).
                    634: 
1.5     ! jdf       635: *Note*: Note that 1 GB is 2\*1024\*1024=2097152 blocks (1 block is 512 bytes, o
        !           636: 0.5 kilobytes). Despite what the underlying hardware composing a RAID set is
1.1       jdf       637: the RAID pseudo disk will always have 512 bytes/sector.
                    638: 
1.5     ! jdf       639: *Note*: In our example, the space allocated to the underlying `a:` slic
        !           640: composing the RAID set differed between i386 and sparc64, therefore the tota
1.1       jdf       641: sectors of the RAID volumes differs:
                    642: 
                    643: On i386:
                    644: 
                    645:      # disklabel -r -e -I raid0
                    646:     type: RAID
                    647:     disk: raid
                    648:     label: fictitious
                    649:     flags:
                    650:     bytes/sector: 512
                    651:     sectors/track: 128
                    652:     tracks/cylinder: 8
                    653:     sectors/cylinder: 1024
                    654:     cylinders: 19082
                    655:     total sectors: 19540864
                    656:     rpm: 3600
                    657:     interleave: 1
                    658:     trackskew: 0
                    659:     cylinderskew: 0
                    660:     headswitch: 0 # microseconds
                    661:     track-to-track seek: 0 # microseconds
                    662:     drivedata: 0
                    663:     
                    664:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
                    665:      a:  19015680         0     4.2BSD      0     0     0  # (Cyl.      0 - 18569)
                    666:      b:    525184  19015680       swap                     # (Cyl.  18570 - 19082*)
                    667:      d:  19540864         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 - 19082*)
                    668: 
                    669: On sparc64:
                    670: 
                    671:     # disklabel -r -e -I raid0
                    672:     [...snip...]
                    673:     total sectors: 19539968
                    674:     [...snip...]
                    675:     3 partitions:
                    676:     #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
                    677:      a:  19251200         0     4.2BSD      0     0     0  # (Cyl.      0 -  18799)
                    678:      b:    288768  19251200       swap                     # (Cyl.  18800 -  19081)
                    679:      c:  19539968         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -  19081)
                    680: 
                    681: Next, format the newly created `/` partition as a 4.2BSD FFSv1 File System:
                    682: 
                    683:     # newfs -O 1 /dev/rraid0a
                    684:     /dev/rraid0a: 9285.0MB (19015680 sectors) block size 16384, fragment size 2048
                    685:             using 51 cylinder groups of 182.06MB, 11652 blks, 23040 inodes.
                    686:     super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
                    687:     32, 372896, 745760, 1118624, 1491488, 1864352, 2237216, 2610080, 2982944,
                    688:     ...............................................................................
                    689:     
                    690:     # fsck -fy /dev/rraid0a
                    691:     ** /dev/rraid0a
                    692:     ** File system is already clean
                    693:     ** Last Mounted on
                    694:     ** Phase 1 - Check Blocks and Sizes
                    695:     ** Phase 2 - Check Pathnames
                    696:     ** Phase 3 - Check Connectivity
                    697:     ** Phase 4 - Check Reference Counts
                    698:     ** Phase 5 - Check Cyl groups
                    699:     1 files, 1 used, 4679654 free (14 frags, 584955 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)
                    700: 
                    701: ### Migrating System to RAID
                    702: 
1.5     ! jdf       703: The new RAID filesystems are now ready for use. We mount them under `/mnt` an
        !           704: copy all files from the old system. This can be done usin
        !           705: [dump(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dump+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) o
1.1       jdf       706: [pax(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pax+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).
                    707: 
                    708:     # mount /dev/raid0a /mnt
                    709:     # df -h /mnt
                    710:     Filesystem        Size       Used      Avail %Cap Mounted on
                    711:     /dev/raid0a       8.9G       2.0K       8.5G   0% /mnt
                    712:     # cd /; pax -v -X -rw -pe . /mnt
                    713:     [...snip...]
                    714: 
1.5     ! jdf       715: The NetBSD install now exists on the RAID filesystem. We need to fix th
        !           716: mount-points in the new copy of `/etc/fstab` or the system will not come u
1.1       jdf       717: correctly. Replace instances of `wd0` with `raid0`.
                    718: 
1.5     ! jdf       719: The swap should be unconfigured upon shutdown to avoid parity errors on the RAI
1.1       jdf       720: device. This can be done with a simple, one-line setting in `/etc/rc.conf`.
