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    1: 
    2: # The NetBSD Guide
    3: 
    4: ## Purpose of this guide
    5: 
    6: This guide describes the installation and the configuration of the NetBSD
    7: operating system as well as the setup and administration of some of its
    8: subsystems. It primarily addresses people coming from other Unix-like operating
    9: systems, and aims to be a useful guide in the face of the many small problems
   10: one encounters when using a new tool.
   11: 
   12: This guide is not a Unix tutorial: basic knowledge of some concepts and tools
   13: is assumed. You should know, for example, what a file and a directory are, and
   14: how to use an editor. There are plenty of books explaining basic Unix and
   15: operating system concepts, and you should consult one if you need more
   16: background information. It is better to choose a general book and avoid titles
   17: like "Learning Unix-XYZ, version 1.2.3.4 in 10 days", but this is a matter of
   18: personal taste.
   19: 
   20: Originally, the guide has been a book, which was subsequently moved to the wiki
   21: to make it easier to contribute.
   22: 
   23: If you have additions or comments to the guide, but don't want to create an
   24: account, feel free to post your submissions to the
   25: [www team](mailto:www@netbsd.org) or the
   26: [docs mailing list](netbsd-docs@netbsd.org). The text is maintained in
   27: Markdown, and you can use the button in the top right corner to show the source
   28: of an article.
   29: 
   30: ## Table of Contents
   31: 
   32: ***I. About NetBSD***
   33: 
   34:  * [[1. What is NetBSD?|guide/intro]]
   35:    * [[1.1. The story of NetBSD]]
   36:    * [[1.2. NetBSD features]]
   37:    * [[1.3. Supported platforms]]
   38:    * [[1.4. NetBSD's target users]]
   39:    * [[1.5. Applications for NetBSD]]
   40:    * [[1.6. How to get NetBSD]]
   41: 
   42: ***II. System installation and related issues***
   43: 
   44:  * [[2. Installing NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations|guide/inst]]
   45:    * [[2.1. Preliminary considerations]]
   46:    * [[2.2. Install preparations]]
   47:    * [[2.3. Checklist]]
   48:  * [[3. Example installation|guide/exinst]]
   49:    * [[3.1. Introduction]]
   50:    * [[3.2. The installation process]]
   51:    * [[3.3. Keyboard layout]]
   52:    * [[3.4. Starting the installation]]
   53:    * [[3.5. MBR partitions]]
   54:    * [[3.6. Disklabel partitions]]
   55:    * [[3.7. Setting the disk name]]
   56:    * [[3.8. Last chance!]]
   57:    * [[3.9. The disk preparation process]]
   58:    * [[3.10. Choosing the installation media]]
   59:    * [[3.11. Extracting sets]]
   60:    * [[3.12. System configuration]]
   61:    * [[3.13. Finishing the installation]]
   62:  * [[4. Upgrading NetBSD|guide/upgrading]]
   63:    * [[4.1. Using sysinst]]
   64:    * [[4.2. Using sysupgrade]]
   65: 
   66: ***III. System configuration, administration and tuning***
   67: 
   68:  * [[5. The first steps on NetBSD|guide/boot]]
   69:    * [[5.1. Troubleshooting]]
   70:    * [[5.2. The man command]]
   71:    * [[5.3. Editing configuration files]]
   72:    * [[5.4. Login]]
   73:    * [[5.5. Changing the root password]]
   74:    * [[5.6. Adding users]]
   75:    * [[5.7. Shadow passwords]]
   76:    * [[5.8. Changing the keyboard layout]]
   77:    * [[5.9. System time]]
   78:    * [[5.10. Secure Shell ssh(1)]]
   79:    * [[5.11. Basic configuration in /etc/rc.conf]]
   80:    * [[5.12. Basic network settings]]
   81:    * [[5.13. Mounting a CD-ROM]]
   82:    * [[5.14. Mounting a floppy]]
   83:    * [[5.15. Installing additional software]]
   84:    * [[5.16. Security alerts]]
   85:    * [[5.17. Stopping and rebooting the system]]
   86:  * [[6. Editing|guide/edit]]
   87:    * [[6.1. Introducing vi]]
   88:    * [[6.2. Configuring vi]]
   89:    * [[6.3. Using tags with vi]]
   90:  * [[7. The rc.d System|guide/rc]]
   91:    * [[7.1. Basics]]
   92:    * [[7.2. The rc.d scripts]]
   93:    * [[7.3. Order/dependencies of start determined by rcorder]]
   94:    * [[7.4. rc.d scripts of additional services]]
   95:    * [[7.5. Additional Reading]]
   96:  * [[8. Console drivers|guide/cons]]
   97:    * [[8.1. wscons]]
   98:  * [[9. X|guide/x]]
   99:    * [[9.1. What is X?]]
