Annotation of wikisrc/guide/index.mdwn, revision 1.11

1.1       jdf         1: 
                      2: # The NetBSD Guide
                      3: 
                      4: ## Purpose of this guide
                      5: 
                      6: This guide describes the installation and the configuration of the NetBSD
                      7: operating system as well as the setup and administration of some of its
                      8: subsystems. It primarily addresses people coming from other Unix-like operating
                      9: systems, and aims to be a useful guide in the face of the many small problems
                     10: one encounters when using a new tool.
                     11: 
                     12: This guide is not a Unix tutorial: basic knowledge of some concepts and tools
                     13: is assumed. You should know, for example, what a file and a directory are, and
                     14: how to use an editor. There are plenty of books explaining basic Unix and
                     15: operating system concepts, and you should consult one if you need more
                     16: background information. It is better to choose a general book and avoid titles
                     17: like "Learning Unix-XYZ, version 1.2.3.4 in 10 days", but this is a matter of
                     18: personal taste.
                     19: 
                     20: Originally, the guide has been a book, which was subsequently moved to the wiki
                     21: to make it easier to contribute.
                     22: 
                     23: If you have additions or comments to the guide, but don't want to create an
                     24: account, feel free to post your submissions to the
                     25: [www team](mailto:www@netbsd.org) or the
                     26: [docs mailing list](netbsd-docs@netbsd.org). The text is maintained in
                     27: Markdown, and you can use the button in the top right corner to show the source
                     28: of an article.
                     29: 
                     30: ## Table of Contents
                     31: 
                     32: ***I. About NetBSD***
                     33: 
1.3       jdf        34:  * [[1. What is NetBSD?|guide/intro]]
                     35:    * [[1.1. The story of NetBSD]]
                     36:    * [[1.2. NetBSD features]]
                     37:    * [[1.3. Supported platforms]]
                     38:    * [[1.4. NetBSD's target users]]
                     39:    * [[1.5. Applications for NetBSD]]
                     40:    * [[1.6. How to get NetBSD]]
1.1       jdf        41: 
                     42: ***II. System installation and related issues***
                     43: 
                     44: 
                     45: ***III. System configuration, administration and tuning***
                     46: 
1.2       jdf        47:  * [[4. Upgrading NetBSD|guide/upgrading]]
                     48:    * [[4.1. Using sysinst]]
                     49:    * [[4.2. Using sysupgrade]]
                     50:  * [[5. The first steps on NetBSD|guide/boot]]
                     51:    * [[5.1. Troubleshooting]]
                     52:    * [[5.2. The man command]]
                     53:    * [[5.3. Editing configuration files]]
                     54:    * [[5.4. Login]]
1.9       jdf        55:    * [[5.5. Changing the root password]]
1.2       jdf        56:    * [[5.6. Adding users]]
                     57:    * [[5.7. Shadow passwords]]
                     58:    * [[5.8. Changing the keyboard layout]]
                     59:    * [[5.9. System time]]
1.3       jdf        60:    * [[5.10. Secure Shell ssh(1)]]
1.9       jdf        61:    * [[5.11. Basic configuration in /etc/rc.conf]]
1.2       jdf        62:    * [[5.12. Basic network settings]]
                     63:    * [[5.13. Mounting a CD-ROM]]
                     64:    * [[5.14. Mounting a floppy]]
                     65:    * [[5.15. Installing additional software]]
                     66:    * [[5.16. Security alerts]]
                     67:    * [[5.17. Stopping and rebooting the system]]
                     68:  * [[7. The rc.d System|guide/rc]]
                     69:    * [[7.1. Basics]]
                     70:    * [[7.2. The rc.d scripts]]
                     71:    * [[7.3. Order/dependencies of start determined by rcorder]]
                     72:    * [[7.4. rc.d scripts of additional services]]
                     73:    * [[7.5. Additional Reading]]
                     74:  * [[9. X|guide/x]]
                     75:    * [[9.1. What is X?]]
