Annotation of wikisrc/guide/mail.mdwn, revision 1.3

1.1       jdf         1: # Mail and news
                      2: 
1.3     ! jdf         3: This chapter explains how to set up NetBSD to use mail and news. Only a simple
        !             4: but very common setup is described: the configuration of a host connected to the
        !             5: Internet with a modem through a provider. You can think of this chapter as the
1.1       jdf         6: continuation of
1.3     ! jdf         7: [[Setting up TCP/IP on NetBSD in practice|guide/net-practice]], assuming a
        !             8: similar network configuration. Even this *simple* setup proves to be difficult
        !             9: if you don't know where to start or if you've only read introductory or
        !            10: technical documentation. A general description of mail and news
        !            11: configuration is beyond the scope of this guide; please read a good Unix
1.1       jdf        12: Administration book (some very good ones are listed on the NetBSD site).
                     13: 
1.3     ! jdf        14: This chapter also briefly describes the configuration (but not the usage) of two
        !            15: popular applications, mutt for mail and tin for news. The usage is not described
        !            16: because they are easy to use and well documented. Obviously, both mutt and tin
        !            17: are not mandatory choices: many other similar applications exist but I think
        !            18: that they are a good starting point because they are widely used, simple, work
        !            19: well and don't use too much disk space and memory. Both are console mode
1.1       jdf        20: programs; if you prefer graphics applications there are also many choices for X.
                     21: 
1.3     ! jdf        22: In short, the programs required for the configuration described in this chapter
1.1       jdf        23: are:
                     24: 
                     25:  * postfix
                     26:  * fetchmail
                     27:  * mutt
                     28:  * tin
                     29: 
1.3     ! jdf        30: Of these, only postfix is installed with the base system; you can install the
1.1       jdf        31: other programs from the NetBSD package collection, pkgsrc.
                     32: 
1.3     ! jdf        33: *Note*: Since NetBSD 4.0, postfix is the default MTA (Mail Transport Agent) and
        !            34: sendmail was removed. Also, because sendmail is widely popular and several
        !            35: programs like fetchmail are designed to be used with it, postfix includes a
        !            36: command line wrapper that accepts sendmail's commands line syntax but works with
        !            37: postfix. See
        !            38: [sendmail(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?sendmail+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
1.1       jdf        39: for more details.
                     40: 
1.3     ! jdf        41: Before continuing, remember that none of the programs presented in this chapter
        !            42: is mandatory: there are other applications performing similar tasks and many
        !            43: users prefer them. You'll find different opinions reading the mailing lists. You
        !            44: can also use different strategies for sending and receiving mail: the one
        !            45: explained here is only a starting point; once you understand how it works you'll
        !            46: probably want to modify it to suit your needs or to adopt a different method
1.1       jdf        47: altogether.
                     48: 
1.3     ! jdf        49: At the opposite extreme of the example presented here, there is the usage of an
        !            50: application like Mozilla, which does everything and frees you from the need of
        !            51: configuring many components: with Mozilla you can browse the Internet, send and
        !            52: receive mail and read news. Besides, the setup is very simple. There is a price
        !            53: to pay, though: Mozilla is a "closed" program that will not cooperate easily
1.1       jdf        54: with other standard Unix utilities.
                     55: 
1.3     ! jdf        56: Another possibility is to use emacs to read mail and news. Emacs needs no
        !            57: introduction to Unix users but, in case you don't know, it is an extensible
        !            58: editor (although calling emacs an editor is somewhat reductive) which becomes a
        !            59: complete work environment, and can be used to read mail, news and to perform
        !            60: many operations. For many people emacs is the only environment that they need
        !            61: and they use it for all their work. The configuration of emacs for mail and news
1.1       jdf        62: is described in the emacs manual.
                     63: 
1.3     ! jdf        64: In the rest of this chapter we will deal with a host connected to the Internet
1.1       jdf        65: through a PPP connection via serial modem to a provider.
                     66: 
1.3     ! jdf        67:  * the local host's name is `ape` and the internal network is `insetti.net`,
1.1       jdf        68:    which means that the FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) is `ape.insetti.net`.
                     69:  * the user's login name on ape is `carlo`.
                     70:  * the provider's name is BigNet.
                     71:  * the provider's mail server is `mail.bignet.it`.
                     72:  * the provider's news server is `news.bignet.it`.
1.3     ! jdf        73:  * the user's (`carlo`) account at the provider is `alan` with the password
1.1       jdf        74:    `pZY9o`.
