Diff for /wikisrc/guide/net-practice.mdwn between versions 1.3 and 1.5

version 1.3, 2013/03/21 11:11:21 version 1.5, 2015/06/19 19:18:31
Line 14  take the i386/GENERIC config file as an  Line 14  take the i386/GENERIC config file as an 
 platforms should contain similar information, the comments in the config files   platforms should contain similar information, the comments in the config files 
 give additional hints. Besides the information given here, each kernel option is   give additional hints. Besides the information given here, each kernel option is 
 also documented in the   also documented in the 
 [options(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?options+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)   [[!template id=man name="options" section="4"]] 
 manpage, and there is usually a manpage for each driver too, e.g.   manpage, and there is usually a manpage for each driver too, e.g. 
 [tlp(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?tlp+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).  [[!template id=man name="tlp" section="4"]].
   
 The first line of each config file shows the version. It can be used to compare   The first line of each config file shows the version. It can be used to compare 
 against other versions via CVS, or when reporting bugs.  against other versions via CVS, or when reporting bugs.
Line 25  against other versions via CVS, or when  Line 25  against other versions via CVS, or when 
   
 If you want to run the Network Time Protocol (NTP), this option can be enabled   If you want to run the Network Time Protocol (NTP), this option can be enabled 
 for maximum precision. If the option is not present, NTP will still work. See   for maximum precision. If the option is not present, NTP will still work. See 
 [ntpd(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ntpd+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) for   [[!template id=man name="ntpd" section="8"]] for 
 more information.  more information.
   
     file-system     NFS             # Network File System client      file-system     NFS             # Network File System client
Line 46  information on NFS. Line 46  information on NFS.
 If you want to setup a router that forwards packets between networks or network   If you want to setup a router that forwards packets between networks or network 
 interfaces, setting this option is needed. It doesn't only switch on packet   interfaces, setting this option is needed. It doesn't only switch on packet 
 forwarding, but also increases some buffers. See   forwarding, but also increases some buffers. See 
 [options(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?options+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)   [[!template id=man name="options" section="4"]] 
 for details.  for details.
   
     options         INET            # IP + ICMP + TCP + UDP      options         INET            # IP + ICMP + TCP + UDP
Line 54  for details. Line 54  for details.
 This enables the TCP/IP code in the kernel. Even if you don't want/use   This enables the TCP/IP code in the kernel. Even if you don't want/use 
 networking, you will still need this for machine-internal communication of   networking, you will still need this for machine-internal communication of 
 subsystems like the X Window System. See   subsystems like the X Window System. See 
 [inet(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?inet+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) for   [[!template id=man name="inet" section="4"]] for 
 more details.  more details.
   
     options         INET6           # IPV6      options         INET6           # IPV6
Line 62  more details. Line 62  more details.
 If you want to use IPv6, this is your option. If you don't want IPv6, which is   If you want to use IPv6, this is your option. If you don't want IPv6, which is 
 part of NetBSD since the 1.5 release, you can remove/comment out that option.   part of NetBSD since the 1.5 release, you can remove/comment out that option. 
 See the   See the 
 [inet6(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?inet6+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)   [[!template id=man name="inet6" section="4"]] 
 manpage and [[Next generation Internet protocol -   manpage and [[Next generation Internet protocol - 
 IPv6|guide/net-intro#ipv6-intro]] for more information on the next generation   IPv6|guide/net-intro#ipv6-intro]] for more information on the next generation 
 Internet protocol.  Internet protocol.
Line 72  Internet protocol. Line 72  Internet protocol.
 Includes support for the IPsec protocol, including key and policy management,   Includes support for the IPsec protocol, including key and policy management, 
 authentication and compression. This option can be used without the previous   authentication and compression. This option can be used without the previous 
 option INET6, if you just want to use IPsec with IPv4, which is possible. See   option INET6, if you just want to use IPsec with IPv4, which is possible. See 
 [ipsec(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ipsec+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) for   [[!template id=man name="ipsec" section="4"]] for 
 more information.  more information.
   
