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**Contents**

[[!toc levels=3]]

# Printing

This chapter describes a simple configuration for printing, using an HP Deskjet
690C printer connected to the first parallel port and the lpd printing system
that comes with NetBSD. First, the system will be configured to print text
documents, and next the configuration will be extended to print PostScript
documents using the Ghostscript program
([`print/ghostscript`](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/print/ghostscript/README.html)).
Please note that there are other, alternative printing systems available from
the [packages collection](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/software/packages.html),
like LPRng
([`print/LPRng`](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/print/LPRng/README.html))
and the Common Unix Printing System (CUPS)
([`print/cups`](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/print/cups/README.html))
which are not covered here.

## Enabling the printer daemon

After installation it is not yet possible to print, because the
[lpd(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?lpd+8+NetBSD-current) printer
spooler daemon is not enabled. To enable `lpd`, one line in the `/etc/rc.conf`
file must be changed from:

    lpd=NO

to

    lpd=YES

Or rather, insert it, it won't be in your `rc.conf` by default.

The change will come into effect at the next boot, but the daemon can be started
manually now:

    # sh /etc/rc.d/lpd start

To check if lpd is active, type the following command:

    # ps ax | grep lpd
      179 ??  Is     0:00.01 lpd

If you don't see an entry for lpd in the output of the previous command, the
daemon is not active.

The lpd system is configured via `/etc/printcap`. Before configuring
`/etc/printcap` it is a good idea to make a printer test, to check if the
physical connection between your computer and the printer is working. The test
sends out some data directly to the printer device. Assuming you use a printer
connected to the parallel port, this is `/dev/lpt0`; if you use an USB printer
try `/dev/ulpt0`. Please check the manpages of these devices
([lpt(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?lpt+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),
[ulpt(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ulpt+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386))
for more information!

In our example we have a printer attached to the parallel port, so we run this:

    # lptest 70 5 > /dev/lpt0

To see what the output should look like, try the same command without
redirecting the output to the printer:

    # lptest 70 5
    !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdef
    "#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefg
    #$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefgh
    $%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghi
    %&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghij

A frequent problem is that the output on the printer is not correctly aligned in
columns but has a "staircase" configuration. This usually means that the printer
is configured to begin a new line at the left margin after receiving both a
`<CR\>` (carriage return, ASCII 13) character and a `<LF\>` (line feed, ASCII
10) character. NetBSD only sends a <LF\> character. You can fix this problem in
two ways:

 * by changing the configuration of the printer
 * by using a simple printer filter (described later)

*Note*: In the previous example the lpd spooler is not involved because the
program output is sent directly to the printer device (`/dev/lpt0`) and is not
spooled.

## Configuring `/etc/printcap`

This section explains how to configure the example printer to print text
documents.

The printer must have an entry in the `/etc/printcap` file; the entry contains
the printer id (the name of the printer) and the printer description. The
[lp(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?lp+1+NetBSD-current)
id is the default used by many programs. Here is an example entry:

**Example `/etc/printcap`**

    lp|local printer|HP DeskJet 690C:\
            :lp=/dev/lpa0:sd=/var/spool/lpd/lp:lf=/var/log/lpd-errs:\
            :sh:pl#66:pw#80:if=/usr/local/libexec/lpfilter:

The file format and options are described in detail in the
[printcap(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?printcap+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
manpage. Please note that an *input filter* has been specified (with the `if`
option) which will take care of eliminating the staircase problem:

    if=/usr/local/libexec/lpfilter

### Printer driver and HP printers

The example above uses the `lpa0` device (polled driver) for the printer,
instead of the `lpd0` (interrupt driven driver). Using interrupts there is a
communication problem with some printers, and the HP Deskjet 690C is one of
them: printing is very slow and one PostScript page can take hours. The problem
is solved using the `lpa` driver. It is also possible to compile a custom kernel
where lpt is polled.

The printcap entry for the printer also specifies a spool directory, which must
be created; this directory will be used by the lpd daemon to accumulate the data
to be printed:

    # cd /var/spool/lpd
    # mkdir lp
    # chown daemon:daemon lp
    # chmod 770 lp

The only missing part is the `lpfilter` input filter, which must be written. The
only task performed by this filter is to configure the printer for the
elimination of the staircase problem before sending the text to be printed. The
printer used in this example requires the following initialization string:
`<ESC>&k2G`.

**Example `/usr/local/libexec/lpfilter`**

    #!/bin/sh
    # Treat LF as CR+LF
    printf "\033&k2G" && cat && exit 0
    exit 2

After saving this script into the name you used in `/etc/printcap`, you need to
make sure it's executable:

    # chmod 755 /usr/local/libexec/lpfilter*

*Note*: There is another filter that can be used:

    if=/usr/libexec/lpr/lpf:

This filter is much more complex than the one presented before. It is written to
process the output of
[nroff(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?nroff+1+NetBSD-current)
and handles underline and overprinting, expands tab characters and converts `LF`
to `CR + LF`. The source to this filter program can be found in
`/usr/src/usr.sbin/lpr/filters/lpf.c`.

After everything is in place now, the
[lptest(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?lptest+1+NetBSD-current)
command can be run again now, this time using the
[lpr(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?lpr+1+NetBSD-current) command,
which will first send the data to the lpd spooler, then runs the filter and
sends the data off to the printer:

    # lptest 70 5 | lpr -h

The `lpr` program prints text using the spooler to send data to the printer; the
`-h` option turns off the printing of a banner page (not really necessary,
because of the `sh` option in `/etc/printcap`). Users more familiar with the
System V printing system can also use the
[lp(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?lp+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) command
that comes as an alternative to
[lpr(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?lpr+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).

