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# The NetBSD Guide

## Purpose of this guide

This guide describes the installation and the configuration of the NetBSD
operating system as well as the setup and administration of some of its
subsystems. It primarily addresses people coming from other Unix-like operating
systems, and aims to be a useful guide in the face of the many small problems
one encounters when using a new tool.

This guide is not a Unix tutorial: basic knowledge of some concepts and tools
is assumed. You should know, for example, what a file and a directory are, and
how to use an editor. There are plenty of books explaining basic Unix and
operating system concepts, and you should consult one if you need more
background information. It is better to choose a general book and avoid titles
like "Learning Unix-XYZ, version 1.2.3.4 in 10 days", but this is a matter of
personal taste.

Originally, the guide has been a book, which was subsequently moved to the wiki
to make it easier to contribute.

If you have additions or comments to the guide, but don't want to create an
account, feel free to post your submissions to the
[www team](mailto:www@netbsd.org) or the
[docs mailing list](netbsd-docs@netbsd.org). The text is maintained in
Markdown, and you can use the button in the top right corner to show the source
of an article.

## Table of Contents

***I. About NetBSD***

 * [[1. What is NetBSD?|guide/intro]]
   * [[1.1. The story of NetBSD]]
   * [[1.2. NetBSD features]]
   * [[1.3. Supported platforms]]
   * [[1.4. NetBSD's target users]]
   * [[1.5. Applications for NetBSD]]
   * [[1.6. How to get NetBSD]]

***II. System installation and related issues***


***III. System configuration, administration and tuning***

 * [[4. Upgrading NetBSD|guide/upgrading]]
   * [[4.1. Using sysinst]]
   * [[4.2. Using sysupgrade]]
 * [[5. The first steps on NetBSD|guide/boot]]
   * [[5.1. Troubleshooting]]
   * [[5.2. The man command]]
   * [[5.3. Editing configuration files]]
   * [[5.4. Login]]
   * [[5.5. Changing the `root` password]]
   * [[5.6. Adding users]]
   * [[5.7. Shadow passwords]]
   * [[5.8. Changing the keyboard layout]]
   * [[5.9. System time]]
   * [[5.10. Secure Shell ssh(1)]]
   * [[5.11. Basic configuration in `/etc/rc.conf`]]
   * [[5.12. Basic network settings]]
   * [[5.13. Mounting a CD-ROM]]
   * [[5.14. Mounting a floppy]]
   * [[5.15. Installing additional software]]
   * [[5.16. Security alerts]]
   * [[5.17. Stopping and rebooting the system]]
 * [[7. The rc.d System|guide/rc]]
   * [[7.1. Basics]]
   * [[7.2. The rc.d scripts]]
   * [[7.3. Order/dependencies of start determined by rcorder]]
   * [[7.4. rc.d scripts of additional services]]
   * [[7.5. Additional Reading]]
 * [[9. X|guide/x]]
   * [[9.1. What is X?]]
   * [[9.2. Configuration]]
   * [[9.3. The mouse]]
   * [[9.4. The keyboard]]
   * [[9.5. The monitor]]
   * [[9.6. The video card]]
   * [[9.7. Starting X]]
   * [[9.8. Customizing X]]
   * [[9.9. Other window managers or desktop environments]]
   * [[9.10. Graphical login with xdm]]
 * [[11. Audio|guide/audio]]
   * [[11.1. Basic hardware elements]]
   * [[11.2. Supported audio cards]]
   * [[11.3. BIOS settings]]
   * [[11.4. Configuring the audio device]]
   * [[11.5. Multiple audio devices]]
   * [[11.6. Configuring the kernel audio devices]]
   * [[11.7. Advanced commands]]
 * [[19. Tuning NetBSD|guide/tuning]]
   * [[19.1. Introduction]]
   * [[19.2. Tuning Considerations]]
   * [[19.3. Visual Monitoring Tools]]
   * [[19.4. Monitoring Tools]]
   * [[19.5. Network Tools]]
   * [[19.6. Accounting]]
   * [[19.7. Kernel Profiling]]
   * [[19.8. System Tuning]]
   * [[19.9. Kernel Tuning]]
 * [[20. NetBSD Veriexec subsystem|guide/veriexec]]
   * [[20.1. How it works]]
   * [[20.2. Signatures file]]
   * [[20.3. Strict levels]]
   * [[20.4. Veriexec and layered file systems]]
   * [[20.5. Kernel configuration]]

