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 * fix typo in index_bare
 * move CARP chapter from guide to wiki

    1: 
    2: # The NetBSD Guide
    3: 
    4: ## Purpose of this guide
    5: 
    6: This guide describes the installation and the configuration of the NetBSD
    7: operating system as well as the setup and administration of some of its
    8: subsystems. It primarily addresses people coming from other Unix-like operating
    9: systems, and aims to be a useful guide in the face of the many small problems
   10: one encounters when using a new tool.
   11: 
   12: This guide is not a Unix tutorial: basic knowledge of some concepts and tools
   13: is assumed. You should know, for example, what a file and a directory are, and
   14: how to use an editor. There are plenty of books explaining basic Unix and
   15: operating system concepts, and you should consult one if you need more
   16: background information. It is better to choose a general book and avoid titles
   17: like "Learning Unix-XYZ, version 1.2.3.4 in 10 days", but this is a matter of
   18: personal taste.
   19: 
   20: Originally, the guide has been a book, which was subsequently moved to the wiki
   21: to make it easier to contribute.
   22: 
   23: If you have additions or comments to the guide, but don't want to create an
   24: account, feel free to post your submissions to the
   25: [www team](mailto:www@netbsd.org) or the
   26: [docs mailing list](netbsd-docs@netbsd.org). The text is maintained in
   27: Markdown, and you can use the button in the top right corner to show the source
   28: of an article.
   29: 
   30: ## Table of Contents
   31: 
   32: ***I. About NetBSD***
   33: 
   34:  * [[1. What is NetBSD?|guide/intro]]
   35:    * [[1.1. The story of NetBSD]]
   36:    * [[1.2. NetBSD features]]
   37:    * [[1.3. Supported platforms]]
   38:    * [[1.4. NetBSD's target users]]
   39:    * [[1.5. Applications for NetBSD]]
   40:    * [[1.6. How to get NetBSD]]
   41: 
   42: ***II. System installation and related issues***
   43: 
   44: 
   45: ***III. System configuration, administration and tuning***
   46: 
   47:  * [[4. Upgrading NetBSD|guide/upgrading]]
   48:    * [[4.1. Using sysinst]]
   49:    * [[4.2. Using sysupgrade]]
   50:  * [[5. The first steps on NetBSD|guide/boot]]
   51:    * [[5.1. Troubleshooting]]
   52:    * [[5.2. The man command]]
   53:    * [[5.3. Editing configuration files]]
   54:    * [[5.4. Login]]
   55:    * [[5.5. Changing the `root` password]]
   56:    * [[5.6. Adding users]]
   57:    * [[5.7. Shadow passwords]]
   58:    * [[5.8. Changing the keyboard layout]]
   59:    * [[5.9. System time]]
   60:    * [[5.10. Secure Shell ssh(1)]]
   61:    * [[5.11. Basic configuration in `/etc/rc.conf`]]
   62:    * [[5.12. Basic network settings]]
   63:    * [[5.13. Mounting a CD-ROM]]
   64:    * [[5.14. Mounting a floppy]]
   65:    * [[5.15. Installing additional software]]
   66:    * [[5.16. Security alerts]]
   67:    * [[5.17. Stopping and rebooting the system]]
   68:  * [[7. The rc.d System|guide/rc]]
   69:    * [[7.1. Basics]]
   70:    * [[7.2. The rc.d scripts]]
   71:    * [[7.3. Order/dependencies of start determined by rcorder]]
   72:    * [[7.4. rc.d scripts of additional services]]
   73:    * [[7.5. Additional Reading]]
   74:  * [[9. X|guide/x]]
   75:    * [[9.1. What is X?]]
