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 # The NetBSD Guide  # The NetBSD Guide
   
 ## Purpose of this guide  ## Purpose of this guide
Line 32  of an article. Line 31  of an article.
 ***I. About NetBSD***  ***I. About NetBSD***
   
  * [[1. What is NetBSD?|guide/intro]]   * [[1. What is NetBSD?|guide/intro]]
    * [[1.1. The story of NetBSD]]     * 1.1. The story of NetBSD
    * [[1.2. NetBSD features]]     * 1.2. NetBSD features
    * [[1.3. Supported platforms]]     * 1.3. Supported platforms
    * [[1.4. NetBSD's target users]]     * 1.4. NetBSD's target users
    * [[1.5. Applications for NetBSD]]     * 1.5. Applications for NetBSD
    * [[1.6. How to get NetBSD]]     * 1.6. How to get NetBSD
   
 ***II. System installation and related issues***  ***II. System installation and related issues***
   
    * [[2. Installing NetBSD: Preliminary considerations and preparations|guide/inst]]
      * 2.1. Preliminary considerations
      * 2.2. Install preparations
      * 2.3. Checklist
    * [[3. Example installation|guide/exinst]]
      * 3.1. Introduction
      * 3.2. The installation process
      * 3.3. Keyboard layout
      * 3.4. Starting the installation
      * 3.5. MBR partitions
      * 3.6. Disklabel partitions
      * 3.7. Setting the disk name
      * 3.8. Last chance!
      * 3.9. The disk preparation process
      * 3.10. Choosing the installation media
      * 3.11. Extracting sets
      * 3.12. System configuration
      * 3.13. Finishing the installation
    * [[4. Upgrading NetBSD|guide/upgrading]]
      * 4.1. Using sysinst
      * 4.2. Using sysupgrade
   
