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    1: ## Introduction to TCP/IP Networking
    2: 
    3: ## Audience
    4: 
    5: This section explains various aspects of networking. It is intended to help
    6: people with little knowledge about networks to get started. It is divided into
    7: three big parts. We start by giving a general overview of how networking works
    8: and introduce the basic concepts. Then we go into details for setting up various
    9: types of networking in the second parts, and the third part of the networking
   10: section covers a number of *advanced* topics that go beyond the basic operation
   11: as introduced in the first two sections.
   12: 
   13: The reader is assumed to know about basic system administration tasks: how to
   14: become root, edit files, change permissions, stop processes, etc. See the other
   15: chapters of this NetBSD guide and
   16: e.g.[[\[AeleenFrisch\]|guide/index#bibliography]]
   17: for further information on this topic. Besides that, you should know how to
   18: handle the utilities we're going to set up here, i.e. you should know how to
   19: use telnet, FTP, ... I will not explain the basic features of those
   20: utilities, please refer to the appropriate man-pages, the references listed
   21: or of course the other parts of this document instead.
   22: 
   23: This introduction to TCP/IP Networking was written with the intention in mind to
   24: give starters a basic knowledge. If you really want to know what it's all about,
   25: read [[\[CraigHunt\]|guide/index#bibliography]]. This book does not only cover
   26: the basics, but goes on and explains all the concepts, services and how to set
   27: them up in detail. It's great, I love it! :-)
   28: 
   29: ## Supported Networking Protocols
   30: 
   31: There are several protocol suites supported by NetBSD, most of which were
   32: inherited from NetBSD's predecessor, 4.4BSD, and subsequently enhanced and
   33: improved. The first and most important one today is DARPA's Transmission Control
   34: Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Other protocol suites available in NetBSD
   35: include the Xerox Network System (XNS) which was only implemented at UCB to
   36: connect isolated machines to the net, Apple's AppleTalk protocol suite and the
   37: ISO protocol suite, CCITT X.25 and ARGO TP. They are only used in some special
   38: applications these days.
   39: 
   40: Today, TCP/IP is the most widespread protocol of the ones mentioned above. It is
   41: implemented on almost every hardware and operating system, and it is also the
   42: most-used protocol in heterogenous environments. So, if you just want to connect
   43: your computer running NetBSD to some other machine at home or you want to
   44: integrate it into your company's or university's network, TCP/IP is the right
   45: choice. Besides the "old" IP version 4, NetBSD also supports the "new" IP
   46: version 6 (IPv6) since NetBSD 1.5, thanks to code contributed by the KAME
   47: project.
   48: 
   49: There are other protocol suites such as DECNET, Novell's IPX/SPX or Microsoft's
   50: NetBIOS, but these are not currently supported by NetBSD. These protocols differ
   51: from TCP/IP in that they are proprietary, in contrast to the others, which are
   52: well-defined in several RFCs and other open standards.
   53: 
   54: ## Supported Media
   55: 
   56: The TCP/IP protocol stack behaves the same regardless of the underlying media
   57: used, and NetBSD supports a wide range of these, among them are Ethernet
   58: (10/100/1000MBd), Arcnet, serial line, ATM, FDDI, Fiber Channel, USB, HIPPI,
   59: FireWire (IEEE 1394), Token Ring, and serial lines.
   60: 
   61: ### Serial Line
   62: 
   63: There are a couple of reasons for using TCP/IP over a serial line.
   64: 
   65:  * If your remote host is only reachable via telephone, you can use a modem to access it.
   66:  * Many computers have a serial port, and the cable needed is rather cheap.
   67: 
   68: The disadvantage of a serial connection is that it's slower than other methods.
   69: NetBSD can use at most 115200 bit/s, making it a lot slower than e.g. Ethernet's
   70: minimum 10 Mbit/s and Arcnet's 4 Mbit/s.
   71: 
   72: There are two possible protocols to connect a host running NetBSD to another
   73: host using a serial line (possibly over a phone-line):
   74: 
   75:  * Serial Line IP (SLIP)
   76:  * Point to Point Protocol (PPP)
   77: 
   78: The choice here depends on whether you use a dial-up connection through a modem
   79: or if you use a static connection (null-modem or leased line). If you dial up
   80: for your IP connection, it's wise to use PPP as it offers some possibilities to
   81: auto-negotiate IP-addresses and routes, which can be quite painful to do by
   82: hand. If you want to connect to another machine which is directly connected,
   83: use SLIP, as this is supported by about every operating system and more easy
   84: to set up with fixed addresses and routes.
   85: 
   86: PPP on a direct connection is a bit difficult to setup, as it's easy to timeout
   87: the initial handshake; with SLIP, there's no such initial handshake, i.e. you
   88: start up one side, and when the other site has its first packet, it will send it
   89: over the line.
   90: 
   91: [RFC1331](http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1331) ("The Point-to-Point Protocol
   92: (PPP) for the Transmission of Multi-protocol Datagrams over Point-to-Point
   93: Links") and [RFC1332](http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1332) ("The PPP Internet
   94: Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP)") describe PPP and TCP/IP over PPP. SLIP is
   95: defined in [RFC1055](http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1055) ("Nonstandard for
   96: transmission of IP datagrams over serial lines: SLIP").
   97: 
   98: ### Ethernet
   99: 
  100: Ethernet is the medium commonly used to build local area networks (LANs) of
  101: interconnected machines within a limited area such as an office, company or
  102: university campus. Ethernet is based on a bus structure to which many machines
  103: can connect to, and communication always happens between two nodes at a time.
  104: When two or more nodes want to talk at the same time, both will restart
  105: communication after some timeout. The technical term for this is CSMA/CD
  106: (Carrier Sense w/ Multiple Access and Collision Detection).