  100:    * [[9.2. Configuration]]
  101:    * [[9.3. The mouse]]
  102:    * [[9.4. The keyboard]]
  103:    * [[9.5. The monitor]]
  104:    * [[9.6. The video card]]
  105:    * [[9.7. Starting X]]
  106:    * [[9.8. Customizing X]]
  107:    * [[9.9. Other window managers or desktop environments]]
  108:    * [[9.10. Graphical login with xdm]]
  109:  * [[10. Linux emulation|guide/linux]]
  110:    * [[10.1. Emulation setup]]
  111:    * [[10.2. Directory structure]]
  112:    * [[10.3. Emulating /proc]]
  113:    * [[10.4. Using Linux browser plugins]]
  114:    * [[10.5. Further reading]]
  115:  * [[11. Audio|guide/audio]]
  116:    * [[11.1. Basic hardware elements]]
  117:    * [[11.2. Supported audio cards]]
  118:    * [[11.3. BIOS settings]]
  119:    * [[11.4. Configuring the audio device]]
  120:    * [[11.5. Multiple audio devices]]
  121:    * [[11.6. Configuring the kernel audio devices]]
  122:    * [[11.7. Advanced commands]]
  123:  * [[12. Printing|guide/print]]
  124:    * [[12.1. Enabling the printer daemon]]
  125:    * [[12.2. Configuring `/etc/printcap`]]
  126:    * [[12.3. Configuring Ghostscript]]
  127:    * [[12.4. Printer management commands]]
  128:    * [[12.5. Remote printing]]
  129:  * [[13. Using removable media|guide/rmmedia]]
  130:    * [[13.1. Reading data CDs with NetBSD]]
  131:    * [[13.2. Reading multi-session CDs with NetBSD]]
  132:    * [[13.3. Allowing normal users to access CDs]]
  133:    * [[13.4. Mounting an ISO image]]
  134:    * [[13.5. Using video CDs with NetBSD]]
  135:    * [[13.6. Using audio CDs with NetBSD]]
  136:    * [[13.7. Creating an MP3 (MPEG layer 3) file from an audio CD]]
  137:    * [[13.8. Using a CD-R writer with data CDs]]
  138:    * [[13.9. Using a CD-R writer to create audio CDs]]
  139:    * [[13.10. Creating an audio CD from MP3s]]
  140:    * [[13.11. Copying an audio CD]]
  141:    * [[13.12. Copying a data CD with two drives]]
  142:    * [[13.13. Using CD-RW rewritables]]
  143:    * [[13.14. DVD support]]
  144:    * [[13.15. Creating ISO images from a CD]]
  145:    * [[13.16. Getting volume information from CDs and ISO images]]
  146:    * [[13.17. Initializing and using floppy disks]]
  147:  * [[14. The cryptographic device driver (CGD)|guide/cgd]]
  148:    * [[14.1. Overview]]
  149:    * [[14.2. Components of the Crypto-Graphic Disk system]]
  150:    * [[14.3. Example: encrypting your disk]]
  151:    * [[14.4. Example: encrypted CDs/DVDs]]
  152:    * [[14.5. Suggestions and Warnings]]
  153:    * [[14.6. Further Reading]]
  154:  * [[15. Concatenated Disk Device (CCD) configuration|guide/ccd]]
  155:    * [[15.1. Install physical media]]
  156:    * [[15.2. Configure Kernel Support]]
  157:    * [[15.3. Disklabel each volume member of the CCD]]
  158:    * [[15.4. Configure the CCD]]
  159:    * [[15.5. Initialize the CCD device]]
  160:    * [[15.6. Create a 4.2BSD/UFS filesystem on the new CCD device]]
  161:    * [[15.7. Mount the filesystem]]
  162:  * [[17. NetBSD Logical Volume Manager (LVM) configuration|guide/lvm]]
  163:    * [[17.1. Anatomy of NetBSD Logical Volume Manager]]
  164:    * [[17.2. Install physical media]]
  165:    * [[17.3. Configure Kernel Support]]
  166:    * [[17.4. Configure LVM on a NetBSD system]]
  167:    * [[17.5. Disklabel each physical volume member of the LVM]]
  168:    * [[17.6. Create Physical Volumes]]
  169:    * [[17.7. Create Volume Group]]