 ***III. System configuration, administration and tuning***  ***III. System configuration, administration and tuning***
   
  * [[4. Upgrading NetBSD|guide/upgrading]]  
    * [[4.1. Using sysinst]]  
    * [[4.2. Using sysupgrade]]  
  * [[5. The first steps on NetBSD|guide/boot]]   * [[5. The first steps on NetBSD|guide/boot]]
    * [[5.1. Troubleshooting]]     * 5.1. Troubleshooting
    * [[5.2. The man command]]     * 5.2. The man command
    * [[5.3. Editing configuration files]]     * 5.3. Editing configuration files
    * [[5.4. Login]]     * 5.4. Login
    * [[5.5. Changing the root password]]     * 5.5. Changing the root password
    * [[5.6. Adding users]]     * 5.6. Adding users
    * [[5.7. Shadow passwords]]     * 5.7. Shadow passwords
    * [[5.8. Changing the keyboard layout]]     * 5.8. Changing the keyboard layout
    * [[5.9. System time]]     * 5.9. System time
    * [[5.10. Secure Shell ssh(1)]]     * 5.10. Secure Shell ssh(1)
    * [[5.11. Basic configuration in /etc/rc.conf]]     * 5.11. Basic configuration in /etc/rc.conf
    * [[5.12. Basic network settings]]     * 5.12. Basic network settings
    * [[5.13. Mounting a CD-ROM]]     * 5.13. Mounting a CD-ROM
    * [[5.14. Mounting a floppy]]     * 5.14. Mounting a floppy
    * [[5.15. Installing additional software]]     * 5.15. Installing additional software
    * [[5.16. Security alerts]]     * 5.16. Security alerts
    * [[5.17. Stopping and rebooting the system]]     * 5.17. Stopping and rebooting the system
  * [[6. Editing|guide/edit]]   * [[6. Editing|guide/edit]]
    * [[6.1. Introducing vi]]     * 6.1. Introducing vi
    * [[6.2. Configuring vi]]     * 6.2. Configuring vi
    * [[6.3. Using tags with vi]]     * 6.3. Using tags with vi
  * [[7. The rc.d System|guide/rc]]   * [[7. The rc.d System|guide/rc]]
    * [[7.1. Basics]]     * 7.1. Basics
    * [[7.2. The rc.d scripts]]     * 7.2. The rc.d scripts
    * [[7.3. Order/dependencies of start determined by rcorder]]     * 7.3. Order/dependencies of start determined by rcorder
    * [[7.4. rc.d scripts of additional services]]     * 7.4. rc.d scripts of additional services
    * [[7.5. Additional Reading]]     * 7.5. Additional Reading
  * [[8. Console drivers|guide/cons]]   * [[8. Console drivers|guide/cons]]
    * [[8.1. wscons]]     * 8.1. wscons
  * [[9. X|guide/x]]   * [[9. X|guide/x]]
    * [[9.1. What is X?]]     * 9.1. What is X?
    * [[9.2. Configuration]]     * 9.2. Configuration
    * [[9.3. The mouse]]     * 9.3. The mouse
    * [[9.4. The keyboard]]     * 9.4. The keyboard
    * [[9.5. The monitor]]     * 9.5. The monitor
    * [[9.6. The video card]]     * 9.6. The video card
    * [[9.7. Starting X]]     * 9.7. Starting X
    * [[9.8. Customizing X]]     * 9.8. Customizing X
    * [[9.9. Other window managers or desktop environments]]     * 9.9. Other window managers or desktop environments
    * [[9.10. Graphical login with xdm]]     * 9.10. Graphical login with xdm
  * [[10. Linux emulation|guide/linux]]   * [[10. Linux emulation|guide/linux]]
    * [[10.1. Emulation setup]]     * 10.1. Emulation setup
    * [[10.2. Directory structure]]     * 10.2. Directory structure
    * [[10.3. Emulating /proc]]     * 10.3. Emulating /proc
    * [[10.4. Using Linux browser plugins]]     * 10.4. Using Linux browser plugins
    * [[10.5. Further reading]]     * 10.5. Further reading
  * [[11. Audio|guide/audio]]   * [[11. Audio|guide/audio]]
    * [[11.1. Basic hardware elements]]     * 11.1. Basic hardware elements
    * [[11.2. Supported audio cards]]     * 11.2. Supported audio cards
    * [[11.3. BIOS settings]]     * 11.3. BIOS settings
    * [[11.4. Configuring the audio device]]     * 11.4. Configuring the audio device
    * [[11.5. Multiple audio devices]]     * 11.5. Multiple audio devices
    * [[11.6. Configuring the kernel audio devices]]     * 11.6. Configuring the kernel audio devices
    * [[11.7. Advanced commands]]     * 11.7. Advanced commands
  * [[12. Printing|guide/print]]   * [[12. Printing|guide/print]]
    * [[12.1. Enabling the printer daemon]]     * 12.1. Enabling the printer daemon
    * [[12.2. Configuring `/etc/printcap`]]     * 12.2. Configuring `/etc/printcap`
    * [[12.3. Configuring Ghostscript]]     * 12.3. Configuring Ghostscript
    * [[12.4. Printer management commands]]     * 12.4. Printer management commands
    * [[12.5. Remote printing]]     * 12.5. Remote printing
    * [[13. Using removable media|guide/rmmedia]]
      * 13.1. Reading data CDs with NetBSD
      * 13.2. Reading multi-session CDs with NetBSD
      * 13.3. Allowing normal users to access CDs
      * 13.4. Mounting an ISO image
      * 13.5. Using video CDs with NetBSD
      * 13.6. Using audio CDs with NetBSD
      * 13.7. Creating an MP3 (MPEG layer 3) file from an audio CD
      * 13.8. Using a CD-R writer with data CDs
      * 13.9. Using a CD-R writer to create audio CDs
      * 13.10. Creating an audio CD from MP3s
      * 13.11. Copying an audio CD
      * 13.12. Copying a data CD with two drives
      * 13.13. Using CD-RW rewritables
      * 13.14. DVD support
      * 13.15. Creating ISO images from a CD
      * 13.16. Getting volume information from CDs and ISO images
      * 13.17. Initializing and using floppy disks
  * [[14. The cryptographic device driver (CGD)|guide/cgd]]   * [[14. The cryptographic device driver (CGD)|guide/cgd]]
    * [[14.1. Overview]]     * 14.1. Overview
    * [[14.2. Components of the Crypto-Graphic Disk system]]     * 14.2. Components of the Crypto-Graphic Disk system