  107: 
  108: Initially, Ethernet hardware consisted of a thick (yellow) cable that machines
  109: tapped into using special connectors that poked through the cable's outer
  110: shielding. The successor of this was called 10base5, which used BNC-type
  111: connectors for tapping in special T-connectors and terminators on both ends of
  112: the bus. Today, ethernet is mostly used with twisted pair lines which are used
  113: in a collapsed bus system that are contained in switches or hubs. The twisted
  114: pair lines give this type of media its name - 10baseT for 10 Mbit/s networks,
  115: and 100baseT for 100 MBit/s ones. In switched environments there's also the
  116: distinction if communication between the node and the switch can happen in half-
  117: or in full duplex mode.
  118: 
  119: ## TCP/IP Address Format
  120: 
  121: TCP/IP uses 4-byte (32-bit) addresses in the current implementations (IPv4),
  122: also called IP-numbers (Internet-Protocol numbers), to address hosts.
  123: 
  124: TCP/IP allows any two machines to communicate directly. To permit this all hosts
  125: on a given network must have a unique IP address. To assure this, IP addresses
  126: are administrated by one central organisation, the InterNIC. They give certain
  127: ranges of addresses (network-addresses) directly to sites which want to
  128: participate in the internet or to internet-providers, which give the addresses
  129: to their customers.
  130: 
  131: If your university or company is connected to the Internet, it has (at least)
  132: one such network-address for its own use, usually not assigned by the InterNIC
  133: directly, but rather through an Internet Service Provider (ISP).
  134: 
  135: If you just want to run your private network at home, see below on how to
  136: "build" your own IP addresses. However, if you want to connect your machine to
  137: the (real :-) Internet, you should get an IP addresses from your local
  138: network-administrator or -provider.
  139: 
  140: IP addresses are usually written in *dotted quad* notation - the four bytes are
  141: written down in decimal (most significant byte first), separated by dots. For
  142: example, 132.199.15.99 would be a valid address. Another way to write down
  143: IP-addresses would be as one 32-bit hex-word, e.g. 0x84c70f63. This is not as
  144: convenient as the dotted-quad, but quite useful at times, too. (See below!)
  145: 
  146: Being assigned a network means nothing else but setting some of the
  147: above-mentioned 32 address-bits to certain values. These bits that are used for
  148: identifying the network are called network-bits. The remaining bits can be used
  149: to address hosts on that network, therefore they are called host-bits. The
  150: following figure illustrates the separation.
  151: 
  152: ![IPv4-addresses are divided into more significant network- and less significant hostbits](/guide/images/ipv4-en-0bits.png)  
  153: **IPv4-addresses are divided into more significant network- and less significant hostbits**
  154: 
  155: In the above example, the network-address is 132.199.0.0 (host-bits are set to 0
  156: in network-addresses) and the host's address is 15.99 on that network.
  157: 
  158: How do you know that the host's address is 16 bit wide? Well, this is assigned
  159: by the provider from which you get your network-addresses. In the classless
  160: inter-domain routing (CIDR) used today, host fields are usually between as
  161: little as 2 to 16 bits wide, and the number of network-bits is written after the
  162: network address, separated by a `/`, e.g. 132.199.0.0/16 tells that the network
  163: in question has 16 network-bits. When talking about the *size* of a network,
  164: it's usual to only talk about it as `/16`, `/24`, etc.
  165: 
  166: Before CIDR was used, there used to be four classes of networks. Each one starts
  167: with a certain bit-pattern identifying it. Here are the four classes:
  168: 
  169:  * Class A starts with `0` as most significant bit. The next seven bits of a
  170:    class A address identify the network, the remaining 24 bit can be used to
  171:    address hosts. So, within one class A network there can be 2^24 hosts. It's
  172:    not very likely that you (or your university, or company, or whatever) will
  173:    get a whole class A address.
  174: 
  175:    The CIDR notation for a class A network with its eight network bits is an `/8`.
  176: 
  177:  * Class B starts with `10` as most significant bits. The next 14 bits are used
  178:    for the networks address and the remaining 16 bits can be used to address
  179:    more than 65000 hosts. Class B addresses are very rarely given out today,
  180:    they used to be common for companies and universities before IPv4 address
  181:    space went scarce.
  182: 
  183:    The CIDR notation for a class B network with its 16 network bits is an `/16`.
  184: 
  185:    Returning to our above example, you can see that 132.199.15.99 (or
  186:    0x84c70f63, which is more appropriate here!) is on a class B network, as
  187:    0x84... = **10**00... (base 2).
  188: 
  189:    Therefore, the address 132.199.15.99 can be split into an network-address of
  190:    132.199.0.0 and a host-address of 15.99.
  191: 
  192:  * Class C is identified by the MSBs being `110`, allowing only 256 (actually:
  193:    only 254, see below) hosts on each of the 2^21 possible class C networks.
  194:    Class C addresses are usually found at (small) companies.
  195: 
  196:    The CIDR notation for a class C network with its 24 network bits is an `/24`.
  197: 
  198:  * There are also other addresses, starting with `111`. Those are used for
  199:    special purposes (e. g. multicast-addresses) and are not of interest here.
  200: 
  201: Please note that the bits which are used for identifying the network-class are
  202: part of the network-address.
  203: 
  204: When separating host-addresses from network-addresses, the *netmask* comes in
  205: handy. In this mask, all the network-bits are set to `1`, the host-bits are `0`.
  206: Thus, putting together IP-address and netmask with a logical AND-function, the
  207: network-address remains.
  208: 
  209: To continue our example, 255.255.0.0 is a possible netmask for 132.199.15.99.
  210: When applying this mask, the network-address 132.199.0.0 remains.