  170:    * [[17.8. Create Logical Volume]]
  171:    * [[17.9. Example: LVM with Volume groups located on raid1]]
  172:  * [[18. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)|guide/pam]]
  173:    * [[18.1. About]]
  174:    * [[18.2. Introduction]]
  175:    * [[18.3. Terms and conventions]]
  176:    * [[18.4. PAM Essentials]]
  177:    * [[18.5. PAM Configuration]]
  178:    * [[18.6. PAM modules]]
  179:    * [[18.7. PAM Application Programming]]
  180:    * [[18.8. PAM Module Programming]]
  181:    * [[18.9. Sample PAM Application]]
  182:    * [[18.10. Sample PAM Module]]
  183:    * [[18.11. Sample PAM Conversation Function]]
  184:    * [[18.12. Further Reading]]
  185:  * [[19. Tuning NetBSD|guide/tuning]]
  186:    * [[19.1. Introduction]]
  187:    * [[19.2. Tuning Considerations]]
  188:    * [[19.3. Visual Monitoring Tools]]
  189:    * [[19.4. Monitoring Tools]]
  190:    * [[19.5. Network Tools]]
  191:    * [[19.6. Accounting]]
  192:    * [[19.7. Kernel Profiling]]
  193:    * [[19.8. System Tuning]]
  194:    * [[19.9. Kernel Tuning]]
  195:  * [[20. NetBSD Veriexec subsystem|guide/veriexec]]
  196:    * [[20.1. How it works]]
  197:    * [[20.2. Signatures file]]
  198:    * [[20.3. Strict levels]]
  199:    * [[20.4. Veriexec and layered file systems]]
  200:    * [[20.5. Kernel configuration]]
  201:  * [[21. Bluetooth on NetBSD|guide/bluetooth]]
  202:    * [[21.1. Introduction]]
  203:    * [[21.2. Supported Hardware]]
  204:    * [[21.3. System Configuration]]
  205:    * [[21.4. Human Interface Devices]]
  206:    * [[21.5. Personal Area Networking]]
  207:    * [[21.6. Serial Connections]]
  208:    * [[21.7. Audio]]
  209:    * [[21.8. Object Exchange]]
  210:    * [[21.9. Troubleshooting]]
  211:  * [[22. Miscellaneous operations|guide/misc]]
  212:    * [[22.1. Installing the boot manager]]
  213:    * [[22.2. Deleting the disklabel]]
  214:    * [[22.3. Speaker]]
  215:    * [[22.4. Forgot root password?]]
  216:    * [[22.5. Password file is busy?]]
  217:    * [[22.6. Adding a new hard disk]]
  218:    * [[22.7. How to rebuild the devices in /dev]]
  219: 
  220: ***IV. Networking and related issues***
  221: 
  222:  * [[23.|guide/net-intro]]
  223:    * [[23.1. Introduction to TCP/IP Networking]]
  224:    * [[23.2. Audience]]
  225:    * [[23.3. Supported Networking Protocols]]
  226:    * [[23.4. Supported Media]]
  227:    * [[23.5. TCP/IP Address Format]]
  228:    * [[23.6. Subnetting and Routing]]
  229:    * [[23.7. Name Service Concepts]]
  230:    * [[23.8. Next generation Internet protocol - IPv6]]
  231:  * [[24. Setting up TCP/IP on NetBSD in practice|guide/net-practice]]
  232:    * [[24.1. A walk through the kernel configuration]]
  233:    * [[24.2. Overview of the network configuration files]]
  234:    * [[24.3. Connecting to the Internet with a modem]]
  235:    * [[24.4. Creating a small home network]]
  236:    * [[24.5. Setting up an Internet gateway with IPNAT]]
  237:    * [[24.6. Setting up a network bridge device]]
  238:    * [[24.7. A common LAN setup]]
  239:    * [[24.8. Connecting two PCs through a serial line]]
  240:    * [[24.9. IPv6 Connectivity & Transition via 6to4]]
  241:  * [[25. The Internet Super Server inetd
  242:  Allowing and denying hosts - /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny|guide/inetd]]
  243:    * [[25.1. Overview]]
  244:    * [[25.2. What is inetd?]]