   76:    * [[9.2. Configuration]]
   77:    * [[9.3. The mouse]]
   78:    * [[9.4. The keyboard]]
   79:    * [[9.5. The monitor]]
   80:    * [[9.6. The video card]]
   81:    * [[9.7. Starting X]]
   82:    * [[9.8. Customizing X]]
   83:    * [[9.9. Other window managers or desktop environments]]
   84:    * [[9.10. Graphical login with xdm]]
   85:  * [[11. Audio|guide/audio]]
   86:    * [[11.1. Basic hardware elements]]
   87:    * [[11.2. Supported audio cards]]
   88:    * [[11.3. BIOS settings]]
   89:    * [[11.4. Configuring the audio device]]
   90:    * [[11.5. Multiple audio devices]]
   91:    * [[11.6. Configuring the kernel audio devices]]
   92:    * [[11.7. Advanced commands]]
   93:  * [[19. Tuning NetBSD|guide/tuning]]
   94:    * [[19.1. Introduction]]
   95:    * [[19.2. Tuning Considerations]]
   96:    * [[19.3. Visual Monitoring Tools]]
   97:    * [[19.4. Monitoring Tools]]
   98:    * [[19.5. Network Tools]]
   99:    * [[19.6. Accounting]]
  100:    * [[19.7. Kernel Profiling]]
  101:    * [[19.8. System Tuning]]
  102:    * [[19.9. Kernel Tuning]]
  103:  * [[20. NetBSD Veriexec subsystem|guide/veriexec]]
  104:    * [[20.1. How it works]]
  105:    * [[20.2. Signatures file]]
  106:    * [[20.3. Strict levels]]
  107:    * [[20.4. Veriexec and layered file systems]]
  108:    * [[20.5. Kernel configuration]]
  109: 
  110: ***IV. Networking and related issues***
  111: 
  112:  * [[25. The Internet Super Server inetd|guide/inetd]]
  113:    * [[25.1. Overview]]
  114:    * [[25.2. What is inetd?]]
  115:    * [[25.3. Configuring inetd - `/etc/inetd.conf`]]
  116:    * [[25.4. Services - `/etc/services`]]
  117:    * [[25.5. Protocols - `/etc/protocols`]]
  118:    * [[25.6. Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) - `/etc/rpc`]]
  119:    * [[25.7. Allowing and denying hosts - `/etc/hosts.{allow,deny}`]]
  120:    * [[25.8. Adding a Service]]
  121:    * [[25.9. When to use or not to use inetd]]
  122:    * [[25.10. Other Resources]]
  123:  * [[28. Introduction to the Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP)|guide/carp]]
  124:    * [[28.1. CARP Operation]]
  125:    * [[28.2. Configuring CARP]]
  126:    * [[28.3. Enabling CARP Support]]
  127:    * [[28.4. CARP Example]]
  128:    * [[28.5. Advanced CARP configuration]]
  129:    * [[28.6. Forcing Failover of the Master]]
  130:    * [[28.7. License]]
  131: 
  132: ***V. Building the system***
  133: 
  134:  * [[32. Compiling the kernel|guide/kernel]]
  135:    * [[32.1. Requirements and procedure]]
  136:    * [[32.2. Installing the kernel sources]]
  137:    * [[32.3. Creating the kernel configuration file]]
  138:    * [[32.4. Building the kernel manually]]
  139:    * [[32.5. Building the kernel using `build.sh`]]
  140:    * [[32.6. Installing the new kernel]]
  141:    * [[32.7. If something went wrong]]
  142:  * [[33. Updating an existing system from sources|guide/updating]]
  143:    * [[33.1. Manual build and update procedure]]
  144:    * [[33.2. Using sysinst]]
  145:    * [[33.3. Using sysbuild and sysupgrade]]
  146:    * [[33.4. More details about the updating of configuration and startup files]]
  147: 
  148: ## Guide history
  149: 
  150: This guide was born as a collection of sparse notes that Federico Lupi, the
  151: original author of the NetBSD Guide, wrote mostly for himself. When he realized
  152: that they could be useful to other NetBSD users he started collecting them and
  153: created the first version of the guide using the groff formatter. In order to
  154: "easily" get a wider variety of output formats (e.g. HTML and
  155: PostScript/PDF), he made the "mistake" of moving to SGML/DocBook, which
  156: was the format of the sources. Maintainership was picked up by the NetBSD
  157: project and its developers later, and the format was changed to XML/DocBook
  158: later due to better tools and slightly more knowhow on customisations.