                     75: 
                     76: First some basic terminology:
                     77: 
1.3     ! jdf        78:  * *MUA (mail user agent)* -- a program to read and write mail. For example:
        !            79:    mutt, elm and pine but also the simple mail application installed with the
1.1       jdf        80:    base system.
                     81: 
1.3     ! jdf        82:  * *MTA (mail transfer agent)* -- a program that transfers mail between two host
        !            83:    but also locally (on the same host). The MTA decides the path that the mail
        !            84:    will follow to get to the destination. On other BSD systems (but not only)
        !            85:    the standard MTA is sendmail, other examples are qmail, exim and Microsoft
1.1       jdf        86:    Exchange.
                     87: 
1.3     ! jdf        88:  * *MDA (mail delivery agent)* -- a program, usually used by the MTA, that
        !            89:    delivers the mail; for example, it physically puts the messages in the
        !            90:    recipient's mailbox. For example, postfix uses one or more MDAs to deliver
1.1       jdf        91:    mail, and procmail is another well-known MDA.
                     92: 
1.3     ! jdf        93: The following figure depicts the mail system that we want to set up. Between the
        !            94: local network (or the single host) and the provider there is a modem PPP
        !            95: connection. The *bubbles* with the thick border (postfix, fetchmail, mutt) are
        !            96: the programs launched manually by the user; the remaining bubbles are the
        !            97: programs that are launched automatically. The circled numbers refer to the
1.1       jdf        98: logical steps of the mail cycle:
                     99: 
                    100: ![Structure of the mail system](/guide/images/mail1.gif)
                    101: 
1.3     ! jdf       102:  1. In step (1) mail is downloaded from the provider's POP server using
        !           103:     fetchmail, which hands messages off to postfix's sendmail wrapper to put the
1.1       jdf       104:     messages in the user's mailbox.
                    105: 
1.3     ! jdf       106:  2. In step (2) the user launches mutt (or another MUA) to read mail, reply and
1.1       jdf       107:     write new messages.
                    108: 
1.3     ! jdf       109:  3. In step (3) the user *sends* the mail from within mutt. Messages are
1.1       jdf       110:     accumulated in the spool area.
                    111: 
1.3     ! jdf       112:  4. In step (4) the user calls postfix's sendmail wrapper to transfer the
        !           113:     messages to the provider's SMTP server, that will deliver them to the final
        !           114:     destination (possibly through other mail servers). The provider's SMTP server
1.1       jdf       115:     acts as a *relay* for our mail.
                    116: 
1.3     ! jdf       117: The connection with the provider must be up only during steps (1) and (4); for
1.1       jdf       118: the remaining steps it is not needed.
                    119: 
                    120: ## postfix
                    121: 
1.3     ! jdf       122: When an MTA must deliver a local message, it is delivered directly. If the
        !           123: message is intended for a different domain, the MTA must find out the address of
1.1       jdf       124: the mail server for that domain. Postfix uses the DNS service (described in
1.3     ! jdf       125: [[The Domain Name System|guide/dns]]) to find a mail exchanger handling mail for
1.1       jdf       126: the given domain, and delivers the message to that mail server then.
                    127: 
1.3     ! jdf       128: Postfix is controlled by a set of configuration files and databases, of which
1.1       jdf       129: `/etc/postfix/main.cf` and `/etc/postfix/master.cf` are the most important.
                    130: 
1.3     ! jdf       131: *Note*: Prior to version 1.5 of NetBSD, the mail configuration files were in
        !           132: `/etc` instead of `/etc/mail`. Since NetBSD 4.0, the `/etc/mail` directory is
        !           133: only used to store the local aliases and the corresponding
        !           134: [postmap(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?postmap+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
1.1       jdf       135: database.
                    136: 
1.3     ! jdf       137: The first problem to be solved is that the local network we are dealing with is
        !           138: an internal network, i.e. not directly accessible from the Internet. This means
        !           139: that the names used internally have no meaning on the Internet; in short,
        !           140: `ape.insetti.net` cannot be reached by an external host: no one will be able to
        !           141: reply to a mail sent with this return address (many mail systems will even
        !           142: reject the message as spam prevention as it comes from an unknown host). The
        !           143: true address, the one visible from everybody, is assigned by the provider and,
        !           144: therefore, it is necessary to convert the local address `carlo@ape.insetti.net`
        !           145: to the real address `alan@bignet.it`. Postfix, if correctly configured, will
1.1       jdf       146: take care of this when it transfers the messages.