  245:    * [[25.3. Configuring inetd - /etc/inetd.conf]]
  246:    * [[25.4. Services - /etc/services]]
  247:    * [[25.5. Protocols - /etc/protocols]]
  248:    * [[25.6. Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) - /etc/rpc]]
  249:    * [[25.7. Adding a Service]]
  250:    * [[25.8. When to use or not to use inetd]]
  251:    * [[25.9. Other Resources]]
  252:  * [[26. The Domain Name System|guide/dns]]
  253:    * [[26.1. DNS Background and Concepts]]
  254:    * [[26.2. The DNS Files]]
  255:    * [[26.3. Using DNS]]
  256:    * [[26.4. Setting up a caching only name server]]
  257:  * [[27. Mail and news|guide/mail]]
  258:    * [[27.1. postfix]]
  259:    * [[27.2. fetchmail]]
  260:    * [[27.3. Reading and writing mail with mutt]]
  261:    * [[27.4. Strategy for receiving mail]]
  262:    * [[27.5. Strategy for sending mail]]
  263:    * [[27.6. Advanced mail tools]]
  264:    * [[27.7. News with tin]]
  265:  * [[28. Introduction to the Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP)|guide/carp]]
  266:    * [[28.1. CARP Operation]]
  267:    * [[28.2. Configuring CARP]]
  268:    * [[28.3. Enabling CARP Support]]
  269:    * [[28.4. CARP Example]]
  270:    * [[28.5. Advanced CARP configuration]]
  271:    * [[28.6. Forcing Failover of the Master]]
  272:    * [[28.7. License]]
  273:  * [[29. Network services|guide/net-services]]
  274:    * [[29.1. The Network File System (NFS)]]
  275:    * [[29.2. The Network Time Protocol (NTP)]]
  276: 
  277: ***V. Building the system***
  278: 
  279:  * [[30. Obtaining the sources|guide/fetch]]
  280:    * [[30.1. Preparing directories]]
  281:    * [[30.2. Terminology]]
  282:    * [[30.3. Downloading tarballs]]
  283:    * [[30.4. Fetching by CVS]]
  284:    * [[30.5. Sources on CD (ISO)]]
  285:  * [[31. Crosscompiling NetBSD with build.sh|guide/build]]
  286:    * [[31.1. Building the crosscompiler]]
  287:    * [[31.2. Configuring the kernel manually]]
  288:    * [[31.3. Crosscompiling the kernel manually]]
  289:    * [[31.4. Crosscompiling the kernel with build.sh]]
  290:    * [[31.5. Crosscompiling the userland]]
  291:    * [[31.6. Crosscompiling the X Window System]]
  292:    * [[31.7. Changing build behaviour]]
  293:  * [[32. Compiling the kernel|guide/kernel]]
  294:    * [[32.1. Requirements and procedure]]
  295:    * [[32.2. Installing the kernel sources]]
  296:    * [[32.3. Creating the kernel configuration file]]
  297:    * [[32.4. Building the kernel manually]]
  298:    * [[32.5. Building the kernel using build.sh]]
  299:    * [[32.6. Installing the new kernel]]
  300:    * [[32.7. If something went wrong]]
  301:  * [[33. Updating an existing system from sources|guide/updating]]
  302:    * [[33.1. Manual build and update procedure]]
  303:    * [[33.2. Using sysinst]]
  304:    * [[33.3. Using sysbuild and sysupgrade]]
  305:    * [[33.4. More details about the updating of configuration and startup files]]
  306:  * [[34. Building NetBSD installation media|guide/inst-media]]
  307:    * [[34.1. Creating custom install or boot floppies for your architecture e.g. i386]]
  308:    * [[34.2. Creating a custom install or boot CD with build.sh]]
  309: 
  310: ## Guide history
  311: 
  312: This guide was born as a collection of sparse notes that Federico Lupi, the
  313: original author of the NetBSD Guide, wrote mostly for himself. When he realized
  314: that they could be useful to other NetBSD users he started collecting them and
  315: created the first version of the guide using the groff formatter. In order to
  316: "easily" get a wider variety of output formats (e.g. HTML and
  317: PostScript/PDF), he made the "mistake" of moving to SGML/DocBook, which
  318: was the format of the sources. Maintainership was picked up by the NetBSD
  319: project and its developers later, and the format was changed to XML/DocBook
  320: later due to better tools and slightly more knowhow on customisations.