  159: 
  160: In 2012/2013, the guide was converted by XXX (Wang - wmzhere) to Markdown and
  161: integrated into the NetBSD wiki. Along with the conversion, old chapters were
  162: removed, the numbering scheme was restricted to the table of contents and soem
  163: reformulations were done.
  164: 
  165: You can still get the old version of the Guide at XXX
  166: 
  167: ## Bibliography
  168: 
  169: * [AeleenFrisch] Aeleen Frisch. Copyright © 1991. O'Reilly & Associates. *Essential System Administration*.
  170: * [CraigHunt] Craig Hunt. Copyright © 1993. O'Reilly & Associates. *TCP/IP Network Administration*.
  171: * [RFC1034] P. V. Mockapetris. Copyright © 1987. *RFC 1034: Domain names - concepts and facilities*.
  172: * [RFC1035] P. V. Mockapetris. Copyright © 1987. *RFC 1035: Domain names - implementation and specification*.
  173: * [RFC1055] J. L. Romkey. Copyright © 1988. *RFC 1055: Nonstandard for transmission of IP datagrams over serial lines: SLIP*.
  174: * [RFC1331] W. Simpson. Copyright © 1992. *RFC 1331: The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) for the Transmission of Multi-protocol Datagrams over Point-to-Point Links*.
  175: * [RFC1332] G. McGregor. Copyright © 1992. *RFC 1332: The PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP)*.
  176: * [RFC1933] R. Gilligan and E. Nordmark. Copyright © 1996. *RFC 1933: Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers*.
  177: * [RFC2004] C. Perkins. Copyright © 1996. *RFC 2003: IP Encapsulation within IP*.
  178: * [RFC2401] S. Kent and R. Atkinson. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2401: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol*.
  179: * [RFC2411] R. Thayer, N. Doraswamy, and R. Glenn. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2411: IP Security Document Roadmap*.
  180: * [RFC2461] T. Narten, E. Nordmark, and W. Simpson. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2461: Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)*.
  181: * [RFC2529] B. Carpenter and C. Jung. Copyright © 1999. *RFC 2529: Transmission of IPv6 over IPv4 Domains without Explicit Tunnels*.
  182: * [RFC3024] G. Montenegro. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3024: Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP*.
  183: * [RFC3027] M. Holdrege and P. Srisuresh. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3027: Protocol Complications with the IP Network Address Translator*.
  184: * [RFC3056] B. Carpenter and K. Moore. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3056: Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds*.
  185: 
  186: ## Acknowledgements
  187: 
  188: The NetBSD Guide was originally written by Federico Lupi who managed the
  189: sources, coordinated updates, and merged all contributions on his own. Since
  190: then, it has been updated and maintained by the NetBSD www team. The Guide has
  191: progressed thanks to the contributions of many people who have volunteered their
  192: time and effort, supplied material and sent in suggestions and corrections.
  193: 
  194: ### Original acknowledgements
  195: 
  196: Federico's original credits are:
  197: 
  198: * Paulo Aukar
  199: * Grant Beattie, converted to XML DocBook.
  200: * Manolo De Santis, Audio Chapter
  201: * Eric Delcamp, Boot Floppies
  202: * Hubert Feyrer, who contributed
  203: [[Introduction to TCP/IP Networking|guide/net-intro]] including Next
  204: generation Internet protocol - IPv6 and the section
  205: [[IPv6 Connectivity & Transition via 6to4|guide/net-practice#ipv6-6to4]]
  206: He also helped with the SGML to XML transition.
  207: * Jason R. Fink
  208: * Daniel de Kok, audio and linux chapters fixes.