     #options        IPSEC_ESP       # IP security (encryption part; define w/IPSEC)      #options        IPSEC_ESP       # IP security (encryption part; define w/IPSEC)
Line 83  This option is needed in addition to IPS Line 83  This option is needed in addition to IPS
   
 If multicast services like the MBone services should be routed, this option   If multicast services like the MBone services should be routed, this option 
 needs to be included. Note that the routing itself is controlled by the   needs to be included. Note that the routing itself is controlled by the 
 [mrouted(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?mrouted+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)   [[!template id=man name="mrouted" section="8"]] 
 daemon.  daemon.
   
     options         ISO,TPIP        # OSI      options         ISO,TPIP        # OSI
Line 91  daemon. Line 91  daemon.
   
 These options include the OSI protocol stack, which was said for a long time to   These options include the OSI protocol stack, which was said for a long time to 
 be the future of networking. It's mostly history these days. :-) See the   be the future of networking. It's mostly history these days. :-) See the 
 [iso(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?iso+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) manpage   [[!template id=man name="iso" section="4"]] manpage 
 for more information.  for more information.
   
     options         NETATALK        # AppleTalk networking protocols      options         NETATALK        # AppleTalk networking protocols
Line 100  Include support for the AppleTalk protoc Line 100  Include support for the AppleTalk protoc
 needed to make use of that. See pkgsrc/net/netatalk and pkgsrc/net/netatalk-asun   needed to make use of that. See pkgsrc/net/netatalk and pkgsrc/net/netatalk-asun 
 for such packages. More information on the AppleTalk protocol and protocol stack   for such packages. More information on the AppleTalk protocol and protocol stack 
 are available in the   are available in the 
 [atalk(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?atalk+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)   [[!template id=man name="atalk" section="4"]] 
 manpage.  manpage.
   
     options         PPP_BSDCOMP     # BSD-Compress compression support for PPP      options         PPP_BSDCOMP     # BSD-Compress compression support for PPP
Line 115  enables code to filter some packets. Line 115  enables code to filter some packets.
     options         IPFILTER_LOG    # ipmon(8) log support      options         IPFILTER_LOG    # ipmon(8) log support
   
 These options enable firewalling in NetBSD, using IPFilter. See the   These options enable firewalling in NetBSD, using IPFilter. See the 
 [ipf(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ipf+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) and   [[!template id=man name="ipf" section="4"]] and 
 [ipf(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ipf+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) manpages   [[!template id=man name="ipf" section="8"]] manpages 
 for more information on operation of IPFilter, and [[Configuring the   for more information on operation of IPFilter, and [[Configuring the 
         gateway/firewall|guide/net-practice#ipnat-configuring-gateway]] for a           gateway/firewall|guide/net-practice#ipnat-configuring-gateway]] for a 
         configuration example.          configuration example.
Line 135  broadcast-address to `0`. The `TCP_COMPA Line 135  broadcast-address to `0`. The `TCP_COMPA
   
 These options enable lookup of data via DHCP or the BOOTPARAM protocol if the   These options enable lookup of data via DHCP or the BOOTPARAM protocol if the 
 kernel is told to use a NFS root file system. See the   kernel is told to use a NFS root file system. See the 
 [diskless(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?diskless+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)   [[!template id=man name="diskless" section="8"]] 
 manpage for more information.  manpage for more information.
   
     # Kernel root file system and dump configuration.      # Kernel root file system and dump configuration.
Line 165  Others with attachment on USB, PCMCIA or Line 165  Others with attachment on USB, PCMCIA or
 This rather long list contains all sorts of network drivers. Please pick the one   This rather long list contains all sorts of network drivers. Please pick the one 
 that matches your hardware, according to the comments. For most drivers, there's   that matches your hardware, according to the comments. For most drivers, there's 
 also a manual page available, e.g.   also a manual page available, e.g. 
 [tlp(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?tlp+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),   [[!template id=man name="tlp" section="4"]], 
 [ne(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ne+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386), etc.  [[!template id=man name="ne" section="4"]], etc.
   