  211: 
  212: For addresses in CIDR notation, the number of network-bits given also says how
  213: many of the most significant bits of the address must be set to `1` to get the
  214: netmask for the corresponding network. For classful addressing, every
  215: network-class has a fixed default netmask assigned:
  216: 
  217:  * Class A (/8): default-netmask: 255.0.0.0, first byte of address: 1-127
  218:  * Class B (/16): default-netmask: 255.255.0.0, first byte of address: 128-191
  219:  * Class C (/24): default-netmask: 255.255.255.0, first byte of address: 192-223
  220: 
  221: Another thing to mention here is the *broadcast-address*. When sending to this
  222: address, *all* hosts on the corresponding network will receive the message sent.
  223: The broadcast address is characterized by having all host-bits set to `1`.
  224: 
  225: Taking 132.199.15.99 with its netmask 255.255.0.0 again, the broadcast-address
  226: would result in 132.199.255.255.
  227: 
  228: You'll ask now: But what if I want a host's address to be all bits `0` or `1`?
  229: Well, this doesn't work, as network- and broadcast-address must be present!
  230: Because of this, a class B (/16) network can contain at most 2^16-2 hosts, a
  231: class C (/24) network can hold no more than 2^8-2 = 254 hosts.
  232: 
  233: Besides all those categories of addresses, there's the special IP-address
  234: 127.0.0.1 which always refers to the *local* host, i.e. if you talk to 127.0.0.1
  235: you'll talk to yourself without starting any network-activity. This is sometimes
  236: useful to use services installed on your own machine or to play around if you
  237: don't have other hosts to put on your network.
  238: 
  239: Let's put together the things we've introduced in this section:
  240: 
  241:  * *IP-address* -- 32 bit-address, with network- and host-bits.
  242:  * *Network-address* -- IP-address with all host bits set to `0`.
  243:  * *Netmask* -- 32-bit mask with `1` for network- and `0` for host-bits.
  244:  * *Broadcast* -- IP-address with all host bits set `1`.
  245:  * *localhost's address* -- The local host's IP address is always 127.0.0.1.
  246: 
  247: ## Subnetting and Routing
  248: 
  249: After talking so much about netmasks, network-, host- and other addresses, I
  250: have to admit that this is not the whole truth.
  251: 
  252: Imagine the situation at your university, which usually has a class B (/16)
  253: address, allowing it to have up to 2^16 ~= 65534 hosts on that net. Maybe it
  254: would be a nice thing to have all those hosts on one single network, but it's
  255: simply not possible due to limitations in the transport media commonly used
  256: today.
  257: 
  258: For example, when using thinwire ethernet, the maximum length of the cable is
  259: 185 meters. Even with repeaters in between, which refresh the signals, this is
  260: not enough to cover all the locations where machines are located. Besides that,
  261: there is a maximum number of 1024 hosts on one ethernet wire, and you'll lose
  262: quite a bit of performance if you go to this limit.
  263: 
  264: So, are you hosed now? Having an address which allows more than 60000 hosts, but
  265: being bound to media which allows far less than that limit?
  266: 
  267: Well, of course not! :-)
  268: 
  269: The idea is to divide the *big* class B net into several smaller networks,
  270: commonly called sub-networks or simply subnets. Those subnets are only allowed
  271: to have, say, 254 hosts on them (i.e. you divide one big class B network into
  272: several class C networks!).
  273: 
  274: To do this, you adjust your netmask to have more network- and less host-bits on
  275: it. This is usually done on a byte-boundary, but you're not forced to do it
  276: there. So, commonly your netmask will not be 255.255.0.0 as supposed by a class
  277: B network, but it will be set to 255.255.255.0.
  278: 
  279: In CIDR notation, you now write a `/24` instead of the `/16` to show that 24
  280: bits of the address are used for identifying the network and subnet, instead of
  281: the 16 that were used before.
  282: 
  283: This gives you one additional network-byte to assign to each (physical!)
  284: network. All the 254 hosts on that subnet can now talk directly to each other,
  285: and you can build 256 such class C nets. This should fit your needs.
  286: 
  287: To explain this better, let's continue our above example. Say our host
  288: 132.199.15.99 (I'll call him `dusk` from now; we'll talk about assigning
  289: hostnames later) has a netmask of 255.255.255.0 and thus is on the subnet
  290: 132.199.15.0/24. Let's furthermore introduce some more hosts so we have
  291: something to play around with, see the next figure.
  292: 
  293: ![Our demo-network](/guide/images/net-pic1.gif)  
  294: **Our demo-network**
  295: 
  296: In the above network, `dusk` can talk directly to `dawn`, as they are both on
  297: the same subnet. (There are other hosts attached to the 132.199.15.0/24-subnet
  298: but they are not of importance for us now)
  299: 
  300: But what if `dusk` wants to talk to a host on another subnet?
  301: 
  302: Well, the traffic will then go through one or more gateways (routers), which are
  303: attached to two subnets. Because of this, a router always has two different
  304: addresses, one for each of the subnets it is on. The router is functionally
  305: transparent, i.e. you don't have to address it to reach hosts on the *other*
  306: side. Instead, you address that host directly and the packets will be routed to
  307: it correctly.
  308: 
  309: Example. Let's say `dusk` wants to get some files from the local ftp-server. As
  310: `dusk` can't reach `ftp` directly (because it's on a different subnet), all its
  311: packets will be forwarded to its "defaultrouter" `rzi` (132.199.15.1), which
  312: knows where to forward the packets.
  313: 
  314: `Dusk` knows the address of its defaultrouter in its network (`rzi`,
  315: 132.199.15.1), and it will forward any packets to it which are not on the same
  316: subnet, i.e. it will forward all IP-packets in which the third address-byte
  317: isn't 15.
  318: 
  319: The (default)router then gives the packets to the appropriate host, as it's also
  320: on the FTP-server's network.
  321: 
  322: In this example, *all* packets are forwarded to the 132.199.1.0/24-network,
  323: simply because it's the network's backbone, the most important part of the
  324: network, which carries all the traffic that passes between several subnets.