## Configuring Ghostscript

Now that basic printing works, the functionality for printing PostScript files
can be added. The simple printer used in this example does not support native
printing of PostScript files; a program must be used which is capable of
converting a PostScript document in a sequence of commands that the printer
understands. The Ghostscript program, which can be found in packages collection,
can be used to this purpose. This section explains how to configure lpd to use
Ghostscript to print PostScript files on the HP Deskjet 690C.

A second id for the printer will be created in `/etc/printcap`: this new id will
use a different input filter, which will call Ghostscript to perform the actual
print of the PostScript document. Therefore, text documents will be printed on
the *lp* printer and PostScript documents on the *ps* printer: both entries use
the same physical printer but have different printing filters.

The same result can be achieved using different configurations. For example, a
single entry with only one filter could be used. For this, the filter should be
able to automatically determine the format of the document being printed, and
use the appropriate printing program. This approach is simpler but leads to a
more complex filter; if you like it you should consider installing the
magicfilter program from the packages collection: it does this and many other
things automatically.

For our approach, the new `/etc/printcap` file looks like this:

**Example `/etc/printcap`**

    lp|local printer|HP DeskJet 690C:\
            :lp=/dev/lpa0:sd=/var/spool/lpd/lp:lf=/var/log/lpd-errs:\
            :sh:pl#66:pw#80:if=/usr/local/libexec/lpfilter:
    
    ps|Ghostscript driver:\
            :lp=/dev/lpa0:sd=/var/spool/lpd/ps:lf=/var/log/lpd-errs:\
            :mx#0:sh:if=/usr/local/libexec/lpfilter-ps:

Option `mx#0` is very important for printing PostScript files because it
eliminates size restrictions on the input file; PostScript documents tend to be
very big. The `if` option points to the new filter. There is also a new spool
directory.

The next steps are the creation of the new spool directory and of the filter
program. The procedure for the spool directory is the same as above:

    # cd /var/spool/lpd
    # mkdir ps
    # chown daemon:daemon ps
    # chmod 770 ps

The filter program for PostScript output is more complex than the text base one:
the file to be printed is fed to the interpreter which converts it into a
sequence of commands in the printer's control language, and then sends that off
to the printer. We have achieved to transform a cheap color printer in a device
suitable for PostScript output, by virtue of the NetBSD operating system and
some powerful freeware packages. The options used to configure Ghostscript are
described in the Ghostscript documentation: `cdj550` is the device used to drive
the HP printer.

**Example `/usr/local/libexec/lpfilter-ps`**

    #!/bin/sh
    # Treat LF as CR+LF
    printf "\033&k2G" || exit 2
    # Print the postscript file
    /usr/pkg/bin/gs -dSAFER -dBATCH -dQUIET -dNOPAUSE -q -sDEVICE=cdj550 \
    -sOutputFile=- -sPAPERSIZE=a4 - && exit 0
    exit 2

To summarize: two different printer names have been created on the system, which
point to the same physical printer but use different options, different filters
and different spool directories. Text files and PostScript files can be printed.
To print PostScript files the Ghostscript package must be installed on the
system.

## Printer management commands

This section lists some useful BSD commands for printer and print jobs
administration. Besides the already mentioned `lpr` and `lpd` commands, we
have:

 * [lpq(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?lpq+1+NetBSD-current)
   -- examine the printer job queue.
 * [lprm(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?lprm+1+NetBSD-current)
   -- delete jobs from the printer's queue.
 * [lpc(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?lpc+8+NetBSD-current)
   -- check the printing system, enable/disable printers and printer
   features.

## Remote printing

It is possible to configure the printing system in order to print on a printer
connected to a remote host. Let's say that, for example, you work on the *wotan*
host and you want to print on the printer connected to the *loge* host. The
`/etc/printcap` file of loge is the one of the last example. From wotan it will
be possible to print Postscript files using Ghostscript on loge.

The first step is to accept the print jobs submitted from the wotan host to the
loge host. To accomplish this, a line with the wotan host name must be added to
the `/etc/hosts.lpd` file on loge:

    # hostname
    loge
    # cat /etc/hosts.lpd
    wotan

The format of this file is very simple: each line contains the name of a host
which is permitted to print on the local system. By default the lpd daemon only
listens on UNIX domain sockets for local connections, it won't accept any
network connects. To ensure the daemon also accepts incoming network traffic,
the following will need to be added to `/etc/rc.conf`:

    lpd_flags=""

Next, the `/etc/printcap` file on wotan must be configured in order to send
print jobs to loge. For example:

    lp|line printer on loge:\
        :lp=:sd=/var/spool/lpd/lp:lf=/var/log/lp-errs:\
        :rm=loge:rp=lp
    
    ps|Ghostscript driver on loge:\
        :lp=:sd=/var/spool/lpd/ps:lf=/var/log/lp-errs:\
        :mx#0:\
        :rm=loge:rp=ps

There are four main differences between this configuration and the earlier one:

 1. The definition of `lp` is empty.
 2. The `rm` (remote machine) entry defines the name of the host to which the printer is connected.
 3. The `rp` (remote printer) entry defines the name of the printer connected to the remote host.
 4. It is not necessary to specify input filters because the definitions on the loge host will be used.
 5. The spool directories must still be created locally on wotan:

        # cd /var/spool/lpd
        # mkdir lp
        # chown daemon:daemon lp
        # chmod 770 lp
        # mkdir ps
        # chown daemon:daemon ps
        # chmod 770 ps

Now the print jobs for the `lp` and `ps` queues on wotan will be sent
automatically to the printer connected to loge.


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