    * [[14.3. Example: encrypting your disk]]     * 14.3. Example: encrypting your disk
    * [[14.4. Example: encrypted CDs/DVDs]]     * 14.4. Example: encrypted CDs/DVDs
    * [[14.5. Suggestions and Warnings]]     * 14.5. Suggestions and Warnings
    * [[14.6. Further Reading]]     * 14.6. Further Reading
  * [[15. Concatenated Disk Device (CCD) configuration|guide/ccd]]   * [[15. Concatenated Disk Device (CCD) configuration|guide/ccd]]
    * [[15.1. Install physical media]]     * 15.1. Install physical media
    * [[15.2. Configure Kernel Support]]     * 15.2. Configure Kernel Support
    * [[15.3. Disklabel each volume member of the CCD]]     * 15.3. Disklabel each volume member of the CCD
    * [[15.4. Configure the CCD]]     * 15.4. Configure the CCD
    * [[15.5. Initialize the CCD device]]     * 15.5. Initialize the CCD device
    * [[15.6. Create a 4.2BSD/UFS filesystem on the new CCD device]]     * 15.6. Create a 4.2BSD/UFS filesystem on the new CCD device
    * [[15.7. Mount the filesystem]]     * 15.7. Mount the filesystem
    * [[16. NetBSD RAIDframe|guide/raidframe]]
      * 16.1. RAIDframe Introduction
      * 16.2. Setup RAIDframe Support
      * 16.3. Example: RAID-1 Root Disk
  * [[17. NetBSD Logical Volume Manager (LVM) configuration|guide/lvm]]   * [[17. NetBSD Logical Volume Manager (LVM) configuration|guide/lvm]]
    * [[17.1. Anatomy of NetBSD Logical Volume Manager]]     * 17.1. Anatomy of NetBSD Logical Volume Manager
    * [[17.2. Install physical media]]     * 17.2. Install physical media
    * [[17.3. Configure Kernel Support]]     * 17.3. Configure Kernel Support
    * [[17.4. Configure LVM on a NetBSD system]]     * 17.4. Configure LVM on a NetBSD system
    * [[17.5. Disklabel each physical volume member of the LVM]]     * 17.5. Disklabel each physical volume member of the LVM
    * [[17.6. Create Physical Volumes]]     * 17.6. Create Physical Volumes
    * [[17.7. Create Volume Group]]     * 17.7. Create Volume Group
    * [[17.8. Create Logical Volume]]     * 17.8. Create Logical Volume
    * [[17.9. Example: LVM with Volume groups located on raid1]]     * 17.9. Example: LVM with Volume groups located on raid1
  * [[18. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)|guide/pam]]   * [[18. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)|guide/pam]]
    * [[18.1. About]]     * 18.1. About
    * [[18.2. Introduction]]     * 18.2. Introduction
    * [[18.3. Terms and conventions]]     * 18.3. Terms and conventions
    * [[18.4. PAM Essentials]]     * 18.4. PAM Essentials
    * [[18.5. PAM Configuration]]     * 18.5. PAM Configuration
    * [[18.6. PAM modules]]     * 18.6. PAM modules
    * [[18.7. PAM Application Programming]]     * 18.7. PAM Application Programming
    * [[18.8. PAM Module Programming]]     * 18.8. PAM Module Programming
    * [[18.9. Sample PAM Application]]     * 18.9. Sample PAM Application
    * [[18.10. Sample PAM Module]]     * 18.10. Sample PAM Module
    * [[18.11. Sample PAM Conversation Function]]     * 18.11. Sample PAM Conversation Function
    * [[18.12. Further Reading]]     * 18.12. Further Reading
  * [[19. Tuning NetBSD|guide/tuning]]   * [[19. Tuning NetBSD|guide/tuning]]
    * [[19.1. Introduction]]     * 19.1. Introduction
    * [[19.2. Tuning Considerations]]     * 19.2. Tuning Considerations
    * [[19.3. Visual Monitoring Tools]]     * 19.3. Visual Monitoring Tools
    * [[19.4. Monitoring Tools]]     * 19.4. Monitoring Tools
    * [[19.5. Network Tools]]     * 19.5. Network Tools
    * [[19.6. Accounting]]     * 19.6. Accounting
    * [[19.7. Kernel Profiling]]     * 19.7. Kernel Profiling
    * [[19.8. System Tuning]]     * 19.8. System Tuning
    * [[19.9. Kernel Tuning]]     * 19.9. Kernel Tuning
  * [[20. NetBSD Veriexec subsystem|guide/veriexec]]   * [[20. NetBSD Veriexec subsystem|guide/veriexec]]
    * [[20.1. How it works]]     * 20.1. How it works
    * [[20.2. Signatures file]]     * 20.2. Signatures file
    * [[20.3. Strict levels]]     * 20.3. Strict levels
    * [[20.4. Veriexec and layered file systems]]     * 20.4. Veriexec and layered file systems
    * [[20.5. Kernel configuration]]     * 20.5. Kernel configuration
  * [[21. Bluetooth on NetBSD|guide/bluetooth]]   * [[21. Bluetooth on NetBSD|guide/bluetooth]]
    * [[21.1. Introduction]]     * 21.1. Introduction
    * [[21.2. Supported Hardware]]     * 21.2. Supported Hardware
    * [[21.3. System Configuration]]     * 21.3. System Configuration
    * [[21.4. Human Interface Devices]]     * 21.4. Human Interface Devices
    * [[21.5. Personal Area Networking]]     * 21.5. Personal Area Networking
    * [[21.6. Serial Connections]]     * 21.6. Serial Connections
    * [[21.7. Audio]]     * 21.7. Audio
    * [[21.8. Object Exchange]]     * 21.8. Object Exchange
    * [[21.9. Troubleshooting]]     * 21.9. Troubleshooting
  * [[22. Miscellaneous operations|guide/misc]]   * [[22. Miscellaneous operations|guide/misc]]
    * [[22.1. Installing the boot manager]]     * 22.1. Installing the boot manager
    * [[22.2. Deleting the disklabel]]     * 22.2. Deleting the disklabel
    * [[22.3. Speaker]]     * 22.3. Speaker
    * [[22.4. Forgot root password?]]     * 22.4. Forgot root password?
    * [[22.5. Password file is busy?]]     * 22.5. Password file is busy?
    * [[22.6. Adding a new hard disk]]     * 22.6. Adding a new hard disk
    * [[22.7. How to rebuild the devices in /dev]]     * 22.7. How to rebuild the devices in /dev
   