  325: Almost all other networks besides 132.199.15.0/24 are attached to the backbone
  326: in a similar manner.
  327: 
  328: But what if we had hooked up another subnet to 132.199.15.0/24 instead of
  329: 132.199.1.0/24? Maybe something the situation displayed in the next figure.
  330: 
  331: ![Attaching one subnet to another one](/guide/images/net-pic2.gif)  
  332: **Attaching one subnet to another one**
  333: 
  334: When we now want to reach a host which is located in the 132.199.16.0/24-subnet
  335: from `dusk`, it won't work routing it to `rzi`, but you'll have to send it
  336: directly to `route2` (132.199.15.2). `Dusk` will have to know to forward those
  337: packets to `route2` and send all the others to `rzi`.
  338: 
  339: When configuring `dusk`, you tell it to forward all packets for the
  340: 132.199.16.0/24-subnet to `route2`, and all others to `rzi`. Instead of
  341: specifying this default as 132.199.1.0/24, 132.199.2.0/24, etc., 0.0.0.0 can be
  342: used to set the default-route.
  343: 
  344: Returning to our demo network, there's a similar problem when `dawn` wants to
  345: send to `noon`, which is connected to `dusk` via a serial line running. When
  346: looking at the IP-addresses, `noon` seems to be attached to the
  347: 132.199.15.0-network, but it isn't really. Instead, `dusk` is used as gateway,
  348: and `dawn` will have to send its packets to `dusk`, which will forward them to
  349: `noon` then. The way `dusk` is forced into accepting packets that aren't
  350: destined at it but for a different host (`noon`) instead is called *proxy arp*.
  351: 
  352: The same goes when hosts from other subnets want to send to `noon`. They have to
  353: send their packets to `dusk` (possibly routed via `rzi`),
  354: 
  355: ## Name Service Concepts
  356: 
  357: In the previous sections, when we talked about hosts, we referred to them by
  358: their IP-addresses. This was necessary to introduce the different kinds of
  359: addresses. When talking about hosts in general, it's more convenient to give
  360: them *names*, as we did when talking about routing.
  361: 
  362: Most applications don't care whether you give them an IP address or a hostname.
  363: However, they'll use IP addresses internally, and there are several methods for
  364: them to map hostnames to IP addresses, each one with its own way of
  365: configuration. In this section we'll introduce the idea behind each method, in
  366: the next chapter, we'll talk about the configuration-part.
  367: 
  368: The mapping from hostnames (and domainnames) to IP-addresses is done by a piece
  369: of software called the *resolver*. This is not an extra service, but some
  370: library routines which are linked to every application using networking-calls.
  371: The resolver will then try to resolve (hence the name ;-) the hostnames you give
  372: into IP addresses. See [RFC1034](http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1034) ("Domain
  373: names - concepts and facilities") and
  374: [RFC1035](http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1035) ("Domain names - implementation
  375: and specification") for details on the resolver.
  376: 
  377: Hostnames are usually up to 256 characters long, and contain letters, numbers
  378: and dashes (`-`); case is ignored.
  379: 
  380: Just as with networks and subnets, it's possible (and desirable) to group hosts
  381: into domains and subdomains. When getting your network-address, you usually also
  382: obtain a domainname by your provider. As with subnets, it's up to you to
  383: introduce subdomains. Other as with IP-addresses, (sub)domains are not directly
  384: related to (sub)nets; for example, one domain can contain hosts from several
  385: subnets.
  386: 
  387: Our demo-network shows this: Both subnets 132.199.1.0/24 and 132.199.15.0/24
  388: (and others) are part of the subdomain `rz.uni-regensburg.de`. The domain the
  389: University of Regensburg got from its IP-provider is `uni-regensburg.de` (`.de`
  390: is for Deutschland, Germany), the subdomain `rz` is for Rechenzentrum, computing
  391: center.
  392: 
  393: Hostnames, subdomain- and domainnames are separated by dots (`.`). It's also
  394: possible to use more than one stage of subdomains, although this is not very
  395: common. An example would be `fox_in.socs.uts.edu.au`.
  396: 
  397: A hostname which includes the (sub)domain is also called a fully qualified
  398: domain name (FQDN). For example, the IP-address 132.199.15.99 belongs to the
  399: host with the FQDN `dusk.rz.uni-regensburg.de`.
  400: 
  401: Further above I told you that the IP-address 127.0.0.1 always belongs to the
  402: local host, regardless what's the `real` IP-address of the host. Therefore,
  403: 127.0.0.1 is always mapped to the name `localhost`.
  404: 
  405: The three different ways to translate hostnames into IP addresses are:
  406: `/etc/hosts`, the Domain Name Service (DNS) and the Network Information Service
  407: (NIS).
  408: 
  409: ### /etc/hosts
  410: 
  411: The first and simplest way to translate hostnames into IP-addresses is by using
  412: a table telling which IP address belongs to which hostname(s). This table is
  413: stored in the file `/etc/hosts` and has the following format:
  414: 
  415:     IP-address        hostname [nickname [...]]
  416: 
  417: Lines starting with a hash mark (`#`) are treated as comments. The other lines
  418: contain one IP-address and the corresponding hostname(s).
  419: 
  420: It's not possible for a hostname to belong to several IP addresses, even if I
  421: made you think so when talking about routing. `rzi` for example has really two
  422: distinct names for each of its two addresses: `rzi` and `rzia` (but please don't
  423: ask me which name belongs to which address!).
  424: 
  425: Giving a host several nicknames can be convenient if you want to specify your
  426: favorite host providing a special service with that name, as is commonly done
  427: with FTP-servers. The first (leftmost) name is usually the real (canonical) name
  428: of the host.
