Annotation of wikisrc/guide/index.mdwn, revision 1.1

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        !             2: # The NetBSD Guide
        !             3: 
        !             4: ## Purpose of this guide
        !             5: 
        !             6: This guide describes the installation and the configuration of the NetBSD
        !             7: operating system as well as the setup and administration of some of its
        !             8: subsystems. It primarily addresses people coming from other Unix-like operating
        !             9: systems, and aims to be a useful guide in the face of the many small problems
        !            10: one encounters when using a new tool.
        !            11: 
        !            12: This guide is not a Unix tutorial: basic knowledge of some concepts and tools
        !            13: is assumed. You should know, for example, what a file and a directory are, and
        !            14: how to use an editor. There are plenty of books explaining basic Unix and
        !            15: operating system concepts, and you should consult one if you need more
        !            16: background information. It is better to choose a general book and avoid titles
        !            17: like "Learning Unix-XYZ, version 1.2.3.4 in 10 days", but this is a matter of
        !            18: personal taste.
        !            19: 
        !            20: Originally, the guide has been a book, which was subsequently moved to the wiki
        !            21: to make it easier to contribute.
        !            22: 
        !            23: If you have additions or comments to the guide, but don't want to create an
        !            24: account, feel free to post your submissions to the
        !            25: [www team](mailto:www@netbsd.org) or the
        !            26: [docs mailing list](netbsd-docs@netbsd.org). The text is maintained in
        !            27: Markdown, and you can use the button in the top right corner to show the source
        !            28: of an article.
        !            29: 
        !            30: ## Table of Contents
        !            31: 
        !            32: 
        !            33: ***I. About NetBSD***
        !            34: 
        !            35: 
        !            36: ***II. System installation and related issues***
        !            37: 
        !            38: 
        !            39: ***III. System configuration, administration and tuning***
        !            40: 
        !            41:  * [4. Upgrading NetBSD](guide/upgrading
        !            42:    * [4.1.  Using sysinst
        !            43:    * [4.2.  Using sysupgrade
        !            44:  * [5. The first steps on NetBSD](guide/boot
        !            45:    * [5.1.  Troubleshooting
        !            46:    * [5.2.  The man command
        !            47:    * [5.3.  Editing configuration files
        !            48:    * [5.4.  Login
        !            49:    * [5.5.  Changing the `root` password
        !            50:    * [5.6.  Adding users
        !            51:    * [5.7.  Shadow passwords
        !            52:    * [5.8.  Changing the keyboard layout
        !            53:    * [5.9.  System time
        !            54:    * [5.10.  Secure Shell ([ssh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ssh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386))
        !            55:    * [5.11.  Basic configuration in `/etc/rc.conf`
        !            56:    * [5.12.  Basic network settings
        !            57:    * [5.13.  Mounting a CD-ROM
        !            58:    * [5.14.  Mounting a floppy
        !            59:    * [5.15.  Installing additional software
        !            60:    * [5.16.  Security alerts
        !            61:    * [5.17.  Stopping and rebooting the system
        !            62:  * [7. The rc.d System](guide/rc
        !            63:    * [7.1.  Basics
        !            64:    * [7.2.  The rc.d scripts
        !            65:    * [7.3.  Order/dependencies of start determined by rcorder
        !            66:    * [7.4.  rc.d scripts of additional services
        !            67:    * [7.5.  Additional Reading
        !            68:  * [9. X](guide/x
        !            69:    * [9.1.  What is X?
        !            70:    * [9.2.  Configuration
        !            71:    * [9.3.  The mouse
        !            72:    * [9.4.  The keyboard
        !            73:    * [9.5.  The monitor
        !            74:    * [9.6.  The video card
        !            75:    * [9.7.  Starting X
        !            76:    * [9.8.  Customizing X
        !            77:    * [9.9.  Other window managers or desktop environments
        !            78:    * [9.10.  Graphical login with xdm
        !            79:  * [11. Audio](guide/audio
        !            80:    * [11.1.  Basic hardware elements
        !            81:    * [11.2.  Supported audio cards
        !            82:    * [11.3.  BIOS settings
        !            83:    * [11.4.  Configuring the audio device
        !            84:    * [11.5.  Multiple audio devices
        !            85:    * [11.6.  Configuring the kernel audio devices
        !            86:    * [11.7.  Advanced commands
        !            87:  * [20. NetBSD Veriexec subsystem](guide/veriexec
        !            88:    * [20.1.  How it works
        !            89:    * [20.2.  Signatures file
        !            90:    * [20.3.  Strict levels
        !            91:    * [20.4.  Veriexec and layered file systems
        !            92:    * [20.5.  Kernel configuration
        !            93: 
        !            94: ***IV. Networking and related issues***
        !            95: 
        !            96: 
        !            97: ***V. Building the system***
        !            98: 
        !            99:  * [32. Compiling the kernel](guide/kernel
        !           100:    * [32.1.  Requirements and procedure
        !           101:    * [32.2.  Installing the kernel sources
        !           102:    * [32.3.  Creating the kernel configuration file
        !           103:    * [32.4.  Building the kernel manually
        !           104:    * [32.5.  Building the kernel using `build.sh`
        !           105:    * [32.6.  Installing the new kernel
        !           106:    * [32.7.  If something went wrong
        !           107:  * [33. Updating an existing system from sources](guide/updating
        !           108:    * [33.1.  Manual build and update procedure
        !           109:    * [33.2.  Using sysinst
        !           110:    * [33.3.  Using sysbuild and sysupgrade
        !           111:    * [33.4.  More details about the updating of configuration and startup files
        !           112: 
        !           113: ## Guide history
        !           114: 
        !           115: This guide was born as a collection of sparse notes that Federico Lupi, the
        !           116: original author of the NetBSD Guide, wrote mostly for himself. When he realized
        !           117: that they could be useful to other NetBSD users he started collecting them and
        !           118: created the first version of the guide using the groff formatter. In order to
        !           119: "easily" get a wider variety of output formats (e.g. HTML and
        !           120: PostScript/PDF), he made the "mistake" of moving to SGML/DocBook, which
        !           121: is the current format of the sources. Maintainership was picked up by the NetBSD
        !           122: project and its developers later, and the format was changed to XML/DocBook
        !           123: later due to better tools and slightly more knowhow on customisations.
