Annotation of wikisrc/guide/inst.mdwn, revision 1.5
1.4 jdf 1: **Contents**
3: [[!toc levels=3]]
1.1 jdf 5: # Installing NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations
7: ## Preliminary considerations
9: ### Dual booting
1.2 jdf 11: It is possible to install NetBSD together with other operating systems on one
1.1 jdf 12: hard disk.
1.2 jdf 14: If there is already an operating system on the hard disk, think about how you
15: can free some space for NetBSD; if NetBSD will share the disk with other
16: operating systems you will probably need to create a new partition (which you
17: will do with sysinst). Often times this will not be possible unless you resize
1.1 jdf 18: an existing partition.
1.2 jdf 20: Unfortunately, it is not possible to resize an existing partition with sysinst,
21: but there are some commercial products (like Partition Magic) and some free
1.1 jdf 22: tools (GNU Parted, FIPS, pfdisk) available for this.
24: You can also install NetBSD on a separate hard disk.
1.2 jdf 26: *Advice*: Unless you are comfortable with setting up a partitioning scheme for
27: two or more operating systems, and unless you understand the risk of data loss
28: if you should make a mistake, it is recommended that you give NetBSD its own
1.1 jdf 29: hard disk. This removes the risk of damage to the existing operating system.
31: ### NetBSD on emulation and virtualization
1.2 jdf 33: It is possible to install and run NetBSD on top of other operating systems
34: without having to worry about partitioning. Emulators or virtualization
35: environments provide a quick and secure way to try out NetBSD. The host
36: operating system remains unchanged, and the risk of damaging important data is
1.1 jdf 37: minimized.
1.2 jdf 39: Information about NetBSD as a Xen host and guest system is available on the
1.1 jdf 40: [NetBSD/xen web page](http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/xen/).
1.2 jdf 42: The [NetBSD on emulated hardware](http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/emulators.html)
43: web page provides detailed information about various emulators and the supported
1.1 jdf 44: NetBSD platforms. It should also be noted that NetBSD runs as a VMware guest.
46: ## Install preparations
48: ### The INSTALL document
1.2 jdf 50: The first thing to do before installing NetBSD is to read the release
51: information and installation notes in one of the `INSTALL` files: this is the
52: official description of the installation procedure, with platform-specific
53: information and important details. It is available in HTML, PostScript, plain
54: text, and an enhanced text format to be used with more. These files can be found
55: in the root directory of the NetBSD release (on the install CD or on the FTP
56: server). For example (replacing `6.1` with your release number, and `port` with
1.1 jdf 57: your port):
61: ### Partitions
1.2 jdf 63: The terminology used by NetBSD for partitioning is different from the typical
64: DOS/Windows terminology; in fact, there are two partitioning schemes involved
65: when running NetBSD on a typical PC. NetBSD installs in one of the four primary
1.1 jdf 66: BIOS partitions (the partitions defined in the hard disk partition table).
1.2 jdf 68: Within a BIOS partition (also called *slice*) NetBSD defines its BSD partitions
69: using a *disklabel*: these partitions can be seen only by NetBSD and are
70: identified by lowercase letters (starting with `a`). For example, wd0a refers to
71: the `a` partition of the first IDE disk (wd0) and sd0a refers to the `a`
72: partition of the first SCSI disk. In the following figure, there are two primary
73: BIOS partitions, one used by DOS and the other by NetBSD. NetBSD describes the
1.1 jdf 74: disk layout through the disklabel.
1.2 jdf 78: *Note*: The meaning of partitions `c` and `d` is typical of the i386 port. On
1.1 jdf 79: most other ports, `c` represents the whole disk.
1.2 jdf 81: *Note*: If NetBSD shares the hard disk with another operating system (like in
82: the previous example) you will want to install a *boot manager*, i.e., a program
83: which lets you choose which OS to start at boot time. sysinst can do this for
84: you and will ask if you want to install one. Unless you have specific reasons
1.1 jdf 85: not to, you should let sysinst perform this step.
87: ### Hard disk space requirements
1.2 jdf 89: The exact amount of space required for a given NetBSD installation varies
90: depending on the platform being used and which distribution sets are selected.
91: In general, if you have 1GB of free space on your hard drive, you will have more
1.1 jdf 92: than enough space for a full installation of the base system.
94: ### Network settings
1.2 jdf 96: If you plan to fetch distribution sets over the network (not necessary if you
97: downloaded a full-size install ISO) and do not use DHCP, write down your basic
1.1 jdf 98: network settings. You will need:
100: * Your IP address (example: 192.168.1.7)
101: * the netmask (example: 255.255.255.0)
102: * the IP address of your default gateway (example: 192.168.1.1)
103: * the IP address of the DNS server you use (example: 184.108.40.206)
105: ### Backup your data and operating systems!