  321: 
  322: In 2012/2013, the guide was converted in a Google Code-In task by Mingzhe Wang
  323: (wmzhere) to Markdown. In early 2013, it was integrated to the NetBSD wiki,
  324: along with removing old chapters, restricting numbering schemes and some
  325: reformulations.
  326: 
  327: You can still get the
  328: [old version of the Guide](http://netbsd.org/docs/guide), which is not
  329: maintained anymore.
  330: 
  331: ## Acknowledgements
  332: 
  333: The NetBSD Guide was originally written by Federico Lupi who managed the
  334: sources, coordinated updates, and merged all contributions on his own. Since
  335: then, it has been updated and maintained by the NetBSD www team. The Guide has
  336: progressed thanks to the contributions of many people who have volunteered their
  337: time and effort, supplied material and sent in suggestions and corrections.
  338: 
  339: ### Original acknowledgements
  340: 
  341: Federico's original credits are:
  342: 
  343: * Paulo Aukar
  344: * Grant Beattie, converted to XML DocBook.
  345: * Manolo De Santis, Audio Chapter
  346: * Eric Delcamp, Boot Floppies
  347: * Hubert Feyrer, who contributed
  348: [[Introduction to TCP/IP Networking|guide/net-intro]] including Next
  349: generation Internet protocol - IPv6 and the section
  350: [[IPv6 Connectivity & Transition via 6to4|guide/net-practice#ipv6-6to4]]
  351: He also helped with the SGML to XML transition.
  352: * Jason R. Fink
  353: * Daniel de Kok, audio and linux chapters fixes.
  354: * Reinoud Koornstra, CVS chapter and rebuilding `/dev` in the Misc chapter.
  355: * Brian A. Seklecki [lavalamp@burghcom.com](mailto:lavalamp@burghcom.com), who
  356: contributed the CCD Chapter.
  357: * Guillain Seuillot
  358: * Martti Kuparinen, RAIDframe documentation.
  359: * David Magda
  360: 
  361: ### Current acknowledgements
  362: 
  363: This document is currently maintained by the NetBSD www team. Thanks to their
  364: efforts, the document is kept up to date and available online at all times. In
  365: addition, special thanks go to (in alphabetical order):
  366: 
  367: * Hubert Feyrer, for getting the guide up to speed for NetBSD 2.0, and for
  368: making numerous improvements to all chapters.
  369: * Jason R. Fink, for maintaining this document and integrating changes.
  370: * Andreas Hallman, for his information in
  371: [[Tunneling 6to4 through an IPFilter firewall|guide/net-practice#chap-net-practice-ipv6-6to4-ipf]]
  372: * Joel Knight for the
  373: [[Introduction to the Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP)|guide/carp]].
  374: See below for for the accompanying license.
  375: * Daniel de Kok, for constant contributions of new chapters, maintenance of
  376: existing chapters and his translation work.
  377: * Hiroki Sato, for allowing us to build PDF and PS versions of this document.
  378: * Jan Schaumann, for maintenance work and `www/htdocs` management.
  379: * Lubomir Sedlacik, for some details on using CGD for swap in
  380: [[Suggestions and Warnings|guide/cgd#suggestions]]
  381: * Dag-Erling Smørgrav, for the article on
  382: [[Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)|guide/pam]]. See below for the
  383: accompanying license.
  384: * Florian Stöhr, for
  385: [[Example: encrypted CDs/DVDs|guide/cgd#cryptocds]]
  386: 
  387: 
  388: ### Licenses
  389: 
  390: #### Federico Lupi's original license of this guide
  391: 
  392: Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
  393: are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
  394: 
  395: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
  396: list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
  397: 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
  398: this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
  399: and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
  400: 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must
  401: display the following acknowledgement: This product includes software developed
  402: by Federico Lupi for the NetBSD Project.
  403: 4. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products
  404: derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
  405: 
  406: THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
  407: WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
  408: MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
  409: SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
  410: EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT
  411: OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
  412: INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
  413: CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
  414: IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY
  415: OF SUCH DAMAGE.
  416: 
  417: #### The NetBSD Developers
  418: 
  419: Copyright © 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 Federico Lupi
  420: 
  421: Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 The NetBSD Foundation
  422: 
  423: All brand and product names used in this guide are or may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
  424: 
  425: NetBSD® is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.

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