                     76:    * [[9.2. Configuration]]
                     77:    * [[9.3. The mouse]]
                     78:    * [[9.4. The keyboard]]
                     79:    * [[9.5. The monitor]]
                     80:    * [[9.6. The video card]]
                     81:    * [[9.7. Starting X]]
                     82:    * [[9.8. Customizing X]]
                     83:    * [[9.9. Other window managers or desktop environments]]
                     84:    * [[9.10. Graphical login with xdm]]
                     85:  * [[11. Audio|guide/audio]]
                     86:    * [[11.1. Basic hardware elements]]
                     87:    * [[11.2. Supported audio cards]]
                     88:    * [[11.3. BIOS settings]]
                     89:    * [[11.4. Configuring the audio device]]
                     90:    * [[11.5. Multiple audio devices]]
                     91:    * [[11.6. Configuring the kernel audio devices]]
                     92:    * [[11.7. Advanced commands]]
1.4       jdf        93:  * [[19. Tuning NetBSD|guide/tuning]]
                     94:    * [[19.1. Introduction]]
                     95:    * [[19.2. Tuning Considerations]]
                     96:    * [[19.3. Visual Monitoring Tools]]
                     97:    * [[19.4. Monitoring Tools]]
                     98:    * [[19.5. Network Tools]]
                     99:    * [[19.6. Accounting]]
                    100:    * [[19.7. Kernel Profiling]]
                    101:    * [[19.8. System Tuning]]
                    102:    * [[19.9. Kernel Tuning]]
1.2       jdf       103:  * [[20. NetBSD Veriexec subsystem|guide/veriexec]]
                    104:    * [[20.1. How it works]]
                    105:    * [[20.2. Signatures file]]
                    106:    * [[20.3. Strict levels]]
                    107:    * [[20.4. Veriexec and layered file systems]]
                    108:    * [[20.5. Kernel configuration]]
1.10      jdf       109:  * [[21. Bluetooth on NetBSD|guide/bluetooth]]
                    110:    * [[21.1. Introduction]]
                    111:    * [[21.2. Supported Hardware]]
                    112:    * [[21.3. System Configuration]]
                    113:    * [[21.4. Human Interface Devices]]
                    114:    * [[21.5. Personal Area Networking]]
                    115:    * [[21.6. Serial Connections]]
                    116:    * [[21.7. Audio]]
                    117:    * [[21.8. Object Exchange]]
                    118:    * [[21.9. Troubleshooting]]
1.7       jdf       119:  * [[22. Miscellaneous operations|guide/misc]]
                    120:    * [[22.1. Installing the boot manager]]
                    121:    * [[22.2. Deleting the disklabel]]
                    122:    * [[22.3. Speaker]]
                    123:    * [[22.4. Forgot root password?]]
                    124:    * [[22.5. Password file is busy?]]
                    125:    * [[22.6. Adding a new hard disk]]
                    126:    * [[22.7. How to rebuild the devices in /dev]]
1.1       jdf       127: 
                    128: ***IV. Networking and related issues***
                    129: 
1.9       jdf       130:  * [[25. The Internet Super Server inetd
                    131:  Allowing and denying hosts - /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny|guide/inetd]]
1.5       jdf       132:    * [[25.1. Overview]]
                    133:    * [[25.2. What is inetd?]]
1.9       jdf       134:    * [[25.3. Configuring inetd - /etc/inetd.conf]]
                    135:    * [[25.4. Services - /etc/services]]
                    136:    * [[25.5. Protocols - /etc/protocols]]
                    137:    * [[25.6. Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) - /etc/rpc]]
                    138:    * [[25.7. Adding a Service]]
                    139:    * [[25.8. When to use or not to use inetd]]
                    140:    * [[25.9. Other Resources]]
1.6       jdf       141:  * [[28. Introduction to the Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP)|guide/carp]]
                    142:    * [[28.1. CARP Operation]]
                    143:    * [[28.2. Configuring CARP]]
                    144:    * [[28.3. Enabling CARP Support]]
                    145:    * [[28.4. CARP Example]]
                    146:    * [[28.5. Advanced CARP configuration]]
                    147:    * [[28.6. Forcing Failover of the Master]]
                    148:    * [[28.7. License]]
1.1       jdf       149: 
                    150: ***V. Building the system***
                    151: 
1.8       jdf       152:  * [[30. Obtaining the sources|guide/fetch]]
                    153:    * [[30.1. Preparing directories]]
                    154:    * [[30.2. Terminology]]
                    155:    * [[30.3. Downloading tarballs]]
                    156:    * [[30.4. Fetching by CVS]]
                    157:    * [[30.5. Sources on CD (ISO)]]
1.11    ! jdf       158:  * [[31. Crosscompiling NetBSD with build.sh|guide/build]]
        !           159:    * [[31.1. Building the crosscompiler]]
        !           160:    * [[31.2. Configuring the kernel manually]]
        !           161:    * [[31.3. Crosscompiling the kernel manually]]
        !           162:    * [[31.4. Crosscompiling the kernel with build.sh]]
        !           163:    * [[31.5. Crosscompiling the userland]]
        !           164:    * [[31.6. Crosscompiling the X Window System]]
        !           165:    * [[31.7. Changing build behaviour]]
1.2       jdf       166:  * [[32. Compiling the kernel|guide/kernel]]
                    167:    * [[32.1. Requirements and procedure]]
                    168:    * [[32.2. Installing the kernel sources]]
                    169:    * [[32.3. Creating the kernel configuration file]]
                    170:    * [[32.4. Building the kernel manually]]
1.9       jdf       171:    * [[32.5. Building the kernel using build.sh]]
1.2       jdf       172:    * [[32.6. Installing the new kernel]]
                    173:    * [[32.7. If something went wrong]]
                    174:  * [[33. Updating an existing system from sources|guide/updating]]
                    175:    * [[33.1. Manual build and update procedure]]
                    176:    * [[33.2. Using sysinst]]
                    177:    * [[33.3. Using sysbuild and sysupgrade]]
                    178:    * [[33.4. More details about the updating of configuration and startup files]]
1.1       jdf       179: 
                    180: ## Guide history
                    181: 
                    182: This guide was born as a collection of sparse notes that Federico Lupi, the
                    183: original author of the NetBSD Guide, wrote mostly for himself. When he realized
                    184: that they could be useful to other NetBSD users he started collecting them and
                    185: created the first version of the guide using the groff formatter. In order to
                    186: "easily" get a wider variety of output formats (e.g. HTML and
                    187: PostScript/PDF), he made the "mistake" of moving to SGML/DocBook, which
1.6       jdf       188: was the format of the sources. Maintainership was picked up by the NetBSD
1.1       jdf       189: project and its developers later, and the format was changed to XML/DocBook
                    190: later due to better tools and slightly more knowhow on customisations.