  429: 
  430: Besides giving nicknames, it's also convenient to give a host's full name
  431: (including domain) as its canonical name, and using only its hostname (without
  432: domain) as a nickname.
  433: 
  434: *Important:* There *must* be an entry mapping localhost to 127.0.0.1 in
  435: `/etc/hosts`!
  436: 
  437: ### Domain Name Service (DNS)
  438: 
  439: `/etc/hosts` bears an inherent problem, especially in big networks: when one
  440: host is added or one host's address changes, all the `/etc/hosts` files on all
  441: machines have to be changed! This is not only time-consuming, it's also very
  442: likely that there will be some errors and inconsistencies, leading to problems.
  443: 
  444: Another approach is to hold only one hostnames-table (-database) for a network,
  445: and make all the clients query that *nameserver*. Updates will be made only on
  446: the nameserver.
  447: 
  448: This is the basic idea behind the Domain Name Service (DNS).
  449: 
  450: Usually, there's one nameserver for each domain (hence DNS), and every host
  451: (client) in that domain knows which domain it is in and which nameserver to
  452: query for its domain.
  453: 
  454: When the DNS gets a query about a host which is not in its domain, it will
  455: forward the query to a DNS which is either the DNS of the domain in question or
  456: knows which DNS to ask for the specified domain. If the DNS forwarded the query
  457: doesn't know how to handle it, it will forward that query again to a DNS one
  458: step higher. This is not ad infinitum, there are several *root*-servers, which
  459: know about any domain.
  460: 
  461: See [[the separate article|guide/dns]] for details on DNS.
  462: 
  463: ### Network Information Service (NIS/YP)
  464: 
  465: Yellow Pages (YP) was invented by Sun Microsystems. The name has been changed
  466: into Network Information Service (NIS) because YP was already a trademark of the
  467: British telecom. So, when I'm talking about NIS you'll know what I mean. ;-)
  468: 
  469: There are quite some configuration files on a Unix-system, and often it's
  470: desired to maintain only one set of those files for a couple of hosts. Those
  471: hosts are grouped together in a NIS-domain (which has *nothing* to do with the
  472: domains built by using DNS!) and are usually contained in one workstation
  473: cluster.
  474: 
  475: Examples for the config-files shared among those hosts are `/etc/passwd`,
  476: `/etc/group` and - last but not least - `/etc/hosts`.
  477: 
  478: So, you can "abuse" NIS for getting a unique name-to-address-translation on all
  479: hosts throughout one (NIS-)domain.
  480: 
  481: There's only one drawback, which prevents NIS from actually being used for that
  482: translation: In contrast to the DNS, NIS provides no way to resolve hostnames
  483: which are not in the hosts-table. There's no hosts "one level up" which the
  484: NIS-server can query, and so the translation will fail! Suns NIS+ takes measures
  485: against that problem, but as NIS+ is only available on Solaris-systems, this is
  486: of little use for us now.
  487: 
  488: Don't get me wrong: NIS is a fine thing for managing e.g. user-information
  489: (`/etc/passwd`, ...) in workstation-clusters, it's simply not too useful for
  490: resolving hostnames.
  491: 
  492: ### Other
  493: 
  494: The name resolving methods described above are what's used commonly today to
  495: resolve hostnames into IP addresses, but they aren't the only ones. Basically,
  496: every database mechanism would do, but none is implemented in NetBSD. Let's have
  497: a quick look what you may encounter.
  498: 
  499: With NIS lacking hierarchy in data structures, NIS+ is intended to help out in
  500: that field. Tables can be setup in a way so that if a query cannot be answered
  501: by a domain's server, there can be another domain "above" that might be able to
  502: do so. E.g. you could choose to have a domain that lists all the hosts (users,
  503: groups, ...) that are valid in the whole company, one that defines the same
  504: for each division, etc. NIS+ is not used a lot today, even Sun went back to
  505: ship back NIS by default.
  506: 
  507: Last century, the X.500 standard was designed to accommodate both simple
  508: databases like `/etc/hosts` as well as complex, hierarchical systems as can be
  509: found e.g. in DNS today. X.500 wasn't really a success, mostly due to the fact
  510: that it tried to do too much at the same time. A cut-down version is available
  511: today as the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), which is becoming
  512: popular in the last years to manage data like users but also hosts and others in
  513: small to medium sized organisations.
  514: 
  515: ## Next generation Internet protocol - IPv6
  516: 
  517: ### The Future of the Internet
  518: 
  519: According to experts, the Internet as we know it will face a serious problem in
  520: a few years. Due to its rapid growth and the limitations in its design, there
  521: will be a point at which no more free addresses are available for connecting new
  522: hosts. At that point, no more new web servers can be set up, no more users can
  523: sign up for accounts at ISPs, no more new machines can be setup to access the
  524: web or participate in online games - some people may call this a serious
  525: problem.
  526: 
  527: Several approaches have been made to solve the problem. A very popular one is to
  528: not assign a worldwide unique address to every user's machine, but rather to
  529: assign them *private* addresses, and hide several machines behind one official,
  530: globally unique address. This approach is called *Network Address Translation*
  531: (NAT, also known as IP Masquerading). It has problems, as the machines hidden
  532: behind the global address can't be addressed, and as a result of this, opening
  533: connections to them - which is used in online gaming, peer to peer networking,
  534: etc. - is not possible. For a more in-depth discussion of the drawbacks of NAT,
  535: see \[[[RFC3027|guide/index#bilbiography]]\] ("Protocol Complications with the
  536: IP Network Address Translator").