***IV. Networking and related issues***

 * [[25. The Internet Super Server inetd|guide/inetd]]
   * [[25.1. Overview]]
   * [[25.2. What is inetd?]]
   * [[25.3. Configuring inetd - `/etc/inetd.conf`]]
   * [[25.4. Services - `/etc/services`]]
   * [[25.5. Protocols - `/etc/protocols`]]
   * [[25.6. Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) - `/etc/rpc`]]
   * [[25.7. Allowing and denying hosts - `/etc/hosts.{allow,deny}`]]
   * [[25.8. Adding a Service]]
   * [[25.9. When to use or not to use inetd]]
   * [[25.10. Other Resources]]

***V. Building the system***

 * [[32. Compiling the kernel|guide/kernel]]
   * [[32.1. Requirements and procedure]]
   * [[32.2. Installing the kernel sources]]
   * [[32.3. Creating the kernel configuration file]]
   * [[32.4. Building the kernel manually]]
   * [[32.5. Building the kernel using `build.sh`]]
   * [[32.6. Installing the new kernel]]
   * [[32.7. If something went wrong]]
 * [[33. Updating an existing system from sources|guide/updating]]
   * [[33.1. Manual build and update procedure]]
   * [[33.2. Using sysinst]]
   * [[33.3. Using sysbuild and sysupgrade]]
   * [[33.4. More details about the updating of configuration and startup files]]

## Guide history

This guide was born as a collection of sparse notes that Federico Lupi, the
original author of the NetBSD Guide, wrote mostly for himself. When he realized
that they could be useful to other NetBSD users he started collecting them and
created the first version of the guide using the groff formatter. In order to
"easily" get a wider variety of output formats (e.g. HTML and
PostScript/PDF), he made the "mistake" of moving to SGML/DocBook, which
is the current format of the sources. Maintainership was picked up by the NetBSD
project and its developers later, and the format was changed to XML/DocBook
later due to better tools and slightly more knowhow on customisations.

In 2012/2013, the guide was converted by XXX (Wang - wmzhere) to Markdown and
integrated into the NetBSD wiki. Along with the conversion, old chapters were
removed, the numbering scheme was restricted to the table of contents and soem
reformulations were done.

You can still get the old version of the Guide at XXX

## Bibliography

* [AeleenFrisch] Aeleen Frisch. Copyright © 1991. O'Reilly & Associates. *Essential System Administration*.
* [CraigHunt] Craig Hunt. Copyright © 1993. O'Reilly & Associates. *TCP/IP Network Administration*.
* [RFC1034] P. V. Mockapetris. Copyright © 1987. *RFC 1034: Domain names - concepts and facilities*.
* [RFC1035] P. V. Mockapetris. Copyright © 1987. *RFC 1035: Domain names - implementation and specification*.
* [RFC1055] J. L. Romkey. Copyright © 1988. *RFC 1055: Nonstandard for transmission of IP datagrams over serial lines: SLIP*.
* [RFC1331] W. Simpson. Copyright © 1992. *RFC 1331: The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) for the Transmission of Multi-protocol Datagrams over Point-to-Point Links*.
* [RFC1332] G. McGregor. Copyright © 1992. *RFC 1332: The PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP)*.
* [RFC1933] R. Gilligan and E. Nordmark. Copyright © 1996. *RFC 1933: Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers*.
* [RFC2004] C. Perkins. Copyright © 1996. *RFC 2003: IP Encapsulation within IP*.
* [RFC2401] S. Kent and R. Atkinson. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2401: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol*.
* [RFC2411] R. Thayer, N. Doraswamy, and R. Glenn. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2411: IP Security Document Roadmap*.
* [RFC2461] T. Narten, E. Nordmark, and W. Simpson. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2461: Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)*.
* [RFC2529] B. Carpenter and C. Jung. Copyright © 1999. *RFC 2529: Transmission of IPv6 over IPv4 Domains without Explicit Tunnels*.
* [RFC3024] G. Montenegro. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3024: Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP*.
* [RFC3027] M. Holdrege and P. Srisuresh. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3027: Protocol Complications with the IP Network Address Translator*.
* [RFC3056] B. Carpenter and K. Moore. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3056: Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds*.