     # MII/PHY support      # MII/PHY support
   
 This section lists media independent interfaces for network cards. Pick one that   This section lists media independent interfaces for network cards. Pick one that 
 matches your hardware. If in doubt, enable them all and see what the kernel   matches your hardware. If in doubt, enable them all and see what the kernel 
 picks. See the   picks. See the 
 [mii(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?mii+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) manpage   [[!template id=man name="mii" section="4"]] manpage 
 for more information.  for more information.
   
     # USB Ethernet adapters      # USB Ethernet adapters
Line 192  for more information. Line 192  for more information.
 This pseudo-device allows sniffing packets of all sorts. It's needed for   This pseudo-device allows sniffing packets of all sorts. It's needed for 
 tcpdump, but also rarpd and some other applications that need to know about   tcpdump, but also rarpd and some other applications that need to know about 
 network traffic. See   network traffic. See 
 [bpf(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?bpf+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) for more   [[!template id=man name="bpf" section="4"]] for more 
 information.  information.
   
     pseudo-device   ipfilter                # IP filter (firewall) and NAT      pseudo-device   ipfilter                # IP filter (firewall) and NAT
   
 This one enables the IPFilter's packet filtering kernel interface used for   This one enables the IPFilter's packet filtering kernel interface used for 
 firewalling, NAT (IP Masquerading) etc. See   firewalling, NAT (IP Masquerading) etc. See 
 [ipf(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ipf+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) and   [[!template id=man name="ipf" section="4"]] and 
 [Configuring the gateway/firewall|guide/net-practice#ipnat-configuring-gateway]]   [Configuring the gateway/firewall|guide/net-practice#ipnat-configuring-gateway]] 
 for more information.  for more information.
   
Line 207  for more information. Line 207  for more information.
   
 This is the `lo0` software loopback network device which is used by some   This is the `lo0` software loopback network device which is used by some 
 programs these days, as well as for routing things. It should not be omitted.   programs these days, as well as for routing things. It should not be omitted. 
 See [lo(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?lo+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) for   See [[!template id=man name="lo" section="4"]] for 
 more details.  more details.
   
     pseudo-device   ppp             2       # Point-to-Point Protocol      pseudo-device   ppp             2       # Point-to-Point Protocol
   
 If you want to use PPP either over a serial interface or ethernet (PPPoE), you   If you want to use PPP either over a serial interface or ethernet (PPPoE), you 
 will need this option. See   will need this option. See 
 [ppp(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ppp+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) for   [[!template id=man name="ppp" section="4"]] for 
 details on this interface.  details on this interface.
   
     pseudo-device   sl              2       # Serial Line IP      pseudo-device   sl              2       # Serial Line IP
Line 222  details on this interface. Line 222  details on this interface.
 Serial Line IP is a simple encapsulation for IP over (well :) serial lines. It   Serial Line IP is a simple encapsulation for IP over (well :) serial lines. It 
 does not include negotiation of IP addresses and other options, which is the   does not include negotiation of IP addresses and other options, which is the 
 reason that it's not in widespread use today any more. See   reason that it's not in widespread use today any more. See 
 [sl(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?sl+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).  [[!template id=man name="sl" section="4"]].
   
     pseudo-device   strip           2       # Starmode Radio IP (Metricom)      pseudo-device   strip           2       # Starmode Radio IP (Metricom)
   
 If you happen to have one of the old Metricom Ricochet packet radio wireless   If you happen to have one of the old Metricom Ricochet packet radio wireless 
 network devices, use this pseudo-device to use it. See the   network devices, use this pseudo-device to use it. See the 
 [strip(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?strip+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)   [[!template id=man name="strip" section="4"]] 
 manpage for detailed information.  manpage for detailed information.
   
     pseudo-device   tun             2       # network tunneling over tty      pseudo-device   tun             2       # network tunneling over tty
Line 237  This network device can be used to tunne Line 237  This network device can be used to tunne
 `/dev/tun*`. Packets routed to the tun0 interface can be read from `/dev/tun0`,   `/dev/tun*`. Packets routed to the tun0 interface can be read from `/dev/tun0`, 
 and data written to `/dev/tun0` will be sent out the tun0 network interface.   and data written to `/dev/tun0` will be sent out the tun0 network interface. 
 This can be used to implement e.g. QoS routing in userland. See   This can be used to implement e.g. QoS routing in userland. See 
 [tun(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?tun+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) for   [[!template id=man name="tun" section="4"]] for 
 details.  details.
   