        !           124: 
        !           125: In 2012/2013, the guide was converted by XXX (Wang - wmzhere) to Markdown and
        !           126: integrated into the NetBSD wiki. Along with the conversion, old chapters were
        !           127: removed, the numbering scheme was restricted to the table of contents and soem
        !           128: reformulations were done.
        !           129: 
        !           130: You can still get the old version of the Guide at XXX
        !           131: 
        !           132: ## Bibliography
        !           133: 
        !           134: * [AeleenFrisch] Aeleen Frisch. Copyright © 1991. O'Reilly & Associates. *Essential System Administration*.
        !           135: * [CraigHunt] Craig Hunt. Copyright © 1993. O'Reilly & Associates. *TCP/IP Network Administration*.
        !           136: * [RFC1034] P. V. Mockapetris. Copyright © 1987. *RFC 1034: Domain names - concepts and facilities*.
        !           137: * [RFC1035] P. V. Mockapetris. Copyright © 1987. *RFC 1035: Domain names - implementation and specification*.
        !           138: * [RFC1055] J. L. Romkey. Copyright © 1988. *RFC 1055: Nonstandard for transmission of IP datagrams over serial lines: SLIP*.
        !           139: * [RFC1331] W. Simpson. Copyright © 1992. *RFC 1331: The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) for the Transmission of Multi-protocol Datagrams over Point-to-Point Links*.
        !           140: * [RFC1332] G. McGregor. Copyright © 1992. *RFC 1332: The PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP)*.
        !           141: * [RFC1933] R. Gilligan and E. Nordmark. Copyright © 1996. *RFC 1933: Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers*.
        !           142: * [RFC2004] C. Perkins. Copyright © 1996. *RFC 2003: IP Encapsulation within IP*.
        !           143: * [RFC2401] S. Kent and R. Atkinson. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2401: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol*.
        !           144: * [RFC2411] R. Thayer, N. Doraswamy, and R. Glenn. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2411: IP Security Document Roadmap*.
        !           145: * [RFC2461] T. Narten, E. Nordmark, and W. Simpson. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2461: Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)*.
        !           146: * [RFC2529] B. Carpenter and C. Jung. Copyright © 1999. *RFC 2529: Transmission of IPv6 over IPv4 Domains without Explicit Tunnels*.
        !           147: * [RFC3024] G. Montenegro. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3024: Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP*.
        !           148: * [RFC3027] M. Holdrege and P. Srisuresh. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3027: Protocol Complications with the IP Network Address Translator*.
        !           149: * [RFC3056] B. Carpenter and K. Moore. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3056: Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds*.
        !           150: 
        !           151: ## Acknowledgements
        !           152: 
        !           153: The NetBSD Guide was originally written by Federico Lupi who managed the
        !           154: sources, coordinated updates, and merged all contributions on his own. Since
        !           155: then, it has been updated and maintained by the NetBSD www team. The Guide has
        !           156: progressed thanks to the contributions of many people who have volunteered their
        !           157: time and effort, supplied material and sent in suggestions and corrections.
        !           158: 
        !           159: ### Original acknowledgements
        !           160: 
        !           161: Federico's original credits are:
        !           162: 
        !           163: * Paulo Aukar
        !           164: * Grant Beattie, converted to XML DocBook.
        !           165: * Manolo De Santis, Audio Chapter
        !           166: * Eric Delcamp, Boot Floppies
        !           167: * Hubert Feyrer, who contributed
        !           168: [[Introduction to TCP/IP Networking|guide/net-intro]] including Next
        !           169: generation Internet protocol - IPv6 and the section
        !           170: [[IPv6 Connectivity & Transition via 6to4|guide/net-practice#ipv6-6to4]]
        !           171: He also helped with the SGML to XML transition.