                    191: 
1.7       jdf       192: In 2012/2013, the guide was converted in a Google Code-In task by Mingzhe Wang
                    193: (wmzhere) to Markdown. In early 2013, it was integrated to the NetBSD wiki,
                    194: along with removing old chapters, restricting numbering schemes and some
                    195: reformulations.
                    196: 
                    197: You can still get the
                    198: [old version of the Guide](http://netbsd.org/docs/guide), which is not
                    199: maintained anymore.
1.1       jdf       200: 
                    201: ## Bibliography
                    202: 
                    203: * [AeleenFrisch] Aeleen Frisch. Copyright © 1991. O'Reilly & Associates. *Essential System Administration*.
                    204: * [CraigHunt] Craig Hunt. Copyright © 1993. O'Reilly & Associates. *TCP/IP Network Administration*.
                    205: * [RFC1034] P. V. Mockapetris. Copyright © 1987. *RFC 1034: Domain names - concepts and facilities*.
                    206: * [RFC1035] P. V. Mockapetris. Copyright © 1987. *RFC 1035: Domain names - implementation and specification*.
                    207: * [RFC1055] J. L. Romkey. Copyright © 1988. *RFC 1055: Nonstandard for transmission of IP datagrams over serial lines: SLIP*.
                    208: * [RFC1331] W. Simpson. Copyright © 1992. *RFC 1331: The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) for the Transmission of Multi-protocol Datagrams over Point-to-Point Links*.
                    209: * [RFC1332] G. McGregor. Copyright © 1992. *RFC 1332: The PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP)*.
                    210: * [RFC1933] R. Gilligan and E. Nordmark. Copyright © 1996. *RFC 1933: Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers*.
                    211: * [RFC2004] C. Perkins. Copyright © 1996. *RFC 2003: IP Encapsulation within IP*.
                    212: * [RFC2401] S. Kent and R. Atkinson. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2401: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol*.
                    213: * [RFC2411] R. Thayer, N. Doraswamy, and R. Glenn. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2411: IP Security Document Roadmap*.
                    214: * [RFC2461] T. Narten, E. Nordmark, and W. Simpson. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2461: Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)*.
                    215: * [RFC2529] B. Carpenter and C. Jung. Copyright © 1999. *RFC 2529: Transmission of IPv6 over IPv4 Domains without Explicit Tunnels*.
                    216: * [RFC3024] G. Montenegro. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3024: Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP*.
                    217: * [RFC3027] M. Holdrege and P. Srisuresh. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3027: Protocol Complications with the IP Network Address Translator*.
                    218: * [RFC3056] B. Carpenter and K. Moore. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3056: Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds*.
                    219: 
                    220: ## Acknowledgements
                    221: 
                    222: The NetBSD Guide was originally written by Federico Lupi who managed the
                    223: sources, coordinated updates, and merged all contributions on his own. Since
                    224: then, it has been updated and maintained by the NetBSD www team. The Guide has
                    225: progressed thanks to the contributions of many people who have volunteered their
                    226: time and effort, supplied material and sent in suggestions and corrections.
                    227: 
                    228: ### Original acknowledgements
                    229: 
                    230: Federico's original credits are:
                    231: 
                    232: * Paulo Aukar
                    233: * Grant Beattie, converted to XML DocBook.