  537: 
  538: A different approach to the problem of internet addresses getting scarce is to
  539: abandon the old Internet protocol with its limited addressing capabilities, and
  540: use a new protocol that does not have these limitations. The protocol - or
  541: actually, a set of protocols - used by machines connected to form today's
  542: Internet is know as the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol, Internet
  543: Protocol) suite, and version 4 currently in use has all the problems described
  544: above. Switching to a different protocol version that does not have these
  545: problems of course requires for a 'better' version to be available, which
  546: actually is. Version 6 of the Internet Protocol (IPv6) does fulfill any possible
  547: future demands on address space, and also addresses further features such as
  548: privacy, encryption, and better support of mobile computing.
  549: 
  550: Assuming a basic understanding of how today's IPv4 works, this text is intended
  551: as an introduction to the IPv6 protocol. The changes in address formats and name
  552: resolution are covered. With the background given here, the next sections will
  553: show how to use IPv6 even if your ISP doesn't offer it by using a simple yet
  554: efficient transition mechanism called 6to4. The goal is to get online with IPv6,
  555: giving an example configuration for NetBSD.
  556: 
  557: ### What good is IPv6?
  558: 
  559: When telling people to migrate from IPv4 to IPv6, the question you usually hear
  560: is *why?*. There are actually a few good reasons to move to the new version:
  561: 
  562:  * Bigger address space
  563:  * Support for mobile devices
  564:  * Built-in security
  565: 
  566: #### Bigger Address Space
  567: 
  568: The bigger address space that IPv6 offers is the most obvious enhancement it has
  569: over IPv4. While today's internet architecture is based on 32-bit wide
  570: addresses, the new version has 128 bit available for addressing. Thanks to the
  571: enlarged address space, work-arounds like NAT don't have to be used any more.
  572: This allows full, unconstrained IP connectivity for today's IP based machines as
  573: well as upcoming mobile devices like PDAs and cell phones will benefit from full
  574: IP access through GPRS and UMTS.
  575: 
  576: #### Mobility
  577: 
  578: When mentioning mobile devices and IP, another important point to note is that
  579: some special protocol is needed to support mobility, and implementing this
  580: protocol - called *Mobile IP* - is one of the requirements for every IPv6 stack.
  581: Thus, if you have IPv6 going, you have support for roaming between different
  582: networks, with everyone being updated when you leave one network and enter the
  583: other one. Support for roaming is possible with IPv4 too, but there are a number
  584: of hoops that need to be jumped in order to get things working. With IPv6,
  585: there's no need for this, as support for mobility was one of the design
  586: requirements for IPv6. See [RFC3024](http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3024)
  587: ("Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP") for some more information on the issues that
  588: need to be addressed with Mobile IP on IPv4.
  589: 
  590: #### Security
  591: 
  592: Besides support for mobility, security was another requirement for the successor
  593: to today's Internet Protocol version. As a result, IPv6 protocol stacks are
  594: required to include IPsec. IPsec allows authentication, encryption and
  595: compression of any IP traffic. Unlike application level protocols like SSL or
  596: SSH, all IP traffic between two nodes can be handled, without adjusting any
  597: applications. The benefit of this is that all applications on a machine can
  598: benefit from encryption and authentication, and that policies can be set on a
  599: per-host (or even per-network) base, not per application/service. An
  600: introduction to IPsec with a roadmap to the documentation can be found in
  601: [RFC2411](http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2411) ("IP Security Document Roadmap"),
  602: the core protocol is described in [RFC2401](http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2401)
  603: ("Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol").  
  604: 
  605: ### Changes to IPv4
  606: 
  607: After giving a brief overview of all the important features of IPv6, we'll go
  608: into the details of the basics of IPv6 here. A brief understanding of how IPv4
  609: works is assumed, and the changes in IPv6 will be highlighted. Starting with
  610: IPv6 addresses and how they're split up we'll go into the various types of
  611: addresses there are, what became of broadcasts, then after discussing the IP
  612: layer go into changes for name resolving and what's new in DNS for IPv6.
  613: 
  614: #### Addressing
  615: 
  616: An IPv4 address is a 32 bit value, that's usually written in *dotted quad*
  617: representation, where each *quad* represents a byte value between 0 and 255, for
  618: example:
  619: 
  620:     127.0.0.1
  621: 
  622: This allows a theoretical number of 2^32 or ~4 billion hosts to be connected on
  623: the internet today. Due to grouping, not all addresses are available today.
  624: 
  625: IPv6 addresses use 128 bit, which results in 2^128 theoretically addressable
  626: hosts. This allows for a Really Big number of machines to addressed, and it sure
  627: fits all of today's requirements plus all those nifty PDAs and cell phones with
  628: IP phones in the near future without any sweat. When writing IPv6 addresses,
  629: they are usually divided into groups of 16 bits written as four hex digits, and
  630: the groups are separated by colons. An example is:
  631: 
  632:     fe80::2a0:d2ff:fea5:e9f5
  633: 
  634: This shows a special thing - a number of consecutive zeros can be abbreviated by
  635: a single `::` once in the IPv6 address. The above address is thus equivalent to
  636: `fe80:0:00:000:2a0:d2ff:fea5:e9f5` - leading zeros within groups can be omitted,
  637: and only one `::` can be used in an IPv6 address.
  638: 
  639: To make addresses manageable, they are split in two parts, which are the bits
  640: identifying the network a machine is on, and the bits that identify a machine on
  641: a (sub)network. The bits are known as netbits and hostbits, and in both IPv4 and
  642: IPv6, the netbits are the *left*, most significant bits of an IP address, and
  643: the host bits are the *right*, least significant bits, as shown in the following
  644: figure:
  645: 
  646: ![IPv6-addresses are divided into more significant network- and less significant hostbits, too](/guide/images/ipv6-en-0bits.gif)  
  647: **IPv6-addresses are divided into more significant network- and less significant hostbits, too**
  648: 
  649: In IPv4, the border is drawn with the aid of the netmask, which can be used to
  650: mask all net/host bits. Typical examples are 255.255.0.0 that uses 16 bit for
  651: addressing the network, and 16 bit for the machine, or 255.255.255.0 which takes
  652: another 8 bit to allow addressing 256 subnets on e.g. a class B net.