                    721: 
                    722:     # vi /mnt/etc/rc.conf
                    723:     swapoff=YES
                    724: 
1.5     ! jdf       725: Next, the boot loader must be installed on Disk1/wd1. Failure to install th
1.1       jdf       726: loader on Disk1/wd1 will render the system un-bootable if Disk0/wd0 fails. You
                    727: should hope your system won't have to reboot when wd0 fails.
                    728: 
1.5     ! jdf       729: *Tip*: Because the BIOS/CMOS menus in many i386 based systems are misleadin
        !           730: with regard to device boot order. I highly recommend utilizing the `-
        !           731: timeout=X` option supported by the i386 1st stage boot loader. Setup uniqu
        !           732: values for each disk as a point of reference so that you can easily determin
1.1       jdf       733: from which disk the system is booting.
                    734: 
1.5     ! jdf       735: *Caution*: Although it may seem logical to install the 1st stage boot block int
        !           736: `/dev/rwd1{c,d}` (which is historically correct with NetBSD 1.6.
        !           737: [installboot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?installboot+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386
        !           738: , this is no longer the case. If you make this mistake, the boot sector wil
1.1       jdf       739: become irrecoverably damaged and you will need to start the process over again.
                    740: 
                    741: On i386, install the boot loader into `/dev/rwd1a`:
                    742: 
                    743:     # /usr/sbin/installboot -o timeout=30 -v /dev/rwd1a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
                    744:     File system:         /dev/rwd1a
                    745:     Primary bootstrap:   /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
                    746:     Ignoring PBR with invalid magic in sector 0 of `/dev/rwd1a'
                    747:     Boot options:        timeout 30, flags 0, speed 9600, ioaddr 0, console pc
                    748: 
1.5     ! jdf       749: On sparc64, install the boot loader into `/dev/rwd1a` as well, however the `-o
1.1       jdf       750: flag is unsupported (and un-needed thanks to OpenBoot):
                    751: 
                    752:     # /usr/sbin/installboot -v /dev/rwd1a /usr/mdec/bootblk
                    753:     File system:         /dev/rwd1a
                    754:     Primary bootstrap:   /usr/mdec/bootblk
                    755:     Bootstrap start sector: 1
                    756:     Bootstrap byte count:   5140
                    757:     Writing bootstrap
                    758: 
1.5     ! jdf       759: Finally the RAID set must be made auto-configurable and the system should b
1.1       jdf       760: rebooted. After the reboot everything is mounted from the RAID devices.
                    761: 
                    762:     # raidctl -v -A root raid0
                    763:     raid0: Autoconfigure: Yes
                    764:     raid0: Root: Yes
                    765:     # tail -2 /var/log/messages
                    766:     raid0: New autoconfig value is: 1
                    767:     raid0: New rootpartition value is: 1
                    768:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
                    769:     [...snip...]
                    770:        Autoconfig: Yes
                    771:        Root partition: Yes
                    772:        Last configured as: raid0
                    773:     [...snip...]
                    774:     # shutdown -r now
                    775: 
                    776: ### Warning
                    777: 
1.5     ! jdf       778: Always us
        !           779: [shutdown(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?shutdown+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386
        !           780: when shutting down. Never simply us
        !           781: [reboot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?reboot+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
        !           782: [reboot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?reboot+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386
        !           783: will not properly run shutdown RC scripts and will not safely disable swap. Thi
1.1       jdf       784: will cause dirty parity at every reboot.
                    785: 
                    786: ### The first boot with RAID
                    787: 
1.5     ! jdf       788: At this point, temporarily configure your system to boot Disk1/wd1. See notes i
        !           789: [[Testing Boot Blocks|guide/rf#adding-text-boot]] for details on this process
        !           790: The system should boot now and all filesystems should be on the RAID devices
        !           791: The RAID will be functional with a single component, however the set is no
1.1       jdf       792: fully functional because the bogus drive (wd9) has failed.