                    234: * Manolo De Santis, Audio Chapter
                    235: * Eric Delcamp, Boot Floppies
                    236: * Hubert Feyrer, who contributed
                    237: [[Introduction to TCP/IP Networking|guide/net-intro]] including Next
                    238: generation Internet protocol - IPv6 and the section
                    239: [[IPv6 Connectivity & Transition via 6to4|guide/net-practice#ipv6-6to4]]
                    240: He also helped with the SGML to XML transition.
                    241: * Jason R. Fink
                    242: * Daniel de Kok, audio and linux chapters fixes.
                    243: * Reinoud Koornstra, CVS chapter and rebuilding `/dev` in the Misc chapter.
                    244: * Brian A. Seklecki [lavalamp@burghcom.com](mailto:lavalamp@burghcom.com), who
                    245: contributed the CCD Chapter.
                    246: * Guillain Seuillot
                    247: * Martti Kuparinen, RAIDframe documentation.
                    248: * David Magda
                    249: 
                    250: ### Current acknowledgements
                    251: 
                    252: This document is currently maintained by the NetBSD www team. Thanks to their
                    253: efforts, the document is kept up to date and available online at all times. In
                    254: addition, special thanks go to (in alphabetical order):
                    255: 
                    256: * Hubert Feyrer, for getting the guide up to speed for NetBSD 2.0, and for
                    257: making numerous improvements to all chapters.
                    258: * Jason R. Fink, for maintaining this document and integrating changes.
                    259: * Andreas Hallman, for his information in
                    260: [[Tunneling 6to4 through an IPFilter firewall|guide/net-practice#chap-net-practice-ipv6-6to4-ipf]]
                    261: * Joel Knight for the
                    262: [[Introduction to the Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP)|guide/carp]].
                    263: See below for for the accompanying license.
                    264: * Daniel de Kok, for constant contributions of new chapters, maintenance of
                    265: existing chapters and his translation work.
                    266: * Hiroki Sato, for allowing us to build PDF and PS versions of this document.
                    267: * Jan Schaumann, for maintenance work and `www/htdocs` management.
                    268: * Lubomir Sedlacik, for some details on using CGD for swap in
                    269: [[Suggestions and Warnings|guide/cgd#suggestions]]
                    270: * Dag-Erling Smrgrav, for the article on
                    271: [[Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)|guide/pam]]. See below for the
                    272: accompanying license.
                    273: * Florian Sthr, for
                    274: [[Example: encrypted CDs/DVDs|guide/cgd#cryptocds]]
                    275: 
                    276: 
                    277: ### Licenses
                    278: 
                    279: #### Federico Lupi's original license of this guide
                    280: 
                    281: Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
                    282: are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
                    283: 
                    284: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
                    285: list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
                    286: 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
                    287: this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
                    288: and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
                    289: 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must
                    290: display the following acknowledgement: This product includes software developed
                    291: by Federico Lupi for the NetBSD Project.
                    292: 4. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products
                    293: derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
                    294: 
                    295: THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
                    296: WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
                    297: MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
                    298: SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
                    299: EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT
                    300: OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
                    301: INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
                    302: CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
                    303: IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY
                    304: OF SUCH DAMAGE.
                    305: 
                    306: #### Networks Associates Technology's license on the PAM article
                    307: 
                    308: Copyright (c) 2001-2003 Networks Associates Technology, Inc.
                    309: All rights reserved.
                    310: This software was developed for the FreeBSD Project by ThinkSec AS and
                    311: Network Associates Laboratories, the Security Research Division of
                    312: Network Associates, Inc.  under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
                    313: ("CBOSS"), as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
                    314: Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
                    315: modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
                    316: are met:
                    317: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
                    318: notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
                    319: 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
                    320: notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
                    321: documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
                    322: 3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote
                    323: products derived from this software without specific prior written
                    324: permission.
                    325: THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
                    326: ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
                    327: IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
                    328: ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
                    329: FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
                    330: DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
                    331: OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
                    332: HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
                    333: LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
                    334: OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
                    335: SUCH DAMAGE.
                    336: 
                    337: #### Joel Knight's license on the CARP article
                    338: 
                    339: Copyright (c) 2005 Joel Knight <enabled@myrealbox.com>
                    340: Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this documentation for
                    341: any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the
                    342: above copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
                    343: THE DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL
                    344: WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS DOCUMENTATION INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED
                    345: WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
                    346: AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
                    347: DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR
                    348: PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER
                    349: TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
                    350: PERFORMANCE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION
                    351: 
                    352: #### The NetBSD Developers
                    353: 
                    354: Copyright  1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 Federico Lupi
                    355: 
1.6       jdf       356: Copyright  2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 The NetBSD Foundation
1.1       jdf       357: 
                    358: All brand and product names used in this guide are or may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
                    359: 
                    360: NetBSD is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.

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