  653: 
  654: When addressing switched from classful addressing to CIDR routing, the borders
  655: between net and host bits stopped being on 8 bit boundaries, and as a result the
  656: netmasks started looking ugly and not really manageable. As a replacement, the
  657: number of network bits is used for a given address, to denote the border, e.g.
  658: 
  659:     10.0.0.0/24
  660: 
  661: is the same as a netmask of 255.255.255.0 (24 1-bits). The same scheme is used
  662: in IPv6:
  663: 
  664:     2001:638:a01:2::/64
  665: 
  666: tells us that the address used here has the first (leftmost) 64 bits used as the
  667: network address, and the last (rightmost) 64 bits are used to identify the
  668: machine on the network. The network bits are commonly referred to as (network)
  669: *prefix*, and the *prefixlen* here would be 64 bits.
  670: 
  671: Common addressing schemes found in IPv4 are the (old) class B and class C nets.
  672: With a class C network (/24), you get 24 bits assigned by your provider, and it
  673: leaves 8 bits to be assigned by you. If you want to add any subnetting to that,
  674: you end up with *uneven* netmasks that are a bit nifty to deal with. Easier for
  675: such cases are class B networks (/16), which only have 16 bits assigned by the
  676: provider, and that allow subnetting, i.e. splitting of the rightmost bits into
  677: two parts. One to address the on-site subnet, and one to address the hosts on
  678: that subnet. Usually, this is done on byte (8 bit) boundaries. Using a netmask
  679: of 255.255.255.0 (or a /24 prefix) allows flexible management even of bigger
  680: networks here. Of course there is the upper limit of 254 machines per subnet,
  681: and 256 subnets.
  682: 
  683: With 128 bits available for addressing in IPv6, the scheme commonly used is the
  684: same, only the fields are wider. Providers usually assign /48 networks, which
  685: leaves 16 bits for a subnetting and 64 hostbits.
  686: 
  687: ![IPv6-addresses have a similar structure to class B addresses](/guide/images/ipv6-en-6adrformats.gif)  
  688: **IPv6-addresses have a similar structure to class B addresses**
  689: 
  690: Now while the space for network and subnets here is pretty much ok, using 64
  691: bits for addressing hosts seems like a waste. It's unlikely that you will want
  692: to have several billion hosts on a single subnet, so what is the idea behind
  693: this?
  694: 
  695: The idea behind fixed width 64 bit wide host identifiers is that they aren't
  696: assigned manually as it's usually done for IPv4 nowadays. Instead, IPv6 host
  697: addresses are recommended (not mandatory!) to be built from so-called EUI64
  698: addresses. EUI64 addresses are - as the name says - 64 bit wide, and derived
  699: from MAC addresses of the underlying network interface. E.g. for ethernet, the 6
  700: byte (48 bit) MAC address is usually filled with the hex bits `fffe` in the
  701: middle and a bit is set to mark the address as unique (which is true for
  702: Ethernet), e.g. the MAC address
  703: 
  704:     01:23:45:67:89:ab
  705: 
  706: results in the EUI64 address
  707: 
  708:     03:23:45:ff:fe:67:89:ab
  709: 
  710: which again gives the host bits for the IPv6 address as
  711: 
  712:     ::0323:45ff:fe67:89ab
  713: 
  714: These host bits can now be used to automatically assign IPv6 addresses to hosts,
  715: which supports autoconfiguration of IPv6 hosts - all that's needed to get a
  716: complete IPv6 address is the first (net/subnet) bits, and IPv6 also offers a
  717: solution to assign them automatically.
  718: 
  719: When on a network of machines speaking IP, there's usually one router which acts
  720: as the gateway to outside networks. In IPv6 land, this router will send *router
  721: advertisement* information, which clients are expected to either receive during
  722: operation or to solicit upon system startup. The router advertisement
  723: information includes data on the router's address, and which address prefix it
  724: routes. With this information and the host-generated EUI64 address, an IPv6-host
  725: can calculate its IP address, and there is no need for manual address
  726: assignment. Of course routers still need some configuration.
  727: 
  728: The router advertisement information they create are part of the Neighbor
  729: Discovery Protocol (NDP, see [RFC2461](http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2461)
  730: ("Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)")), which is the successor to
  731: IPv4's ARP protocol. In contrast to ARP, NDP does not only do lookup of IPv6
  732: addresses for MAC addresses (the neighbor solicitation/advertisement part), but
  733: also does a similar service for routers and the prefixes they serve, which is
  734: used for autoconfiguration of IPv6 hosts as described in the previous paragraph.
  735: 
  736: #### Multiple Addresses
  737: 
  738: In IPv4, a host usually has one IP address per network interface or even per
  739: machine if the IP stack supports it. Only very rare applications like web
  740: servers result in machines having more than one IP address. In IPv6, this is
  741: different. For each interface, there is not only a globally unique IP address,
  742: but there are two other addresses that are of interest: The link local address,
  743: and the site local address. The link local address has a prefix of fe80::/64,
  744: and the host bits are built from the interface's EUI64 address. The link local
  745: address is used for contacting hosts and routers on the same network only, the
  746: addresses are not visible or reachable from different subnets. If wanted,
  747: there's the choice of either using global addresses (as assigned by a provider),
  748: or using site local addresses. Site local addresses are assigned the network
  749: address fec0::/10, and subnets and hosts can be addressed just as for
  750: provider-assigned networks. The only difference is, that the addresses will not
  751: be visible to outside machines, as these are on a different network, and their
  752: *site local* addresses are in a different physical net (if assigned at all). As
  753: with the 10/8 network in IPv4, site local addresses can be used, but don't have
  754: to. For IPv6 it's most common to have hosts assigned a link-local and a global
  755: IP address. Site local addresses are rather uncommon today, and are no
  756: substitute for globally unique addresses if global connectivity is required.