                    147: 
1.3     ! jdf       148: You'll probably also want to configure postfix in order to send the e-mails to
        !           149: the provider's mail server, using it as a *relay*. In the configuration
        !           150: described in this chapter, postfix does not directly contact the recipient's
        !           151: mail server (as previously described) but relays all its mail to the provider's
1.1       jdf       152: mail server.
                    153: 
1.3     ! jdf       154: *Note*: The provider's mail server acts as a *relay*, which means that it
        !           155: delivers mail which is not destined to its own domain, to another mail server.
1.1       jdf       156: It acts as an intermediary between two servers.
                    157: 
1.3     ! jdf       158: Since the connection with the provider is not always active, it is not necessary
        !           159: to start postfix as a daemon in `/etc/rc.conf`: you can disable it with the line
        !           160: `postfix=NO`. As a consequence it will be necessary to launch postfix manually
        !           161: when you want to transfer mail to the provider. Local mail is delivered
1.1       jdf       162: correctly even if postfix is not active as a daemon.
                    163: 
                    164: Let's start configuring postfix.
                    165: 
                    166: ### Configuration of generic mapping
                    167: 
1.3     ! jdf       168: This type of configuration uses a new file `/etc/postfix/generic` which contains
1.1       jdf       169: the hostname mapping used by postfix to rewrite the internal hostnames.
                    170: 
                    171: The first step is therefore to write the mapping file:
                    172: 
                    173:     carlo@ape.insetti.net           alan@bignet.it
                    174:     root@ape.insetti.net            alan@bignet.it
                    175:     news@ape.insetti.net            alan@bignet.it
                    176: 
1.3     ! jdf       177: These entries will map the mail sent from the users given on the left side into
        !           178: the globally valid email addresses given on the right, making it appear as if
1.1       jdf       179: the mail was really sent from that address.
                    180: 
1.3     ! jdf       181: For the sake of efficiency, `generic` must be transformed into a binary file
1.1       jdf       182: with the following command:
                    183: 
                    184:     # postmap /etc/postfix/generic
                    185: 
1.3     ! jdf       186: Now it's time to create the prototype configuration file which we'll use to
1.1       jdf       187: create the postfix configuration file.
                    188: 
                    189:     # vi /etc/postfix/main.cf
                    190: 
                    191: For the sake of simplicity, we'll only show the variables you need change:
                    192: 
                    193:     relayhost = mail.bignet.it
                    194:     smtp_generic_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/generic
                    195: 
1.3     ! jdf       196: This configuration tells postfix to rewrite the addresses of type
        !           197: `ape.insetti.net` using the real names found in the `/etc/postfix/generic` file.
        !           198: It also says that mail should be sent to the `mail.bignet.it` server. The
        !           199: meaning of the options is described in detail in
1.1       jdf       200: [postconf(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?postconf+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386).
                    201: 
                    202: The last step is to reload the configuration. You can do that easily with:
                    203: 
                    204:     # /etc/rc.d/postfix reload
                    205:     postfix/postfix-script: refreshing the Postfix mail system
                    206: 
                    207: Now everything is ready to start sending mail.
                    208: 
                    209: ### Testing the configuration
                    210: 
1.3     ! jdf       211: Postfix is finally configured and ready to work, but before sending real mail it
        !           212: is better to do some simple tests. First let's try sending a local e-mail with
1.1       jdf       213: the following command (postfix's sendmail wrapper):
                    214: 
                    215:     $ sendmail carlo
                    216:     Subject: test
                    217:     
                    218:     Hello world
                    219:     .
                    220: 
1.3     ! jdf       221: Please follow exactly the example above: leave a blank line after Subject: and
        !           222: end the message with a line containing only one dot. Now you should be able to
        !           223: read the message with your mail client and verify that the From: field has been
1.1       jdf       224: correctly rewritten.
                    225: 
                    226:     From: alan@bignet.it
                    227: 
                    228: ### Using an alternative MTA
                    229: 
                    230: Starting from version 1.4 of NetBSD sendmail is not called directly:
                    231: 
                    232:     $ ls -l /usr/sbin/sendmail
                    233:     lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel  21 Nov  1 01:14 /usr/sbin/sendmail@ -> /usr/sbin/mailwrapper
                    234: 
1.3     ! jdf       235: The purpose of mailwrapper is to allow the usage of an alternative MTA instead
        !           236: of postfix (for example, sendmail). If you plan to use a different mailer I
        !           237: suggest that you read the
        !           238: [mailwrapper(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?mailwrapper+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
        !           239: and the
        !           240: [mailer.conf(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?mailer.conf+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
1.1       jdf       241: manpages, which are very clear.