     pseudo-device   gre             2       # generic L3 over IP tunnel      pseudo-device   gre             2       # generic L3 over IP tunnel
   
 The GRE encapsulation can be used to tunnel arbitrary layer 3 packets over IP,   The GRE encapsulation can be used to tunnel arbitrary layer 3 packets over IP, 
 e.g. to implement VPNs. See   e.g. to implement VPNs. See 
 [gre(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?gre+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) for more.  [[!template id=man name="gre" section="4"]] for more.
   
     pseudo-device   gif             4       # IPv[46] over IPv[46] tunnel (RFC 1933)      pseudo-device   gif             4       # IPv[46] over IPv[46] tunnel (RFC 1933)
   
 Using the GIF interface allows to tunnel e.g. IPv6 over IPv4, which can be used   Using the GIF interface allows to tunnel e.g. IPv6 over IPv4, which can be used 
 to get IPv6 connectivity if no IPv6-capable uplink (ISP) is available. Other   to get IPv6 connectivity if no IPv6-capable uplink (ISP) is available. Other 
 mixes of operations are possible, too. See the   mixes of operations are possible, too. See the 
 [gif(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?gif+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) manpage   [[!template id=man name="gif" section="4"]] manpage 
 for some examples.  for some examples.
   
     #pseudo-device  faith           1       # IPv[46] tcp relay translation i/f      #pseudo-device  faith           1       # IPv[46] tcp relay translation i/f
   
 The faith interface captures IPv6 TCP traffic, for implementing userland   The faith interface captures IPv6 TCP traffic, for implementing userland 
 IPv6-to-IPv4 TCP relays e.g. for protocol transitions. See the   IPv6-to-IPv4 TCP relays e.g. for protocol transitions. See the 
 [faith(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?faith+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)   [[!template id=man name="faith" section="4"]] 
 manpage for more details on this device.  manpage for more details on this device.
   
     #pseudo-device  stf             1       # 6to4 IPv6 over IPv4 encapsulation      #pseudo-device  stf             1       # 6to4 IPv6 over IPv4 encapsulation
Line 266  manpage for more details on this device. Line 266  manpage for more details on this device.
 This adds a network device that can be used to tunnel IPv6 over IPv4 without   This adds a network device that can be used to tunnel IPv6 over IPv4 without 
 setting up a configured tunnel before. The source address of outgoing packets   setting up a configured tunnel before. The source address of outgoing packets 
 contains the IPv4 address, which allows routing replies back via IPv4. See the   contains the IPv4 address, which allows routing replies back via IPv4. See the 
 [stf(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?stf+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) manpage   [[!template id=man name="stf" section="4"]] manpage 
 and [IPv6 Connectivity & Transition via 6to4|guide/net-practice#ipv6-6to4]] for   and [IPv6 Connectivity & Transition via 6to4|guide/net-practice#ipv6-6to4]] for 
 more details.  more details.
   
Line 277  tagging Ethernet frames with a `vlan` ID Line 277  tagging Ethernet frames with a `vlan` ID
 (that also have to support VLAN, of course), this can be used to build virtual   (that also have to support VLAN, of course), this can be used to build virtual 
 LANs where one set of machines doesn't see traffic from the other (broadcast and   LANs where one set of machines doesn't see traffic from the other (broadcast and 
 other). The   other). The 
 [vlan(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vlan+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) manpage   [[!template id=man name="vlan" section="4"]] manpage 
 tells more about this.  tells more about this.
   
 ## Overview of the network configuration files  ## Overview of the network configuration files
Line 401  to the provider is alan, an example conn Line 401  to the provider is alan, an example conn
   
 In the previous example, the script specifies a *chat file* to be used for the   In the previous example, the script specifies a *chat file* to be used for the 
 connection. The options in the script are detailed in the   connection. The options in the script are detailed in the 
 [pppd(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pppd+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) man   [[!template id=man name="pppd" section="8"]] man 
 page.  page.
   