  209: * Reinoud Koornstra, CVS chapter and rebuilding `/dev` in the Misc chapter.
  210: * Brian A. Seklecki [lavalamp@burghcom.com](mailto:lavalamp@burghcom.com), who
  211: contributed the CCD Chapter.
  212: * Guillain Seuillot
  213: * Martti Kuparinen, RAIDframe documentation.
  214: * David Magda
  215: 
  216: ### Current acknowledgements
  217: 
  218: This document is currently maintained by the NetBSD www team. Thanks to their
  219: efforts, the document is kept up to date and available online at all times. In
  220: addition, special thanks go to (in alphabetical order):
  221: 
  222: * Hubert Feyrer, for getting the guide up to speed for NetBSD 2.0, and for
  223: making numerous improvements to all chapters.
  224: * Jason R. Fink, for maintaining this document and integrating changes.
  225: * Andreas Hallman, for his information in
  226: [[Tunneling 6to4 through an IPFilter firewall|guide/net-practice#chap-net-practice-ipv6-6to4-ipf]]
  227: * Joel Knight for the
  228: [[Introduction to the Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP)|guide/carp]].
  229: See below for for the accompanying license.
  230: * Daniel de Kok, for constant contributions of new chapters, maintenance of
  231: existing chapters and his translation work.
  232: * Hiroki Sato, for allowing us to build PDF and PS versions of this document.
  233: * Jan Schaumann, for maintenance work and `www/htdocs` management.
  234: * Lubomir Sedlacik, for some details on using CGD for swap in
  235: [[Suggestions and Warnings|guide/cgd#suggestions]]
  236: * Dag-Erling Smrgrav, for the article on
  237: [[Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)|guide/pam]]. See below for the
  238: accompanying license.
  239: * Florian Sthr, for
  240: [[Example: encrypted CDs/DVDs|guide/cgd#cryptocds]]
  241: 
  242: 
  243: ### Licenses
  244: 
  245: #### Federico Lupi's original license of this guide
  246: 
  247: Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
  248: are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
  249: 
  250: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
  251: list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  252: 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
  253: this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
  254: and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  255: 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must
  256: display the following acknowledgement: This product includes software developed
  257: by Federico Lupi for the NetBSD Project.
  258: 4. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products
  259: derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
  260: 
  261: THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
  262: WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
  263: MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
  264: SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
  265: EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT
  266: OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
  267: INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
  268: CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
  269: IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY
  270: OF SUCH DAMAGE.
  271: 
  272: #### Networks Associates Technology's license on the PAM article
  273: 
  274: Copyright (c) 2001-2003 Networks Associates Technology, Inc.
  275: All rights reserved.
  276: This software was developed for the FreeBSD Project by ThinkSec AS and
  277: Network Associates Laboratories, the Security Research Division of
  278: Network Associates, Inc.  under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
  279: ("CBOSS"), as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
  280: Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
  281: modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
  282: are met:
  283: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
  284: notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  285: 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
  286: notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
  287: documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  288: 3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote
  289: products derived from this software without specific prior written
  290: permission.
  291: THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
  292: ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
  293: IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
  294: ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
  295: FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
  296: DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
  297: OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
  298: HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
  299: LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
  300: OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
  301: SUCH DAMAGE.
  302: 
  303: #### Joel Knight's license on the CARP article
  304: 
  305: Copyright (c) 2005 Joel Knight <enabled@myrealbox.com>
  306: Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this documentation for
  307: any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the
  308: above copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
  309: THE DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL
  310: WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS DOCUMENTATION INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED
  311: WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
  312: AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
  313: DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR
  314: PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER
  315: TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
  316: PERFORMANCE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION
  317: 
  318: #### The NetBSD Developers
  319: 
  320: Copyright  1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 Federico Lupi
  321: 
  322: Copyright  2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 The NetBSD Foundation
  323: 
  324: All brand and product names used in this guide are or may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
  325: 
  326: NetBSD is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.

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