1.2 jdf 107: Before you begin the installation, make sure that you have a reliable backup of
108: any operating systems and data on the used hard disk. Mistakes in partitioning
109: your hard disk can lead to data loss. Existing operating systems may become
110: unbootable. "Reliable backup" means that the backup and restore procedure is
1.1 jdf 111: tested and works flawlessly!
113: ### Preparing the installation media
1.2 jdf 115: The NetBSD installation system consists of two parts. The first part is the
116: installation kernel. This kernel contains the NetBSD install program sysinst and
117: it is booted from a CD (or DVD), memory card, USB flash drive, or floppy disk.
118: The sysinst program will prepare the disk: it separates the disk space into
1.1 jdf 119: partitions, makes the disk bootable and creates the necessary file systems.
1.2 jdf 121: The second part of the install system is made up of the binary distribution
122: sets: the files of the NetBSD operating system. The installer needs to have
123: access to the distribution sets. sysinst will usually fetch these files from the
124: CD or DVD you burned, but it can also get them via FTP, NFS, or local
1.1 jdf 125: filesystem.
1.2 jdf 127: The NetBSD Project provides complete install media for every supported hardware
128: architecture. This is usually in the form of bootable CD images (`.iso` files).
1.1 jdf 129: For example (replacing `6.1` with the release you want to install):
1.2 jdf 133: *Note*: To improve net flow, and especially download speed, you should have a
134: look at the [list of mirrors](http://NetBSD.org/mirrors/#iso) and choose a local
1.1 jdf 135: server near you.
137: #### Booting the install system from CD
1.2 jdf 139: To use a bootable NetBSD install CD download the `iso` file for your hardware
140: architecture and burn it to a CD or DVD. You will need to handle this step
141: alone, as burning programs vary widely. Ensure that your computer is set up to
1.1 jdf 142: boot from CD-ROM before hard drives, insert the disc, and reboot the computer.
144: #### Booting the install system from floppy
1.2 jdf 146: If you need to create installation floppies, you need to copy floppy images to a
147: diskette. The floppy images are available on the NetBSD FTP servers or on a
148: NetBSD install CD. To perform this operation in DOS you can use the rawrite
149: program in the `i386/installation/misc` directory. For Windows, there's a
150: version in `rawr32.zip`. The image files are `i386/installation/floppy/boot1.fs`
151: and `i386/installation/floppy/boot2.fs` for installation of a "normal" PC. The
152: other floppies that are available are described in more detail in the `INSTALL`
1.1 jdf 153: document.
1.2 jdf 155: *Note*: Before you write the boot images to floppies, you should always check
156: that the floppies are good: this simple step is often overlooked, but can save
1.1 jdf 157: you a lot of trouble!
159: The procedure to write floppies is:
161: 1. Format the floppy.
162: 2. Go to the `I386\INSTALLATION\FLOPPY` directory of the CD-ROM.
1.3 jdf 163: 3. Run the `..\MISC\RAWRITE` program (or extract `..\MISC\RAWR32.ZIP` if
1.2 jdf 164: you're on a Windows system, and run the RAWRITE32 program in that file).
165: Usually the `Source file`s are `BOOT1.FS` and `BOOT2.FS` and the
1.1 jdf 166: `Destination drive` is `A`:
168: To create a boot floppy in a Unix environment, the
1.5 ! plunky 169: [[!template id=man name="dd" section="1"]]
1.1 jdf 170: command can be used: For example:
172: # cd i386/installation/floppy
173: # dd if=boot.fs of=/dev/fd0a bs=36b
1.2 jdf 175: *Note*: A 1440K floppy contains 1474560 bytes and is made up of 80 cylinders, 2
176: tracks, 18 sectors and 512 bytes per sector, i.e., 80 \* 2 \* 18 = 2880 blocks.
177: Thus `bs=36b` copies one cylinder (18 \* 2 blocks) at a time and repeats the
1.1 jdf 178: operation 80 times instead of 2880.
180: ## Checklist
182: This is the checklist about the things that should be clear and on-hand now:
184: * Available disk space
185: * Bootable medium with the install system
186: * CD/DVD or server with the distribution sets
1.2 jdf 187: * Your network information (only if you will be fetching distribution sets via
1.1 jdf 188: the network and do not use DHCP)
189: * A working backup
190: * A printout of the INSTALL document
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