                    793: 
                    794:     # egrep -i "raid|root" /var/run/dmesg.boot
                    795:     raid0: RAID Level 1
                    796:     raid0: Components: component0[**FAILED**] /dev/wd1a
                    797:     raid0: Total Sectors: 19540864 (9541 MB)
                    798:     boot device: raid0
                    799:     root on raid0a dumps on raid0b
                    800:     root file system type: ffs
                    801:     
                    802:     # df -h
                    803:     Filesystem    Size     Used     Avail Capacity  Mounted on
                    804:     /dev/raid0a   8.9G     196M      8.3G     2%    /
                    805:     kernfs        1.0K     1.0K        0B   100%    /kern
                    806:     
                    807:     # swapctl -l
                    808:     Device      1K-blocks     Used    Avail Capacity  Priority
                    809:     /dev/raid0b    262592        0   262592     0%    0
                    810:     # raidctl -s raid0
                    811:     Components:
                    812:               component0: failed
                    813:                /dev/wd1a: optimal
                    814:     No spares.
                    815:     component0 status is: failed.  Skipping label.
                    816:     Component label for /dev/wd1a:
                    817:        Row: 0, Column: 1, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
                    818:        Version: 2, Serial Number: 2009122601, Mod Counter: 65
                    819:        Clean: No, Status: 0
                    820:        sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
                    821:        Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
                    822:        RAID Level: 1
                    823:        Autoconfig: Yes
                    824:        Root partition: Yes
                    825:        Last configured as: raid0
                    826:     Parity status: DIRTY
                    827:     Reconstruction is 100% complete.
                    828:     Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
                    829:     Copyback is 100% complete.
                    830: 
                    831: ### Adding Disk0/wd0 to RAID
                    832: 
1.5     ! jdf       833: We will now add Disk0/wd0 as a component of the RAID. This will destroy th
        !           834: original file system structure. On i386, the MBR disklabel will be unaffecte
        !           835: (remember we copied wd0's label to wd1 anyway) , therefore there is no need t
        !           836: "zero" Disk0/wd0. However, we need to relabel Disk0/wd0 to have an identica
        !           837: NetBSD disklabel layout as Disk1/wd1. Then we add Disk0/wd0 as "hot-spare" t
        !           838: the RAID set and initiate the parity reconstruction for all RAID devices
1.1       jdf       839: effectively bringing Disk0/wd0 into the RAID-1 set and "syncing up" both disks.
                    840: 
                    841:     # disklabel -r wd1 > /tmp/disklabel.wd1
                    842:     # disklabel -R -r wd0 /tmp/disklabel.wd1
                    843: 
1.5     ! jdf       844: As a last-minute sanity check, you might want to us
        !           845: [diff(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?diff+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) t
        !           846: ensure that the disklabels of Disk0/wd0 match Disk1/wd1. You should also backu
1.1       jdf       847: these files for reference in the event of an emergency.
                    848: 
                    849:     # disklabel -r wd0 > /tmp/disklabel.wd0
                    850:     # disklabel -r wd1 > /tmp/disklabel.wd1
                    851:     # diff /tmp/disklabel.wd0 /tmp/disklabel.wd1
                    852:     # fdisk /dev/rwd0 > /tmp/fdisk.wd0
                    853:     # fdisk /dev/rwd1 > /tmp/fdisk.wd1
                    854:     # diff /tmp/fdisk.wd0 /tmp/fdisk.wd1
                    855:     # mkdir /root/RFbackup
                    856:     # cp -p /tmp/{disklabel,fdisk}* /root/RFbackup
                    857: 
                    858: Once you are sure, add Disk0/wd0 as a spare component, and start reconstruction:
                    859: 
                    860:     # raidctl -v -a /dev/wd0a raid0
                    861:     /netbsd: Warning: truncating spare disk /dev/wd0a to 241254528 blocks
                    862:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
                    863:     Components:
                    864:               component0: failed
                    865:                /dev/wd1a: optimal
                    866:     Spares:
                    867:                /dev/wd0a: spare
                    868:     [...snip...]
                    869:     # raidctl -F component0 raid0
                    870:     RECON: initiating reconstruction on col 0 -> spare at col 2
                    871:      11% |****                                   | ETA:    04:26 \
                    872: 
1.5     ! jdf       873: Depending on the speed of your hardware, the reconstruction time will vary. Yo
1.1       jdf       874: may wish to watch it on another terminal (note that you can interrupt
                    875: `raidctl -S` any time without stopping the synchronisation):
                    876: 
                    877:     # raidctl -S raid0
                    878:     Reconstruction is 0% complete.
                    879:     Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
                    880:     Copyback is 100% complete.
                    881:     Reconstruction status:
                    882:       17% |******                                 | ETA: 03:08 -
                    883: 
                    884: After reconstruction, both disks should be *optimal*.