                    242: 
                    243: ## fetchmail
                    244: 
1.3     ! jdf       245: If someone sends me mail, it is received and stored by the provider, and not
        !           246: automatically transferred to the local hosts; therefore it is necessary to
        !           247: download it. Fetchmail is a very popular program that downloads mail from a
        !           248: remote mail server (using e.g. the Post Office Protocol, POP) and forwards it to
        !           249: the local system for delivery (usually using postfix's sendmail wrapper). It is
        !           250: powerful yet easy to use and configure: after installation, the file
        !           251: `~/.fetchmailrc` must be created and the program is ready to run
        !           252: (`~/.fetchmailrc` contains a password so appropriate permissions on the file are
1.1       jdf       253: required).
                    254: 
                    255: This is an example `.fetchmailrc`:
                    256: 
                    257:     poll mail.bignet.it
                    258:     protocol POP3
                    259:     username alan there with password pZY9o is carlo here
                    260:     flush
                    261:     mda "/usr/sbin/sendmail -oem %T"
                    262: 
1.3     ! jdf       263: The last line (`mda ...`) is used only if postfix is not active as daemon on the
        !           264: system. Please note that the POP-mail server indicated in this file
        !           265: (mail.bignet.it) is only used to retrieve mails, and that it is not necessary
1.1       jdf       266: the same as the mail relay used by postfix to send out mails.
                    267: 
1.3     ! jdf       268: After setting up the `.fetchmailrc` file, the following command can be used to
1.1       jdf       269: download and deliver mail to the local system:
                    270: 
                    271:     $ fetchmail
                    272: 
                    273: The messages can now be read with mutt.
                    274: 
                    275: ## Reading and writing mail with mutt
                    276: 
1.3     ! jdf       277: Mutt is one of the most popular mail programs: it is *lightweight*, easy to use
        !           278: and has lots of features. The man page mutt is very bare bones; the real
1.1       jdf       279: documentation is in `/usr/pkg/share/doc/mutt/`, in particular `manual.txt`.
                    280: 
1.3     ! jdf       281: Mutt's configuration is defined by the `~/.muttrc` file. The easiest way to
        !           282: create it is to copy mutt's example muttrc file (usually
        !           283: `/usr/pkg/share/examples/mutt/sample.muttrc`) to the home directory and modify
1.1       jdf       284: it. The following example shows how to achieve some results:
                    285: 
                    286:  * Save a copy of sent mail.
1.3     ! jdf       287:  * Define a directory and two files for incoming and outgoing mail saved by mutt
        !           288:    (in this example the directory is `~/Mail` and the files are `incoming` and
1.1       jdf       289:    `outgoing`).
                    290:  * Define some colors.
                    291:  * Define an alias.
                    292: 
                    293:     set copy=yes
                    294:     set edit_headers
                    295:     set folder="~/Mail"
                    296:     unset force_name
                    297:     set mbox="~/Mail/incoming"
                    298:     set record="~/Mail/outgoing"
                    299:     unset save_name
                    300:     
                    301:     bind pager <up> previous-page
                    302:     bind pager <down> next-page
                    303:     
                    304:     color normal white black
                    305:     color hdrdefault blue black
                    306:     color indicator white blue
                    307:     color markers red black
                    308:     color quoted cyan black
                    309:     color status white blue
                    310:     color error red white
                    311:     color underline yellow black
                    312:     
                    313:     mono quoted standout
                    314:     mono hdrdefault underline
                    315:     mono indicator underline
                    316:     mono status bold
                    317:     
                    318:     alias pippo Pippo Verdi <pippo.verdi@pluto.net>
                    319: 
                    320: To start mutt:
                    321: 
                    322:     $ mutt
                    323: 
1.3     ! jdf       324: Please note that mutt supports color, but this depends on the terminal settings.
1.1       jdf       325: Under X you can use "xterm-color", for example:
                    326: 
                    327:     $ env TERM=xterm-color mutt
                    328: 
                    329: ## Strategy for receiving mail
                    330: 
1.3     ! jdf       331: This section describes a simple method for receiving and reading mail. The
        !           332: connection to the provider is activated only for the time required to download
1.1       jdf       333: the messages; mail is then read offline.
                    334: 
                    335:  1. Activate the connection to the provider.