 ***IV. Networking and related issues***  ***IV. Networking and related issues***
   
    * [[23. Introduction to TCP/IP Networking|guide/net-intro]]
      * 23.1. Audience
      * 23.2. Supported Networking Protocols
      * 23.3. Supported Media
      * 23.4. TCP/IP Address Format
      * 23.5. Subnetting and Routing
      * 23.6. Name Service Concepts
      * 23.7. Next generation Internet protocol - IPv6
    * [[24. Setting up TCP/IP on NetBSD in practice|guide/net-practice]]
      * 24.1. A walk through the kernel configuration
      * 24.2. Overview of the network configuration files
      * 24.3. Connecting to the Internet with a modem
      * 24.4. Creating a small home network
      * 24.5. Setting up an Internet gateway with IPNAT
      * 24.6. Setting up a network bridge device
      * 24.7. A common LAN setup
      * 24.8. Connecting two PCs through a serial line
      * 24.9. IPv6 Connectivity & Transition via 6to4
  * [[25. The Internet Super Server inetd   * [[25. The Internet Super Server inetd
  Allowing and denying hosts - /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny|guide/inetd]]   Allowing and denying hosts - /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny|guide/inetd]]
    * [[25.1. Overview]]     * 25.1. Overview
    * [[25.2. What is inetd?]]     * 25.2. What is inetd?
    * [[25.3. Configuring inetd - /etc/inetd.conf]]     * 25.3. Configuring inetd - /etc/inetd.conf
    * [[25.4. Services - /etc/services]]     * 25.4. Services - /etc/services
    * [[25.5. Protocols - /etc/protocols]]     * 25.5. Protocols - /etc/protocols
    * [[25.6. Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) - /etc/rpc]]     * 25.6. Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) - /etc/rpc
    * [[25.7. Adding a Service]]     * 25.7. Adding a Service
    * [[25.8. When to use or not to use inetd]]     * 25.8. When to use or not to use inetd
    * [[25.9. Other Resources]]     * 25.9. Other Resources
  * [[26. The Domain Name System|guide/dns]]   * [[26. The Domain Name System|guide/dns]]
    * [[26.1. DNS Background and Concepts]]     * 26.1. DNS Background and Concepts
    * [[26.2. The DNS Files]]     * 26.2. The DNS Files
    * [[26.3. Using DNS]]     * 26.3. Using DNS
    * [[26.4. Setting up a caching only name server]]     * 26.4. Setting up a caching only name server
    * [[27. Mail and news|guide/mail]]
      * 27.1. postfix
      * 27.2. fetchmail
      * 27.3. Reading and writing mail with mutt
      * 27.4. Strategy for receiving mail
      * 27.5. Strategy for sending mail
      * 27.6. Advanced mail tools
      * 27.7. News with tin
  * [[28. Introduction to the Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP)|guide/carp]]   * [[28. Introduction to the Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP)|guide/carp]]
    * [[28.1. CARP Operation]]     * 28.1. CARP Operation
    * [[28.2. Configuring CARP]]     * 28.2. Configuring CARP
    * [[28.3. Enabling CARP Support]]     * 28.3. Enabling CARP Support
    * [[28.4. CARP Example]]     * 28.4. CARP Example
    * [[28.5. Advanced CARP configuration]]     * 28.5. Advanced CARP configuration
    * [[28.6. Forcing Failover of the Master]]     * 28.6. Forcing Failover of the Master
    * [[28.7. License]]     * 28.7. License
    * [[29. Network services|guide/net-services]]
      * 29.1. The Network File System (NFS)
      * 29.2. The Network Time Protocol (NTP)
   
