Annotation of wikisrc/guide/inst.mdwn, revision 1.1

1.1     ! jdf         1: # Installing NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations
        !             2: 
        !             3: ## Preliminary considerations
        !             4: 
        !             5: ### Dual booting
        !             6: 
        !             7: It is possible to install NetBSD together with other operating systems on one 
        !             8: hard disk.
        !             9: 
        !            10: If there is already an operating system on the hard disk, think about how you 
        !            11: can free some space for NetBSD; if NetBSD will share the disk with other 
        !            12: operating systems you will probably need to create a new partition (which you 
        !            13: will do with sysinst). Often times this will not be possible unless you resize 
        !            14: an existing partition.
        !            15: 
        !            16: Unfortunately, it is not possible to resize an existing partition with sysinst, 
        !            17: but there are some commercial products (like Partition Magic) and some free 
        !            18: tools (GNU Parted, FIPS, pfdisk) available for this.
        !            19: 
        !            20: You can also install NetBSD on a separate hard disk.
        !            21: 
        !            22: *Advice*: Unless you are comfortable with setting up a partitioning scheme for 
        !            23: two or more operating systems, and unless you understand the risk of data loss 
        !            24: if you should make a mistake, it is recommended that you give NetBSD its own 
        !            25: hard disk. This removes the risk of damage to the existing operating system.
        !            26: 
        !            27: ### NetBSD on emulation and virtualization
        !            28: 
        !            29: It is possible to install and run NetBSD on top of other operating systems 
        !            30: without having to worry about partitioning. Emulators or virtualization 
        !            31: environments provide a quick and secure way to try out NetBSD. The host 
        !            32: operating system remains unchanged, and the risk of damaging important data is 
        !            33: minimized.
        !            34: 
        !            35: Information about NetBSD as a Xen host and guest system is available on the 
        !            36: [NetBSD/xen web page](http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/xen/).
        !            37: 
        !            38: The [NetBSD on emulated hardware](http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/emulators.html) 
        !            39: web page provides detailed information about various emulators and the supported 
        !            40: NetBSD platforms. It should also be noted that NetBSD runs as a VMware guest.
        !            41: 
        !            42: ## Install preparations
        !            43: 
        !            44: ### The INSTALL document
        !            45: 
        !            46: The first thing to do before installing NetBSD is to read the release 
        !            47: information and installation notes in one of the `INSTALL` files: this is the 
        !            48: official description of the installation procedure, with platform-specific 
        !            49: information and important details. It is available in HTML, PostScript, plain 
        !            50: text, and an enhanced text format to be used with more. These files can be found 
        !            51: in the root directory of the NetBSD release (on the install CD or on the FTP 
        !            52: server). For example (replacing `6.1` with your release number, and `port` with 
        !            53: your port):
        !            54: 
        !            55:     ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-6.1/port/INSTALL.html
        !            56: 
        !            57: ### Partitions
        !            58: 
        !            59: The terminology used by NetBSD for partitioning is different from the typical 
        !            60: DOS/Windows terminology; in fact, there are two partitioning schemes involved 
        !            61: when running NetBSD on a typical PC. NetBSD installs in one of the four primary 
        !            62: BIOS partitions (the partitions defined in the hard disk partition table).
        !            63: 
        !            64: Within a BIOS partition (also called *slice*) NetBSD defines its BSD partitions 
        !            65: using a *disklabel*: these partitions can be seen only by NetBSD and are 
        !            66: identified by lowercase letters (starting with `a`). For example, wd0a refers to 
        !            67: the `a` partition of the first IDE disk (wd0) and sd0a refers to the `a` 
        !            68: partition of the first SCSI disk. In the following figure, there are two primary 
        !            69: BIOS partitions, one used by DOS and the other by NetBSD. NetBSD describes the 
        !            70: disk layout through the disklabel.
        !            71: 
        !            72: ![Partitions](/guide/images/part.gif)
        !            73: 
        !            74: *Note*: The meaning of partitions `c` and `d` is typical of the i386 port. On 
        !            75: most other ports, `c` represents the whole disk.
        !            76: 
        !            77: *Note*: If NetBSD shares the hard disk with another operating system (like in 
        !            78: the previous example) you will want to install a *boot manager*, i.e., a program 
        !            79: which lets you choose which OS to start at boot time. sysinst can do this for 
        !            80: you and will ask if you want to install one. Unless you have specific reasons 
        !            81: not to, you should let sysinst perform this step.
        !            82: 
        !            83: ### Hard disk space requirements
        !            84: 
        !            85: The exact amount of space required for a given NetBSD installation varies 
        !            86: depending on the platform being used and which distribution sets are selected. 
        !            87: In general, if you have 1GB of free space on your hard drive, you will have more 
        !            88: than enough space for a full installation of the base system.
        !            89: 
        !            90: ### Network settings
        !            91: 
        !            92: If you plan to fetch distribution sets over the network (not necessary if you 
        !            93: downloaded a full-size install ISO) and do not use DHCP, write down your basic 
        !            94: network settings. You will need:
        !            95: 
        !            96:  * Your IP address (example: 192.168.1.7)
        !            97:  * the netmask (example: 255.255.255.0)
        !            98:  * the IP address of your default gateway (example: 192.168.1.1)
        !            99:  * the IP address of the DNS server you use (example: 145.253.2.75)
        !           100: 
        !           101: ### Backup your data and operating systems!