  757: 
  758: #### Multicasting
  759: 
  760: In IP land, there are three ways to talk to a host: unicast, broadcast and
  761: multicast. The most common one is by talking to it directly, using its unicast
  762: address. In IPv4, the unicast address is the *normal* IP address assigned to a
  763: single host, with all address bits assigned. The broadcast address used to
  764: address all hosts in the same IP subnet has the network bits set to the network
  765: address, and all host bits set to `1` (which can be easily done using the
  766: netmask and some bit operations). Multicast addresses are used to reach a number
  767: of hosts in the same multicast group, which can be machines spread over the
  768: whole internet. Machines must join multicast groups explicitly to participate,
  769: and there are special IPv4 addresses used for multicast addresses, allocated
  770: from the 224/8 subnet. Multicast isn't used very much in IPv4, and only few
  771: applications like the MBone audio and video broadcast utilities use it.
  772: 
  773: In IPv6, unicast addresses are used the same as in IPv4, no surprise there - all
  774: the network and host bits are assigned to identify the target network and
  775: machine. Broadcasts are no longer available in IPv6 in the way they were in
  776: IPv4, this is where multicasting comes into play. Addresses in the ff::/8
  777: network are reserved for multicast applications, and there are two special
  778: multicast addresses that supersede the broadcast addresses from IPv4. One is the
  779: *all routers* multicast address, the others is for *all hosts*. The addresses
  780: are specific to the subnet, i.e. a router connected to two different subnets can
  781: address all hosts/routers on any of the subnets it's connected to. Addresses
  782: here are:
  783: 
  784:  * ff0*`X`*::1 for all hosts and
  785:  * ff0*`X`*::2 for all routers,
  786: 
  787: where `X` is the scope ID of the link here, identifying the network. Usually
  788: this starts from `1` for the *node local* scope, `2` for the first link, etc.
  789: Note that it's perfectly ok for two network interfaces to be attached to one
  790: link, thus resulting in double bandwidth:
  791: 
  792: ![Several interfaces attached to a link result in only one scope ID for the link](/guide/images/ipv6-en-4scope.gif)  
  793: **Several interfaces attached to a link result in only one scope ID for the link**
  794: 
  795: One use of the *all hosts* multicast is in the neighbor solicitation code of
  796: NDP, where any machine that wants to communicate with another machine sends out
  797: a request to the *all hosts* group, and the machine in question is expected to
  798: respond.
  799: 
  800: #### Name Resolving in IPv6
  801: 
  802: After talking a lot about addressing in IPv6, anyone still here will hope that
  803: there's a proper way to abstract all these long & ugly IPv6 addresses with some
  804: nice hostnames as one can do in IPv4, and of course there is.
  805: 
  806: Hostname to IP address resolving in IPv4 is usually done in one of three ways:
  807: using a simple table in `/etc/hosts`, by using the Network Information Service
  808: (NIS, formerly YP) or via the Domain Name System (DNS).
  809: 
  810: As of this writing, NIS/NIS+ over IPv6 is currently only available on Solaris 8,
  811: for both database contents and transport, using a RPC extension.
  812: 
  813: Having a simple address<-\>name map like `/etc/hosts` is supported in all IPv6
  814: stacks. With the KAME implementation used in NetBSD, `/etc/hosts` contains IPv6
  815: addresses as well as IPv4 addresses. A simple example is the `localhost` entry
  816: in the default NetBSD installation:
  817: 
  818:     127.0.0.1               localhost
  819:     ::1                     localhost
  820: 
  821: For DNS, there are no fundamentally new concepts. IPv6 name resolving is done
  822: with AAAA records that - as the name implies - point to an entity that's four
  823: times the size of an A record. The AAAA record takes a hostname on the left
  824: side, just as A does, and on the right side there's an IPv6 address, e.g.
  825: 
  826:     noon            IN      AAAA    3ffe:400:430:2:240:95ff:fe40:4385
  827: 
  828: For reverse resolving, IPv4 uses the in-addr.arpa zone, and below that it writes
  829: the bytes (in decimal) in reversed order, i.e. more significant bytes are more
  830: right. For IPv6 this is similar, only that hex digits representing 4 bits are
  831: used instead of decimal numbers, and the resource records are also under a
  832: different domain, ip6.int.
  833: 
  834: So to have the reverse resolving for the above host, you would put into your
  835: `/etc/named.conf` something like:
  836: 
  837:     zone "0.3.4.0.0.0.4.0.e.f.f.3.IP6.INT" {
  838:           type master;
  839:           file "db.reverse";
  840:     };
  841: 
  842: and in the zone file db.reverse you put (besides the usual records like SOA and
  843: NS):
  844: 
  845:     5.8.3.4.0.4.e.f.f.f.5.9.0.4.2.0.2.0.0.0 IN   PTR   noon.ipv6.example.com.
  846: 
  847: The address is reversed here, and written down one hex digit after the other,
  848: starting with the least significant (rightmost) one, separating the hex digits
  849: with dots, as usual in zone files.
  850: 
  851: One thing to note when setting up DNS for IPv6 is to take care of the DNS
  852: software version in use. BIND 8.x does understand AAAA records, but it does not
  853: offer name resolving via IPv6. You need BIND 9.x for that. Beyond that, BIND 9.x
  854: supports a number of resource records that are currently being discussed but not
  855: officially introduced yet. The most noticeable one here is the A6 record which
  856: allows easier provider/prefix changing.
  857: 
  858: To sum up, this section talked about the technical differences between IPv4 and
  859: IPv6 for addressing and name resolving. Some details like IP header options, QoS
  860: and flows were deliberately left out to not make this document more complex than
  861: necessary.
  862: 

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