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 ## Introduction to TCP/IP Networking  **Contents**
   
   [[!toc levels=3]]
   
   # Introduction to TCP/IP Networking
   
 ## Audience  ## Audience
   
Line 12  as introduced in the first two sections. Line 16  as introduced in the first two sections.
   
 The reader is assumed to know about basic system administration tasks: how to  The reader is assumed to know about basic system administration tasks: how to
 become root, edit files, change permissions, stop processes, etc. See the other  become root, edit files, change permissions, stop processes, etc. See the other
 chapters of this NetBSD guide and  chapters of this NetBSD guide and e.g. *Essential System Administration* by 
 e.g.\[[[AeleenFrisch|guide/index#bibliography]]\]  Aeleen Frisch (1991, O'Reilly & Associates) for further information on this 
 for further information on this topic. Besides that, you should know how to  topic. Besides that, you should know how to handle the utilities we're going to 
 handle the utilities we're going to set up here, i.e. you should know how to  set up here, i.e. you should know how to use telnet, FTP, ... I will not explain 
 use telnet, FTP, ... I will not explain the basic features of those  the basic features of those utilities, please refer to the appropriate 
 utilities, please refer to the appropriate man-pages, the references listed  man-pages, the references listed or of course the other parts of this document 
 or of course the other parts of this document instead.  instead.
   
 This introduction to TCP/IP Networking was written with the intention in mind to  This introduction to TCP/IP Networking was written with the intention in mind to
 give starters a basic knowledge. If you really want to know what it's all about,  give starters a basic knowledge. If you really want to know what it's all about,
 read \[[[CraigHunt|guide/index#bibliography]]\]. This book does not only cover  read *TCP/IP Network Administration* by Craig Hunt (1993, O'Reilly & 
 the basics, but goes on and explains all the concepts, services and how to set  Associates). This book does not only cover the basics, but goes on and explains 
 them up in detail. It's great, I love it! :-)  all the concepts, services and how to set them up in detail. It's great, I love 
   it! :-)
   
 ## Supported Networking Protocols  ## Supported Networking Protocols
   
Line 250  After talking so much about netmasks, ne Line 255  After talking so much about netmasks, ne
 have to admit that this is not the whole truth.  have to admit that this is not the whole truth.
   
 Imagine the situation at your university, which usually has a class B (/16)  Imagine the situation at your university, which usually has a class B (/16)
 address, allowing it to have up to 2^16 \~= 65534 hosts on that net. Maybe it  address, allowing it to have up to 2^16 ~= 65534 hosts on that net. Maybe it
 would be a nice thing to have all those hosts on one single network, but it's  would be a nice thing to have all those hosts on one single network, but it's
 simply not possible due to limitations in the transport media commonly used  simply not possible due to limitations in the transport media commonly used
 today.  today.
Line 406  The three different ways to translate ho Line 411  The three different ways to translate ho
 `/etc/hosts`, the Domain Name Service (DNS) and the Network Information Service  `/etc/hosts`, the Domain Name Service (DNS) and the Network Information Service
 (NIS).  (NIS).
   
 ### `/etc/hosts`  ### /etc/hosts
   
 The first and simplest way to translate hostnames into IP-addresses is by using  The first and simplest way to translate hostnames into IP-addresses is by using
 a table telling which IP address belongs to which hostname(s). This table is  a table telling which IP address belongs to which hostname(s). This table is
Line 619  example: Line 624  example:
   
     127.0.0.1      127.0.0.1
   
 This allows a theoretical number of 2^32 or \~4 billion hosts to be connected on  This allows a theoretical number of 2^32 or ~4 billion hosts to be connected on
 the internet today. Due to grouping, not all addresses are available today.  the internet today. Due to grouping, not all addresses are available today.
   
 IPv6 addresses use 128 bit, which results in 2^128 theoretically addressable  IPv6 addresses use 128 bit, which results in 2^128 theoretically addressable
Line 684  With 128 bits available for addressing i Line 689  With 128 bits available for addressing i
 same, only the fields are wider. Providers usually assign /48 networks, which  same, only the fields are wider. Providers usually assign /48 networks, which
 leaves 16 bits for a subnetting and 64 hostbits.  leaves 16 bits for a subnetting and 64 hostbits.
   
 ![IPv6-addresses have a similar structure to class B addresses](/guide/images/ipv6-en-6adrformats.gif)  ![IPv6-addresses have a similar structure to class B addresses](/guide/images/ipv6-en-6adrformats.gif)  
 **IPv6-addresses have a similar structure to class B addresses**  **IPv6-addresses have a similar structure to class B addresses**
   
 Now while the space for network and subnets here is pretty much ok, using 64  Now while the space for network and subnets here is pretty much ok, using 64

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