                    885: 
                    886:     # tail -f /var/log/messages
                    887:     raid0: Reconstruction of disk at col 0 completed
                    888:     raid0: Recon time was 1290.625033 seconds, accumulated XOR time was 0 us (0.000000)
                    889:     raid0:  (start time 1093407069 sec 145393 usec, end time 1093408359 sec 770426 usec)
                    890:     raid0: Total head-sep stall count was 0
                    891:     raid0: 305318 recon event waits, 1 recon delays
                    892:     raid0: 1093407069060000 max exec ticks
                    893:     
                    894:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
                    895:     Components:
                    896:                component0: spared
                    897:                /dev/wd1a: optimal
                    898:     Spares:
                    899:          /dev/wd0a: used_spare
                    900:          [...snip...]
                    901: 
1.5     ! jdf       902: When the reconstruction is finished we need to install the boot loader on th
1.1       jdf       903: Disk0/wd0. On i386, install the boot loader into `/dev/rwd0a`:
                    904: 
                    905:     # /usr/sbin/installboot -o timeout=15 -v /dev/rwd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
                    906:     File system:         /dev/rwd0a
                    907:     Primary bootstrap:   /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
                    908:     Boot options:        timeout 15, flags 0, speed 9600, ioaddr 0, console pc
                    909: 
                    910: On sparc64:
                    911: 
                    912:     # /usr/sbin/installboot -v /dev/rwd0a /usr/mdec/bootblk
                    913:     File system:         /dev/rwd0a
                    914:     Primary bootstrap:   /usr/mdec/bootblk
                    915:     Bootstrap start sector: 1
                    916:     Bootstrap byte count:   5140
                    917:     Writing bootstrap
                    918: 
1.5     ! jdf       919: And finally, reboot the machine one last time before proceeding. This i
        !           920: required to migrate Disk0/wd0 from status "used\_spare" as "Component0" to stat
        !           921: "optimal". Refer to notes in the next section regarding verification of clea
1.1       jdf       922: parity after each reboot.
                    923: 
                    924:     # shutdown -r now
                    925: 
                    926: ### Testing Boot Blocks
                    927: 
1.5     ! jdf       928: At this point, you need to ensure that your system's hardware can properly boo
        !           929: using the boot blocks on either disk. On i386, this is a hardware-dependen
        !           930: process that may be done via your motherboard CMOS/BIOS menu or your controlle
1.1       jdf       931: card's configuration menu.
                    932: 
1.5     ! jdf       933: On i386, use the menu system on your machine to set the boot device order 
        !           934: priority to Disk1/wd1 before Disk0/wd0. The examples here depict a generic Awar
1.1       jdf       935: BIOS.
                    936: 
1.4       jdf       937: ![Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk1/wd1](/guide/images/raidframe_awardbios2.png)
1.5     ! jdf       938: 
1.1       jdf       939: **Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk1/wd1**
                    940: 
                    941: Save changes and exit:
                    942: 
                    943:     >> NetBSD/i386 BIOS Boot, Revision 5.2 (from NetBSD 5.0.2)
                    944:     >> (builds@b7, Sun Feb 7 00:30:50 UTC 2010)
                    945:     >> Memory: 639/130048 k
                    946:     Press return to boot now, any other key for boot menu
                    947:     booting hd0a:netbsd - starting in 30
                    948: 
1.5     ! jdf       949: You can determine that the BIOS is reading Disk1/wd1 because the timeout of th
        !           950: boot loader is 30 seconds instead of 15. After the reboot, re-enter the BIOS an
1.1       jdf       951: configure the drive boot order back to the default:
                    952: 
1.4       jdf       953: ![Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk0/wd0](/guide/images/raidframe_awardbios1.png)
1.5     ! jdf       954: 
1.1       jdf       955: **Award BIOS i386 Boot Disk0/wd0**
                    956: 
                    957: Save changes and exit:
                    958: 
                    959:     >> NetBSD/i386 BIOS Boot, Revision 5.2 (from NetBSD 5.0.2)
                    960:     >> Memory: 639/130048 k
                    961:     Press return to boot now, any other key for boot menu
                    962:     booting hd0a:netbsd - starting in 15
                    963: 
1.5     ! jdf       964: Notice how your custom kernel detects controller/bus/drive assignment
        !           965: independent of what the BIOS assigns as the boot disk. This is the expecte
1.1       jdf       966: behavior.