        !           172: * Jason R. Fink
        !           173: * Daniel de Kok, audio and linux chapters fixes.
        !           174: * Reinoud Koornstra, CVS chapter and rebuilding `/dev` in the Misc chapter.
        !           175: * Brian A. Seklecki [lavalamp@burghcom.com](mailto:lavalamp@burghcom.com), who
        !           176: contributed the CCD Chapter.
        !           177: * Guillain Seuillot
        !           178: * Martti Kuparinen, RAIDframe documentation.
        !           179: * David Magda
        !           180: 
        !           181: ### Current acknowledgements
        !           182: 
        !           183: This document is currently maintained by the NetBSD www team. Thanks to their
        !           184: efforts, the document is kept up to date and available online at all times. In
        !           185: addition, special thanks go to (in alphabetical order):
        !           186: 
        !           187: * Hubert Feyrer, for getting the guide up to speed for NetBSD 2.0, and for
        !           188: making numerous improvements to all chapters.
        !           189: * Jason R. Fink, for maintaining this document and integrating changes.
        !           190: * Andreas Hallman, for his information in
        !           191: [[Tunneling 6to4 through an IPFilter firewall|guide/net-practice#chap-net-practice-ipv6-6to4-ipf]]
        !           192: * Joel Knight for the
        !           193: [[Introduction to the Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP)|guide/carp]].
        !           194: See below for for the accompanying license.
        !           195: * Daniel de Kok, for constant contributions of new chapters, maintenance of
        !           196: existing chapters and his translation work.
        !           197: * Hiroki Sato, for allowing us to build PDF and PS versions of this document.
        !           198: * Jan Schaumann, for maintenance work and `www/htdocs` management.
        !           199: * Lubomir Sedlacik, for some details on using CGD for swap in
        !           200: [[Suggestions and Warnings|guide/cgd#suggestions]]
        !           201: * Dag-Erling Smrgrav, for the article on
        !           202: [[Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)|guide/pam]]. See below for the
        !           203: accompanying license.
        !           204: * Florian Sthr, for
        !           205: [[Example: encrypted CDs/DVDs|guide/cgd#cryptocds]]
        !           206: 
        !           207: 
        !           208: ### Licenses
        !           209: 
        !           210: #### Federico Lupi's original license of this guide
        !           211: 
        !           212: Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
        !           213: are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
        !           214: 
        !           215: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
        !           216: list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
        !           217: 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
        !           218: this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
        !           219: and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
        !           220: 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must
        !           221: display the following acknowledgement: This product includes software developed
        !           222: by Federico Lupi for the NetBSD Project.
        !           223: 4. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products
        !           224: derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
        !           225: 
        !           226: THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
        !           227: WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
        !           228: MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT
        !           229: SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
        !           230: EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT
        !           231: OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
        !           232: INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
        !           233: CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
        !           234: IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY
        !           235: OF SUCH DAMAGE.
        !           236: 
        !           237: #### Networks Associates Technology's license on the PAM article
        !           238: 
        !           239: Copyright (c) 2001-2003 Networks Associates Technology, Inc.
        !           240: All rights reserved.
        !           241: This software was developed for the FreeBSD Project by ThinkSec AS and
        !           242: Network Associates Laboratories, the Security Research Division of
        !           243: Network Associates, Inc.  under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035
        !           244: ("CBOSS"), as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.
        !           245: Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
        !           246: modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
        !           247: are met:
        !           248: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
        !           249: notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
        !           250: 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
        !           251: notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
        !           252: documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
        !           253: 3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote
        !           254: products derived from this software without specific prior written
        !           255: permission.
        !           256: THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
        !           257: ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
        !           258: IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
        !           259: ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
        !           260: FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
        !           261: DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
        !           262: OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
        !           263: HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
        !           264: LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
        !           265: OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
        !           266: SUCH DAMAGE.
        !           267: 
        !           268: #### Joel Knight's license on the CARP article
        !           269: 
        !           270: Copyright (c) 2005 Joel Knight <enabled@myrealbox.com>
        !           271: Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this documentation for
        !           272: any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the
        !           273: above copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.
        !           274: THE DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL
        !           275: WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS DOCUMENTATION INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED
        !           276: WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
        !           277: AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
        !           278: DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR
        !           279: PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER
        !           280: TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
        !           281: PERFORMANCE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION
        !           282: 
        !           283: #### The NetBSD Developers
        !           284: 
        !           285: Copyright  1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 Federico Lupi
        !           286: 
        !           287: Copyright  2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 The NetBSD Foundation
        !           288: 
        !           289: All brand and product names used in this guide are or may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
        !           290: 
        !           291: NetBSD is a registered trademark of The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.

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