1.2       jdf       336:  2. Run `fetchmail`.
1.1       jdf       337:  3. Deactivate the connection.
                    338:  4. Read mail with mutt.
                    339: 
                    340: ## Strategy for sending mail
                    341: 
1.3     ! jdf       342: When mail has been written and *sent* with mutt, the messages must be
        !           343: transferred to the provider with postfix. Mail is sent from mutt with the `y`
        !           344: command, but this does not really send it; the messages are enqueued in the
        !           345: spool area; if postfix is not active as a daemon it is necessary to start it
1.1       jdf       346: manually or the messages will remain on the hard disk. The necessary steps are:
                    347: 
1.3     ! jdf       348:  1. Write mail with mutt, send it and exit mutt. You can check if and what
        !           349:     messages are in the postfix mail queue using the
        !           350:     [mailq(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?mailq+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
1.1       jdf       351:     program.
                    352:  2. Activate the connection with the provider.
1.3     ! jdf       353:  3. If your provider requires you to do "SMTP-after-POP", i.e. it first wants to
        !           354:     make sure to know who you are before you are allowed to send mail (and no
1.1       jdf       355:     spam), you need to run `fetchmail` again first.
1.3     ! jdf       356:  4. Write the command `/usr/sbin/postfix flush` to transfer the queued
1.1       jdf       357:     messages to the provider.
                    358:  5. Deactivate the connection when the queue is empty.
                    359: 
                    360: ## Advanced mail tools
                    361: 
1.3     ! jdf       362: When you start using mail, you won't probably have very sophisticated
        !           363: requirements and the already described standard configuration will satisfy all
        !           364: your needs. But for many users the number of daily messages will increase with
        !           365: time and a more rational organization of the mail storage will become necessary,
        !           366: for example subdividing mail in different mail boxes organized by topic. If, for
        !           367: example, you subscribe to a mailing list, you will likely receive many
        !           368: messages every day and you will want to keep them separate from the rest of
        !           369: your mail. You will soon find that you are spending too much time every day
1.1       jdf       370: repeating the same manual operations to organize your mail boxes.
                    371: 
1.3     ! jdf       372: Why repeat the same operations manually when you can have a program perform them
        !           373: automatically for you? There are numerous tools that you can add to your mail
        !           374: system to increase its flexibility and automatically process your messages.
1.1       jdf       375: Amongst the most known and used there are:
                    376: 
1.3     ! jdf       377:  * *procmail*, an advanced mail delivery agent and general purpose mail filter
        !           378:    for local mail, which automatically processes incoming mail using user
1.1       jdf       379:    defined rulesets. It integrates smoothly with sendmail/postfix.
                    380:  * *spamassassin* or *spamprobe*, to help fight spam.
                    381:  * *metamail*, a tool to process attachments.
                    382:  * *formail*, a mail formatter.
                    383: 
1.3     ! jdf       384: In the remaining part of this section a sample configuration for procmail will
        !           385: be presented for a very common case: delivering automatically to a user defined
        !           386: mailbox all the messages coming from a mailing list. The configuration of
        !           387: postfix will be modified in order to call procmail directly (procmail will be
        !           388: the *local mailer* used by sendmail). and a custom configuration file for
1.1       jdf       389: procmail will be created.
                    390: 
1.3     ! jdf       391: First, procmail must be installed using the package system (`mail/procmail`),
1.1       jdf       392: `pkg_add` or `pkgin`.
                    393: 
1.3     ! jdf       394: Next, the configuration of postfix must be changed, in order to use procmail as
1.1       jdf       395: local mailer:
                    396: 
                    397:     mailbox_command = /usr/pkg/bin/procmail
                    398: 
1.3     ! jdf       399: The line defines the path of the procmail program (you can see where procmail is
1.1       jdf       400: installed with the command `which procmail`).
                    401: 
1.3     ! jdf       402: The last step is the creation of the procmail configuration file, containing the
1.1       jdf       403: recipes for mail delivery.