 ### Note  ### Note
Line 413  connection script Line 413  connection script
     kdebug 4      kdebug 4
   
 You will get a log of the operations performed when the system tries to connect.   You will get a log of the operations performed when the system tries to connect. 
 See [pppd(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pppd+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),   See [[!template id=man name="pppd" section="8"]], 
 [syslog.conf(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?syslog.conf+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).  [[!template id=man name="syslog.conf" section="5"]].
   
 The connection script calls the chat application to deal with the physical   The connection script calls the chat application to deal with the physical 
 connection (modem initialization, dialing, ...) The parameters to chat can be   connection (modem initialization, dialing, ...) The parameters to chat can be 
Line 431  separate file. If, for example, the tele Line 431  separate file. If, for example, the tele
   
 *Note*: If you have problems with the chat file, you can try connecting manually   *Note*: If you have problems with the chat file, you can try connecting manually 
 to the POP with the   to the POP with the 
 [cu(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?cu+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) program and   [[!template id=man name="cu" section="1"]] program and 
 verify the exact strings that you are receiving.  verify the exact strings that you are receiving.
   
 ### Authentication  ### Authentication
Line 498  The only thing left to do is the creatio Line 498  The only thing left to do is the creatio
     noipdefault      noipdefault
   
 Check the   Check the 
 [pppd(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pppd+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) man   [[!template id=man name="pppd" section="8"]] man 
 page for the meaning of the options.  page for the meaning of the options.
   
 ### Testing the modem  ### Testing the modem
Line 506  page for the meaning of the options. Line 506  page for the meaning of the options.
 Before activating the link it is a good idea to make a quick modem test, in   Before activating the link it is a good idea to make a quick modem test, in 
 order to verify that the physical connection and the communication with the   order to verify that the physical connection and the communication with the 
 modem works. For the test the   modem works. For the test the 
 [cu(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?cu+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) program can   [[!template id=man name="cu" section="1"]] program can 
 be used, as in the following example.  be used, as in the following example.
   
  1. Create the file `/etc/uucp/port` with the following lines:   1. Create the file `/etc/uucp/port` with the following lines:
Line 532  be used, as in the following example. Line 532  be used, as in the following example.
   
         In the previous example the reset command (ATZ) was sent to the modem, which           In the previous example the reset command (ATZ) was sent to the modem, which 
         replied with OK: the communication works. To exit           replied with OK: the communication works. To exit 
         [cu(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?cu+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386), write           [[!template id=man name="cu" section="1"]], write 
         `~` (tilde) followed by `.` (dot), as in the example.          `~` (tilde) followed by `.` (dot), as in the example.
   
 If the modem doesn't work, check that it is connected to the correct port (i.e.   If the modem doesn't work, check that it is connected to the correct port (i.e. 
 you are using the right port with   you are using the right port with 
 [cu(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?cu+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386). Cables are   [[!template id=man name="cu" section="1"]]. Cables are 
 a frequent cause of trouble, too.  a frequent cause of trouble, too.
   
 When you start   When you start 
 [cu(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?cu+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) and a   [[!template id=man name="cu" section="1"]] and a 
 message saying `Permission denied` appears, check who is the owner of the   message saying `Permission denied` appears, check who is the owner of the 
 `/dev/tty##` device, it must be "uucp". For example:  `/dev/tty##` device, it must be "uucp". For example:
   
Line 614  The two scripts must be executable: Line 614  The two scripts must be executable:
   
 If you find yourself to always run the same set of commands each time you dial   If you find yourself to always run the same set of commands each time you dial 
 in, you can put them in a script `/etc/ppp/ip-up` which will be called by   in, you can put them in a script `/etc/ppp/ip-up` which will be called by 
 [pppd(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pppd+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) after   [[!template id=man name="pppd" section="8"]] after 
 successful dial-in. Likewise, before the connection is closed down,   successful dial-in. Likewise, before the connection is closed down, 
 `/etc/ppp/ip-down` is executed. Both scripts are expected to be executable. See   `/etc/ppp/ip-down` is executed. Both scripts are expected to be executable. See 
 [pppd(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?pppd+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) for   [[!template id=man name="pppd" section="8"]] for 
 more details.  more details.
   