                    967: 
                    968: On sparc64, use the Sun OpenBoot **devalias** to confirm that both disks are bootable:
                    969: 
                    970:     Sun Ultra 5/10 UPA/PCI (UltraSPARC-IIi 400MHz), No Keyboard
                    971:     OpenBoot 3.15, 128 MB memory installed, Serial #nnnnnnnn.
                    972:     Ethernet address 8:0:20:a5:d1:3b, Host ID: nnnnnnnn.
                    973:     
                    974:     ok devalias
                    975:     [...snip...]
                    976:     cdrom /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/cdrom@2,0:f
                    977:     disk /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@0,0
                    978:     disk3 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@3,0
                    979:     disk2 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@2,0
                    980:     disk1 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@1,0
                    981:     disk0 /pci@1f,0/pci@1,1/ide@3/disk@0,0
                    982:     [...snip...]
                    983:     
                    984:     ok boot disk0 netbsd
                    985:     Initializing Memory [...]
                    986:     Boot device /pci/pci/ide@3/disk@0,0 File and args: netbsd
                    987:     NetBSD IEEE 1275 Bootblock
                    988:     >> NetBSD/sparc64 OpenFirmware Boot, Revision 1.13
                    989:     >> (builds@b7.netbsd.org, Wed Jul 29 23:43:42 UTC 2009)
                    990:     loadfile: reading header
                    991:     elf64_exec: Booting [...]
                    992:     symbols @ [....]
                    993:      Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
                    994:          2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
                    995:          The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    996:      Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
                    997:          The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
                    998:     [...snip...]
                    999: 
                   1000: And the second disk:
                   1001: 
                   1002:     ok boot disk2 netbsd
                   1003:     Initializing Memory [...]
                   1004:     Boot device /pci/pci/ide@3/disk@2,0: File and args:netbsd
                   1005:     NetBSD IEEE 1275 Bootblock
                   1006:     >> NetBSD/sparc64 OpenFirmware Boot, Revision 1.13
                   1007:     >> (builds@b7.netbsd.org, Wed Jul 29 23:43:42 UTC 2009)
                   1008:     loadfile: reading header
                   1009:     elf64_exec: Booting [...]
                   1010:     symbols @ [....]
                   1011:      Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
                   1012:          2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
                   1013:          The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                   1014:      Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
                   1015:          The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
                   1016:     [...snip...]
                   1017: 
1.5     ! jdf      1018: At each boot, the following should appear in the NetBSD kerne
1.1       jdf      1019: [dmesg(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dmesg+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) :
                   1020: 
                   1021:     Kernelized RAIDframe activated
                   1022:     raid0: RAID Level 1
                   1023:     raid0: Components: /dev/wd0a /dev/wd1a
                   1024:     raid0: Total Sectors: 19540864 (9541 MB)
                   1025:     boot device: raid0
                   1026:     root on raid0a dumps on raid0b
                   1027:     root file system type: ffs
                   1028: 
1.5     ! jdf      1029: Once you are certain that both disks are bootable, verify the RAID parity i
1.1       jdf      1030: clean after each reboot:
                   1031: 
                   1032:     # raidctl -v -s raid0
                   1033:     Components:
                   1034:               /dev/wd0a: optimal
                   1035:               /dev/wd1a: optimal
                   1036:     No spares.
                   1037:     [...snip...]
                   1038:     Component label for /dev/wd0a:
                   1039:        Row: 0, Column: 0, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
                   1040:        Version: 2, Serial Number: 2009122601, Mod Counter: 67
                   1041:        Clean: No, Status: 0
                   1042:        sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
                   1043:        Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
                   1044:        RAID Level: 1
                   1045:        Autoconfig: Yes
                   1046:        Root partition: Yes
                   1047:        Last configured as: raid0
                   1048:     Component label for /dev/wd1a:
                   1049:        Row: 0, Column: 1, Num Rows: 1, Num Columns: 2
                   1050:        Version: 2, Serial Number: 2009122601, Mod Counter: 67
                   1051:        Clean: No, Status: 0
                   1052:        sectPerSU: 128, SUsPerPU: 1, SUsPerRU: 1
                   1053:        Queue size: 100, blocksize: 512, numBlocks: 19540864
                   1054:        RAID Level: 1
                   1055:        Autoconfig: Yes
                   1056:        Root partition: Yes
                   1057:        Last configured as: raid0
                   1058:     Parity status: clean
                   1059:     Reconstruction is 100% complete.
                   1060:     Parity Re-write is 100% complete.
                   1061:     Copyback is 100% complete.
                   1062: 

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