                    404: 
1.3     ! jdf       405: Let's say that, for example, you subscribed to a mailing list on roses whose
        !           406: address is `roses@flowers.org` and that every message from the list contains the
1.1       jdf       407: following line in the header:
                    408: 
                    409:     Delivered-To: roses@flowers.org
                    410: 
1.3     ! jdf       411: Assuming you want to automatically sort all mails going over that list into the
        !           412: local mail folder `roses_list`, the procmail configuration file (`.procmailrc`)
1.1       jdf       413: looks like this:
                    414: 
                    415:     PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/pkg/bin
                    416:     MAILDIR=$HOME/Mail
                    417:     LOGFILE=$MAILDIR/from
                    418:     
                    419:     :0
                    420:     * ^Delivered-To: roses@flowers.org
                    421:     roses_list
                    422: 
1.3     ! jdf       423: The previous file contains only one rule, beginning with the line containing
        !           424: `:0`. The following line identifies all messages containing the string
        !           425: `Delivered-To: roses@flowers.org` and the last line says that the selected
        !           426: messages must go to the `roses_list` mailbox (which you should have created in
        !           427: $MAILDIR). The remaining messages will be delivered to the default mailbox. Note
1.1       jdf       428: that $MAILDIR is the same directory that you have configured with mutt:
                    429: 
                    430:     set folder="~/Mail"
                    431: 
1.3     ! jdf       432: Of course the mailing list is only an example; procmail is a very versatile tool
        !           433: which can be used to filter mail based on many criteria. As usual, refer to the
        !           434: man pages for more details:
        !           435: [procmail(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?procmail+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),
        !           436: [procmailrc(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?procmailrc+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386),
        !           437: and
        !           438: [procmailex(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?procmailex+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)
1.1       jdf       439: (this last one contains many examples of configuration files).
                    440: 
                    441: ## News with tin
                    442: 
1.3     ! jdf       443: The word *news* indicates the set of messages posted to the USENET newsgroups, a
        !           444: service available on the Internet. Each newsgroup contains articles related to a
        !           445: specific topic. Reading a newsgroup is different than reading a mailing list:
        !           446: when you subscribe to a mailing list you receive the articles by mail and you
        !           447: read them with a standard mail program like mutt, which you use also to send
        !           448: replies. News, instead, are read directly from a news server with a dedicated
        !           449: program called *newsreader* like, for example, tin. With tin you can subscribe
        !           450: to the newsgroups that you're interested in and follow the *threads*. A thread
        !           451: is a sequence of articles which all derive from an article that we could call
        !           452: *original*. In short, a message is sent to the group, someone answers, other
        !           453: people answer to those who answered in the first place and so on, creating a
        !           454: tree like structure of messages and replies: without a newsreader it is
1.1       jdf       455: impossible to understand the correct sequence of messages.
                    456: 
1.3     ! jdf       457: After the installation of tin (from the package collection as usual) the only
        !           458: thing left to do is to write the name of the NNTP server in the file
1.1       jdf       459: `/usr/pkg/etc/nntp/server`, which you may need to create first. For example:
                    460: 
                    461:     news.bignet.it
                    462: 
1.3     ! jdf       463: Once this has been done, the program can be started with the command `tin`. On
1.1       jdf       464: the screen something similar to the following example will be displayed:
                    465: 
                    466:     $ tin
                    467:     Connecting to news.bignet.it...
                    468:     news.bignet.it InterNetNews NNRP server INN 1.7.2 08-Dec-1997 ready (posting ok).
                    469:     Reading groups from active file...
                    470:     Checking for new groups...
                    471:     Reading attributes file...
                    472:     Reading newsgroups file...
                    473:     Creating newsrc file...
                    474:     Autosubscribing groups...
                    475:     Reading newsrc file...
                    476: 
1.3     ! jdf       477: Be patient when you connect for the first time, because tin downloads an immense
        !           478: list of newsgroups to which you can subscribe and this takes several minutes.
        !           479: When the download is finished, the program's main screen is displayed; usually
1.1       jdf       480: no groups are displayed; to see the list of groups press `y`. To subscribe to a
                    481: group, move on the group's name and press `y`.
                    482: 
1.3     ! jdf       483: Once that you have subscribed to some newsgroups you can start tin more quickly
        !           484: with the command `tin -Q`. The search for new groups is disabled (`-q`), only
        !           485: active groups are searched (`-n`) and newsgroup description are not loaded
        !           486: (`-d`): it will not be possible to use the `y` (yank) command in tin. When tin
1.1       jdf       487: is started with this option it can't tell if a newsgroup is moderated or not.
                    488: 
1.3     ! jdf       489: Note that if you are connecting from an internal network (like in our example),
        !           490: when you send ("post") a message the address at the beginning of the message
        !           491: will be wrong (because it is the internal address). To solve the problem, use
        !           492: the option `mail_address` in the tin configuration file (`~/.tin/tinrc`) or set
1.1       jdf       493: the `REPLYTO` environment variable.
                    494: 

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