 ## Creating a small home network  ## Creating a small home network
Line 915  The first step is to make sure support f Line 915  The first step is to make sure support f
 running kernel. Support is included in the GENERIC kernel.  running kernel. Support is included in the GENERIC kernel.
   
 When the system is ready the bridge can be created, this can be done using the   When the system is ready the bridge can be created, this can be done using the 
 [brconfig(8)]((http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?brconfig+8+NetBSD-current))  [[!template id=man name="brconfig" section="8"]]
 command. First of a bridge interface has to be created. With the following   command. First of a bridge interface has to be created. With the following 
 `ifconfig` command the `bridge0` interface will be created:  `ifconfig` command the `bridge0` interface will be created:
   
Line 1112  example for such a configured tunnel is  Line 1112  example for such a configured tunnel is 
 described in  described in
 [RFC1933](http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1933) ("RFC 1933: Transition Mechanisms   [RFC1933](http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1933) ("RFC 1933: Transition Mechanisms 
 for IPv6 Hosts and Routers"), and that's implemented e.g. by the   for IPv6 Hosts and Routers"), and that's implemented e.g. by the 
 [gif(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?gif+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)   [[!template id=man name="gif" section="4"]] 
 device found in NetBSD.  device found in NetBSD.
   
 An *automatic* tunnel consists of a public server that has some kind of IPv6   An *automatic* tunnel consists of a public server that has some kind of IPv6 
Line 1122  registration of the sites using it as up Line 1122  registration of the sites using it as up
 protocol is the 6to4 mechanism described in  protocol is the 6to4 mechanism described in
 [RFC3056](http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3056) ("RFC 3056: Connection of IPv6   [RFC3056](http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3056) ("RFC 3056: Connection of IPv6 
 Domains via IPv4 Clouds"), and that is implemented in the   Domains via IPv4 Clouds"), and that is implemented in the 
 [stf(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?stf+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) device   [[!template id=man name="stf" section="4"]] device 
 found in NetBSD's. Another mechanism that does not require registration of   found in NetBSD's. Another mechanism that does not require registration of 
 IPv6-information is the 6over4 mechanism, which implements transporting of IPv6   IPv6-information is the 6over4 mechanism, which implements transporting of IPv6 
 over a multicast-enabled IPv4 network, instead of e.g. ethernet or FDDI.  6over4   over a multicast-enabled IPv4 network, instead of e.g. ethernet or FDDI.  6over4 
Line 1198  them: Line 1198  them:
  * subnet broadcast address as source/destination: depends on your IPv4 setup   * subnet broadcast address as source/destination: depends on your IPv4 setup
   
 The NetBSD   The NetBSD 
 [stf(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?stf+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) manual   [[!template id=man name="stf" section="4"]] manual 
 page documents some common configuration mistakes intercepted by default by the   page documents some common configuration mistakes intercepted by default by the 
 KAME stack as well as some further advice on filtering, but keep in mind that   KAME stack as well as some further advice on filtering, but keep in mind that 
 because of the requirement of these filters, 6to4 is not perfectly secure.   because of the requirement of these filters, 6to4 is not perfectly secure. 
Line 1241  it for using IPv6 and 6to4, e.g. on NetB Line 1241  it for using IPv6 and 6to4, e.g. on NetB
     pseudo-device stf             # 6to4 IPv6 over IPv4 encapsulation      pseudo-device stf             # 6to4 IPv6 over IPv4 encapsulation
   
 Note that the   Note that the 
 [stf(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?stf+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) device is   [[!template id=man name="stf" section="4"]] device is 
 not enabled by default on NetBSD releases older than 4.0. Rebuild your kernel,   not enabled by default on NetBSD releases older than 4.0. Rebuild your kernel, 
 then reboot your system to use the new kernel. Please consult  then reboot your system to use the new kernel. Please consult
 [[Compiling the kernel|guide/kernel]] for further information on configuring,   [[Compiling the kernel|guide/kernel]] for further information on configuring, 
Line 1258  here are: Line 1258  here are:
   