## Acknowledgements

The NetBSD Guide was originally written by Federico Lupi who managed the
sources, coordinated updates, and merged all contributions on his own. Since
then, it has been updated and maintained by the NetBSD www team. The Guide has
progressed thanks to the contributions of many people who have volunteered their
time and effort, supplied material and sent in suggestions and corrections.

### Original acknowledgements

Federico's original credits are:

* Paulo Aukar
* Grant Beattie, converted to XML DocBook.
* Manolo De Santis, Audio Chapter
* Eric Delcamp, Boot Floppies
* Hubert Feyrer, who contributed
[[Introduction to TCP/IP Networking|guide/net-intro]] including Next
generation Internet protocol - IPv6 and the section
[[IPv6 Connectivity & Transition via 6to4|guide/net-practice#ipv6-6to4]]
He also helped with the SGML to XML transition.
* Jason R. Fink
* Daniel de Kok, audio and linux chapters fixes.
* Reinoud Koornstra, CVS chapter and rebuilding `/dev` in the Misc chapter.
* Brian A. Seklecki [lavalamp@burghcom.com](mailto:lavalamp@burghcom.com), who
contributed the CCD Chapter.
* Guillain Seuillot
* Martti Kuparinen, RAIDframe documentation.
* David Magda

### Current acknowledgements

This document is currently maintained by the NetBSD www team. Thanks to their
efforts, the document is kept up to date and available online at all times. In
addition, special thanks go to (in alphabetical order):

* Hubert Feyrer, for getting the guide up to speed for NetBSD 2.0, and for
making numerous improvements to all chapters.
* Jason R. Fink, for maintaining this document and integrating changes.
* Andreas Hallman, for his information in
[[Tunneling 6to4 through an IPFilter firewall|guide/net-practice#chap-net-practice-ipv6-6to4-ipf]]
* Joel Knight for the
[[Introduction to the Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP)|guide/carp]].
See below for for the accompanying license.
* Daniel de Kok, for constant contributions of new chapters, maintenance of
existing chapters and his translation work.
* Hiroki Sato, for allowing us to build PDF and PS versions of this document.
* Jan Schaumann, for maintenance work and `www/htdocs` management.
* Lubomir Sedlacik, for some details on using CGD for swap in
[[Suggestions and Warnings|guide/cgd#suggestions]]
* Dag-Erling Smrgrav, for the article on
[[Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)|guide/pam]]. See below for the
accompanying license.
* Florian Sthr, for
[[Example: encrypted CDs/DVDs|guide/cgd#cryptocds]]


### Licenses

#### Federico Lupi's original license of this guide

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must
display the following acknowledgement: This product includes software developed
by Federico Lupi for the NetBSD Project.
4. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products
derived from this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT
OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY
OF SUCH DAMAGE.

#### Networks Associates Technology's license on the PAM article

Copyright (c) 2001-2003 Networks Associates Technology, Inc.
All rights reserved.
This software was developed for the FreeBSD Project by ThinkSec AS and
Network Associates Laboratories, the Security Research Division of
Network Associates, Inc.  under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
("CBOSS"), as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote
products derived from this software without specific prior written
permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGE.

#### Joel Knight's license on the CARP article

Copyright (c) 2005 Joel Knight <enabled@myrealbox.com>
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this documentation for
any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the
above copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
THE DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL
WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS DOCUMENTATION INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR
PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER
TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
PERFORMANCE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION

#### The NetBSD Developers

Copyright  1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 Federico Lupi

Copyright  2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 The NetBSD Foundation

All brand and product names used in this guide are or may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.

NetBSD is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.

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