 ***V. Building the system***  ***V. Building the system***
   
  * [[30. Obtaining the sources|guide/fetch]]   * [[30. Obtaining the sources|guide/fetch]]
    * [[30.1. Preparing directories]]     * 30.1. Preparing directories
    * [[30.2. Terminology]]     * 30.2. Terminology
    * [[30.3. Downloading tarballs]]     * 30.3. Downloading tarballs
    * [[30.4. Fetching by CVS]]     * 30.4. Fetching by CVS
    * [[30.5. Sources on CD (ISO)]]     * 30.5. Sources on CD (ISO)
  * [[31. Crosscompiling NetBSD with build.sh|guide/build]]   * [[31. Crosscompiling NetBSD with build.sh|guide/build]]
    * [[31.1. Building the crosscompiler]]     * 31.1. Building the crosscompiler
    * [[31.2. Configuring the kernel manually]]     * 31.2. Configuring the kernel manually
    * [[31.3. Crosscompiling the kernel manually]]     * 31.3. Crosscompiling the kernel manually
    * [[31.4. Crosscompiling the kernel with build.sh]]     * 31.4. Crosscompiling the kernel with build.sh
    * [[31.5. Crosscompiling the userland]]     * 31.5. Crosscompiling the userland
    * [[31.6. Crosscompiling the X Window System]]     * 31.6. Crosscompiling the X Window System
    * [[31.7. Changing build behaviour]]     * 31.7. Changing build behaviour
  * [[32. Compiling the kernel|guide/kernel]]   * [[32. Compiling the kernel|guide/kernel]]
    * [[32.1. Requirements and procedure]]     * 32.1. Requirements and procedure
    * [[32.2. Installing the kernel sources]]     * 32.2. Installing the kernel sources
    * [[32.3. Creating the kernel configuration file]]     * 32.3. Creating the kernel configuration file
    * [[32.4. Building the kernel manually]]     * 32.4. Building the kernel manually
    * [[32.5. Building the kernel using build.sh]]     * 32.5. Building the kernel using build.sh
    * [[32.6. Installing the new kernel]]     * 32.6. Installing the new kernel
    * [[32.7. If something went wrong]]     * 32.7. If something went wrong
  * [[33. Updating an existing system from sources|guide/updating]]   * [[33. Updating an existing system from sources|guide/updating]]
    * [[33.1. Manual build and update procedure]]     * 33.1. Manual build and update procedure
    * [[33.2. Using sysinst]]     * 33.2. Using sysinst
    * [[33.3. Using sysbuild and sysupgrade]]     * 33.3. Using sysbuild and sysupgrade
    * [[33.4. More details about the updating of configuration and startup files]]     * 33.4. More details about the updating of configuration and startup files
    * [[34. Building NetBSD installation media|guide/inst-media]]
      * 34.1. Creating custom install or boot floppies for your architecture e.g. i386
      * 34.2. Creating a custom install or boot CD with build.sh
   
 ## Guide history  ## Guide history
   
Line 259  You can still get the Line 330  You can still get the
 [old version of the Guide](http://netbsd.org/docs/guide), which is not  [old version of the Guide](http://netbsd.org/docs/guide), which is not
 maintained anymore.  maintained anymore.
   