 The first step in setting up 6to4 is creating the 6to4 interface and assigning   The first step in setting up 6to4 is creating the 6to4 interface and assigning 
 an IPv6 address to it. This is achieved with the   an IPv6 address to it. This is achieved with the 
 [ifconfig(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ifconfig+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)   [[!template id=man name="ifconfig" section="8"]] 
 command. Assuming the example configuration above, the commands for NetBSD are:  command. Assuming the example configuration above, the commands for NetBSD are:
   
     # ifconfig stf0 create      # ifconfig stf0 create
Line 1272  NetBSD: Line 1272  NetBSD:
     # route add -inet6 default 2002:c058:6301::      # route add -inet6 default 2002:c058:6301::
   
 Note that NetBSD's   Note that NetBSD's 
 [stf(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?stf+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) device   [[!template id=man name="stf" section="4"]] device 
 determines the IPv4 address of the 6to4 uplink from the routing table. Using   determines the IPv4 address of the 6to4 uplink from the routing table. Using 
 this feature, it is easy to setup your own 6to4 (uplink) gateway if you have an   this feature, it is easy to setup your own 6to4 (uplink) gateway if you have an 
 IPv6 uplink, e.g. via 6Bone.  IPv6 uplink, e.g. via 6Bone.
Line 1344  Steps to setup the pkgsrc/net/hf6to4 pac Line 1344  Steps to setup the pkgsrc/net/hf6to4 pac
         # make install          # make install
   
  2. Make sure you have the    2. Make sure you have the 
     [stf(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?stf+4+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)       [[!template id=man name="stf" section="4"]] 
     pseudo-device in your kernel, see above.      pseudo-device in your kernel, see above.
   
  3. Configure the 'hf6to4' package. First, copy    3. Configure the 'hf6to4' package. First, copy 
Line 1356  Steps to setup the pkgsrc/net/hf6to4 pac Line 1356  Steps to setup the pkgsrc/net/hf6to4 pac
         # vi hf6to4.conf          # vi hf6to4.conf
   
         Please see the           Please see the 
         [hf6to4(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?hf6to4+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)           [[!template id=man name="hf6to4" section="8"]] 
         manpage for an explanation of all the variables you can set in           manpage for an explanation of all the variables you can set in 
         `hf6to4.conf`. If you have dialup IP via PPP, and don't want to run Router           `hf6to4.conf`. If you have dialup IP via PPP, and don't want to run Router 
         Advertizing for other IPv6 machines on your home or office network, you           Advertizing for other IPv6 machines on your home or office network, you 
Line 1370  Steps to setup the pkgsrc/net/hf6to4 pac Line 1370  Steps to setup the pkgsrc/net/hf6to4 pac
         # /usr/pkg/sbin/hf6to4 start          # /usr/pkg/sbin/hf6to4 start
   
  5. After that, you should be connected, use    5. After that, you should be connected, use 
     [ping6(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ping6+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386): to       [[!template id=man name="ping6" section="8"]]: to 
     see if everything works:      see if everything works:
   
         # ping6 www.NetBSD.org          # ping6 www.NetBSD.org
Line 1512  rules) v4-encapsulated IPv6 packets, all Line 1512  rules) v4-encapsulated IPv6 packets, all
 gateway. Of course you only want to do this on one host and use native IPv6   gateway. Of course you only want to do this on one host and use native IPv6 
 between your hosts, and you may also want to enforce this with more restrictive   between your hosts, and you may also want to enforce this with more restrictive 
 rulesets, please see   rulesets, please see 
 [ipf.conf(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ipf.conf+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)   [[!template id=man name="ipf.conf" section="5"]] 
 for more information on IPFilter rules.  for more information on IPFilter rules.
   
 After your firewall lets pass encapsulated IPv6 packets, you may want to set up   After your firewall lets pass encapsulated IPv6 packets, you may want to set up 

Removed from v.1.3  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.5


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