File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / guide / inst.mdwn
Revision 1.6: download - view: text, annotated - select for diffs
Sat May 4 22:49:11 2019 UTC (16 months, 2 weeks ago) by sevan
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CVS tags: HEAD
Sync with docbook, retain the floppy instructions as we still provide images.

    1: **Contents**
    2: 
    3: [[!toc levels=3]]
    4: 
    5: # Installing NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations
    6: 
    7: ## Preliminary considerations
    8: 
    9: ### Dual booting
   10: 
   11: It is possible to install NetBSD together with other operating systems on one
   12: hard disk.
   13: 
   14: If there is already an operating system on the hard disk, think about how you
   15: can free some space for NetBSD; if NetBSD will share the disk with other
   16: operating systems you will probably need to create a new partition (which you
   17: will do with sysinst). Often times this will not be possible unless you resize
   18: an existing partition.
   19: 
   20: Unfortunately, it is not possible to resize an existing partition with sysinst,
   21: but there are some commercial products (like Partition Magic) and some free
   22: tools (GNU Parted, FIPS, pfdisk) available for this.
   23: 
   24: You can also install NetBSD on a separate hard disk.
   25: 
   26: *Advice*: Unless you are comfortable with setting up a partitioning scheme for
   27: two or more operating systems, and unless you understand the risk of data loss
   28: if you should make a mistake, it is recommended that you give NetBSD its own
   29: hard disk. This removes the risk of damage to the existing operating system.
   30: 
   31: ### NetBSD on emulation and virtualization
   32: 
   33: It is possible to install and run NetBSD on top of other operating systems
   34: without having to worry about partitioning. Emulators or virtualization
   35: environments provide a quick and secure way to try out NetBSD. The host
   36: operating system remains unchanged, and the risk of damaging important data is
   37: minimized.
   38: 
   39: Information about NetBSD as a Xen host and guest system is available on the
   40: [NetBSD/xen web page](http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/xen/).
   41: 
   42: The [NetBSD on emulated hardware](http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/emulators.html)
   43: web page provides detailed information about various emulators and the supported
   44: NetBSD platforms. It should also be noted that NetBSD runs as a VMware guest.
   45: 
   46: ## Install preparations
   47: 
   48: ### The INSTALL document
   49: 
   50: The first thing to do before installing NetBSD is to read the release
   51: information and installation notes in one of the `INSTALL` files: this is the
   52: official description of the installation procedure, with platform-specific
   53: information and important details. It is available in HTML, PostScript, plain
   54: text, and an enhanced text format to be used with more. These files can be found
   55: in the root directory of the NetBSD release (on the install CD or on the FTP
   56: server). For example, the amd64 install instructions are available at:
   57: 
   58:     http://cdn.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-8.0/amd64/INSTALL.html
   59: 
   60: ### Partitions
   61: 
   62: The terminology used by NetBSD for partitioning is different from the typical
   63: DOS/Windows terminology; in fact, there are two partitioning schemes involved
   64: when running NetBSD on a typical PC. NetBSD installs in one of the four primary
   65: BIOS partitions (the partitions defined in the hard disk partition table).
   66: 
   67: Within a BIOS partition (also called *slice*) NetBSD defines its BSD partitions
   68: using a *disklabel*: these partitions can be seen only by NetBSD and are
   69: identified by lowercase letters (starting with `a`). For example, wd0a refers to
   70: the `a` partition of the first IDE disk (wd0) and sd0a refers to the `a`
   71: partition of the first SCSI disk. In the following figure, there are two primary
   72: BIOS partitions, one used by DOS and the other by NetBSD. NetBSD describes the
   73: disk layout through the disklabel.
   74: 
   75: ![Partitions](/guide/images/part.gif)
   76: 
   77: *Note*: The meaning of partitions `c` and `d` is typical of the amd64 port. On
   78: most other ports, `c` represents the whole disk.
   79: 
   80: *Note*: If NetBSD shares the hard disk with another operating system (like in
   81: the previous example) you will want to install a *boot manager*, i.e., a program
   82: which lets you choose which OS to start at boot time. sysinst can do this for
   83: you and will ask if you want to install one. Unless you have specific reasons
   84: not to, you should let sysinst perform this step.
   85: 
   86: ### Hard disk space requirements
   87: 
   88: The exact amount of space required for a given NetBSD installation varies
   89: depending on the platform being used and which distribution sets are selected.
   90: Generally speaking, if you have a few GB of free space on your hard drive, you
   91: will have enough space for a full installation of the base system.
   92: 
   93: ### Network settings
   94: 
   95: If you plan to fetch distribution sets over the network (not necessary if you
   96: downloaded a full-size install ISO) and do not use DHCP, write down your basic
   97: network settings. You will need:
   98: 
   99:  * Your IP address (example: 192.168.1.7)
  100:  * the netmask (example: 255.255.255.0)
  101:  * the IP address of your default gateway (example: 192.168.1.1)
  102:  * the IP address of the DNS server you use (example: 145.253.2.75)
  103: 
  104: ### Backup your data and operating systems!