        !           102: 
        !           103: Before you begin the installation, make sure that you have a reliable backup of 
        !           104: any operating systems and data on the used hard disk. Mistakes in partitioning 
        !           105: your hard disk can lead to data loss. Existing operating systems may become 
        !           106: unbootable. "Reliable backup" means that the backup and restore procedure is 
        !           107: tested and works flawlessly!
        !           108: 
        !           109: ### Preparing the installation media
        !           110: 
        !           111: The NetBSD installation system consists of two parts. The first part is the 
        !           112: installation kernel. This kernel contains the NetBSD install program sysinst and 
        !           113: it is booted from a CD (or DVD), memory card, USB flash drive, or floppy disk. 
        !           114: The sysinst program will prepare the disk: it separates the disk space into 
        !           115: partitions, makes the disk bootable and creates the necessary file systems.
        !           116: 
        !           117: The second part of the install system is made up of the binary distribution 
        !           118: sets: the files of the NetBSD operating system. The installer needs to have 
        !           119: access to the distribution sets. sysinst will usually fetch these files from the 
        !           120: CD or DVD you burned, but it can also get them via FTP, NFS, or local 
        !           121: filesystem.
        !           122: 
        !           123: The NetBSD Project provides complete install media for every supported hardware 
        !           124: architecture. This is usually in the form of bootable CD images (`.iso` files). 
        !           125: For example (replacing `6.1` with the release you want to install):
        !           126: 
        !           127:     ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/6.1/
        !           128: 
        !           129: *Note*: To improve net flow, and especially download speed, you should have a 
        !           130: look at the [list of mirrors](http://NetBSD.org/mirrors/#iso) and choose a local 
        !           131: server near you.
        !           132: 
        !           133: #### Booting the install system from CD
        !           134: 
        !           135: To use a bootable NetBSD install CD download the `iso` file for your hardware 
        !           136: architecture and burn it to a CD or DVD. You will need to handle this step 
        !           137: alone, as burning programs vary widely. Ensure that your computer is set up to 
        !           138: boot from CD-ROM before hard drives, insert the disc, and reboot the computer.
        !           139: 
        !           140: #### Booting the install system from floppy
        !           141: 
        !           142: If you need to create installation floppies, you need to copy floppy images to a 
        !           143: diskette. The floppy images are available on the NetBSD FTP servers or on a 
        !           144: NetBSD install CD. To perform this operation in DOS you can use the rawrite 
        !           145: program in the `i386/installation/misc` directory. For Windows, there's a 
        !           146: version in `rawr32.zip`. The image files are `i386/installation/floppy/boot1.fs` 
        !           147: and `i386/installation/floppy/boot2.fs` for installation of a "normal" PC. The 
        !           148: other floppies that are available are described in more detail in the `INSTALL` 
        !           149: document.
        !           150: 
        !           151: *Note*: Before you write the boot images to floppies, you should always check 
        !           152: that the floppies are good: this simple step is often overlooked, but can save 
        !           153: you a lot of trouble!
        !           154: 
        !           155: The procedure to write floppies is:
        !           156: 
        !           157:  1. Format the floppy.
        !           158:  2. Go to the `I386\INSTALLATION\FLOPPY` directory of the CD-ROM.
        !           159:  3. Run the **`..\MISC\RAWRITE`** program (or extract `..\MISC\RAWR32.ZIP` if 
        !           160:     you're on a Windows system, and run the RAWRITE32 program in that file). 
        !           161:        Usually the `Source file`s are `BOOT1.FS` and `BOOT2.FS` and the 
        !           162:        `Destination drive` is `A`:
        !           163: 
        !           164: To create a boot floppy in a Unix environment, the
        !           165: [dd(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?dd+1+NetBSD-current)
        !           166: command can be used: For example:
        !           167: 
        !           168:     # cd i386/installation/floppy
        !           169:     # dd if=boot.fs of=/dev/fd0a bs=36b
        !           170: 
        !           171: *Note*: A 1440K floppy contains 1474560 bytes and is made up of 80 cylinders, 2 
        !           172: tracks, 18 sectors and 512 bytes per sector, i.e., 80 \* 2 \* 18 = 2880 blocks. 
        !           173: Thus `bs=36b` copies one cylinder (18 \* 2 blocks) at a time and repeats the 
        !           174: operation 80 times instead of 2880.
        !           175: 
        !           176: ## Checklist
        !           177: 
        !           178: This is the checklist about the things that should be clear and on-hand now:
        !           179: 
        !           180:  * Available disk space
        !           181:  * Bootable medium with the install system
        !           182:  * CD/DVD or server with the distribution sets
        !           183:  * Your network information (only if you will be fetching distribution sets via 
        !           184:    the network and do not use DHCP)
        !           185:  * A working backup
        !           186:  * A printout of the INSTALL document
        !           187: 

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