 ## Bibliography  
   
 * [AeleenFrisch] Aeleen Frisch. Copyright © 1991. O'Reilly & Associates. *Essential System Administration*.  
 * [CraigHunt] Craig Hunt. Copyright © 1993. O'Reilly & Associates. *TCP/IP Network Administration*.  
 * [RFC1034] P. V. Mockapetris. Copyright © 1987. *RFC 1034: Domain names - concepts and facilities*.  
 * [RFC1035] P. V. Mockapetris. Copyright © 1987. *RFC 1035: Domain names - implementation and specification*.  
 * [RFC1055] J. L. Romkey. Copyright © 1988. *RFC 1055: Nonstandard for transmission of IP datagrams over serial lines: SLIP*.  
 * [RFC1331] W. Simpson. Copyright © 1992. *RFC 1331: The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) for the Transmission of Multi-protocol Datagrams over Point-to-Point Links*.  
 * [RFC1332] G. McGregor. Copyright © 1992. *RFC 1332: The PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP)*.  
 * [RFC1933] R. Gilligan and E. Nordmark. Copyright © 1996. *RFC 1933: Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers*.  
 * [RFC2004] C. Perkins. Copyright © 1996. *RFC 2003: IP Encapsulation within IP*.  
 * [RFC2401] S. Kent and R. Atkinson. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2401: Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol*.  
 * [RFC2411] R. Thayer, N. Doraswamy, and R. Glenn. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2411: IP Security Document Roadmap*.  
 * [RFC2461] T. Narten, E. Nordmark, and W. Simpson. Copyright © 1998. *RFC 2461: Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)*.  
 * [RFC2529] B. Carpenter and C. Jung. Copyright © 1999. *RFC 2529: Transmission of IPv6 over IPv4 Domains without Explicit Tunnels*.  
 * [RFC3024] G. Montenegro. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3024: Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP*.  
 * [RFC3027] M. Holdrege and P. Srisuresh. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3027: Protocol Complications with the IP Network Address Translator*.  
 * [RFC3056] B. Carpenter and K. Moore. Copyright © 2001. *RFC 3056: Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds*.  
   
 ## Acknowledgements  ## Acknowledgements
   
 The NetBSD Guide was originally written by Federico Lupi who managed the  The NetBSD Guide was originally written by Federico Lupi who managed the
Line 364  CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INC Line 416  CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INC
 IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY  IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY
 OF SUCH DAMAGE.  OF SUCH DAMAGE.
   
 #### Networks Associates Technology's license on the PAM article  
   
 Copyright (c) 2001-2003 Networks Associates Technology, Inc.  
 All rights reserved.  
 This software was developed for the FreeBSD Project by ThinkSec AS and  
 Network Associates Laboratories, the Security Research Division of  
 Network Associates, Inc.  under DARPA/SPAWAR contract N66001-01-C-8035  
 ("CBOSS"), as part of the DARPA CHATS research program.  
 Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without  
 modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions  
 are met:  
 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright  
 notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.  
 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright  
 notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the  
 documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.  
 3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote  
 products derived from this software without specific prior written  
 permission.  
 THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND  
 ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE  
 IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE  
 ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE  
 FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL  
 DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS  
 OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)  
 HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT  
 LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY  
 OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF  
 SUCH DAMAGE.  
   
 #### Joel Knight's license on the CARP article  
   
 Copyright (c) 2005 Joel Knight <enabled@myrealbox.com>  
 Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this documentation for  
 any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the  
 above copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.  
 THE DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL  
 WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS DOCUMENTATION INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED  
 WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE  
 AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL  
 DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR  
 PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER  
 TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR  
 PERFORMANCE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION  
   
 #### The NetBSD Developers  #### The NetBSD Developers
   
 Copyright 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 Federico Lupi  Copyright 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 Federico Lupi

Removed from v.1.20  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.33


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