  105: 
  106: Before you begin the installation, make sure that you have a reliable backup of
  107: any operating systems and data on the used hard disk. Mistakes in partitioning
  108: your hard disk can lead to data loss. Existing operating systems may become
  109: unbootable. "Reliable backup" means that the backup and restore procedure is
  110: tested and works flawlessly!
  111: 
  112: ### Preparing the installation media
  113: 
  114: The NetBSD installation system consists of two parts. The first part is the
  115: installation kernel. This kernel contains the NetBSD install program sysinst and
  116: it is booted from the install media (e.g, CD/DVD, USB drive, memory card, etc.).
  117: The [[!template id=man name="sysinst" section="8"]] program will prepare the disk: it separates the disk space into
  118: partitions, makes the disk bootable and creates the necessary file systems.
  119: 
  120: The second part of the install system is made up of the binary distribution
  121: sets: the files of the NetBSD operating system. The installer needs to have
  122: access to the distribution sets. [[!template id=man name="sysinst" section="8"]]
  123: will usually fetch these files from the install media you booted from, but it
  124: can also fetch them via HTTP, NFS, or a local file system.
  125: 
  126: The NetBSD Project provides [complete install media](https://cdn.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-8.0/images/) for every supported hardware
  127: architecture. This is usually in the form of bootable CD images (`.iso` files).
  128: 
  129: #### Booting the install system from USB
  130: 
  131: To use a bootable USB install image (on amd64, i386) download the `img.gz` file for your hardware architecture, decompress and copy the image to a USB. For example on a Unix-like system you may use:
  132: 
  133: 	# gunzip NetBSD-8.0-amd64-install.img.gz
  134: 	# dd if=NetBSD-8.0-amd64-install.img of=/dev/your-usb bs=2m
  135: 
  136: Examples of `your-usb` are `/dev/rsd0d` (NetBSD), `/dev/sda` (Linux).
  137: 
  138: *Caution*: Selecting the wrong device in dd may destroy your current system.
  139: Double check it isn't mounted and is your USB stick. It should appear at the
  140: bottom of dmesg on connect, for example, if you see:
  141: 
  142: 	sd0 at scsibus0 target 0 lun 0: [...], disk removable
  143: 
  144: on NetBSD, you will want to select `/dev/rsd0d`.
  145: 
  146: #### Booting the install system from CD
  147: 
  148: To use a bootable NetBSD install CD download the `iso` file for your hardware
  149: architecture and burn it to a CD or DVD. You will need to handle this step
  150: alone, as burning programs vary widely. Ensure that your computer is set up to
  151: boot from CD-ROM before hard drives, insert the disc, and reboot the computer.
  152: 
  153: #### Booting the install system from floppy
  154: 
  155: If you need to create installation floppies, you need to copy floppy images to a
  156: diskette. The floppy images are available on the NetBSD FTP servers or on a
  157: NetBSD install CD. To perform this operation in DOS you can use the rawrite
  158: program in the `i386/installation/misc` directory. For Windows, there's a
  159: version in `rawr32.zip`. The image files are `i386/installation/floppy/boot1.fs`
  160: and `i386/installation/floppy/boot2.fs` for installation of a "normal" PC. The
  161: other floppies that are available are described in more detail in the `INSTALL`
  162: document.
  163: 
  164: *Note*: Before you write the boot images to floppies, you should always check
  165: that the floppies are good: this simple step is often overlooked, but can save
  166: you a lot of trouble!
  167: 
  168: The procedure to write floppies is:
  169: 
  170:  1. Format the floppy.
  171:  2. Go to the `I386\INSTALLATION\FLOPPY` directory of the CD-ROM.
  172:  3. Run the `..\MISC\RAWRITE` program (or extract `..\MISC\RAWR32.ZIP` if
  173:     you're on a Windows system, and run the RAWRITE32 program in that file).
  174: 	Usually the `Source file`s are `BOOT1.FS` and `BOOT2.FS` and the
  175: 	`Destination drive` is `A`:
  176: 
  177: To create a boot floppy in a Unix environment, the
  178: [[!template id=man name="dd" section="1"]]
  179: command can be used: For example:
  180: 
  181:     # cd i386/installation/floppy
  182:     # dd if=boot.fs of=/dev/fd0a bs=36b
  183: 
  184: *Note*: A 1440K floppy contains 1474560 bytes and is made up of 80 cylinders, 2
  185: tracks, 18 sectors and 512 bytes per sector, i.e., 80 \* 2 \* 18 = 2880 blocks.
  186: Thus `bs=36b` copies one cylinder (18 \* 2 blocks) at a time and repeats the
  187: operation 80 times instead of 2880.
  188: 
  189: ## Checklist
  190: 
  191: This is the checklist about the things that should be clear and on-hand now:
  192: 
  193:  * Available disk space
  194:  * Bootable medium with the install system
  195:  * CD/DVD or server with the distribution sets
  196:  * Your network information (only if you will be fetching distribution sets via
  197:    the network and do not use DHCP)
  198:  * A working backup
  199:  * A copy of the INSTALL document
  200: 

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