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    1: **Contents**
    2: 
    3: [[!toc levels=3]]
    4: 
    5: # Example installation
    6: 
    7: ## Introduction
    8: 
    9: This chapter will guide you through the installation process. The concepts
   10: presented here apply to all installation methods. The only difference is in the
   11: way the distribution sets are fetched by the installer. Some details of the
   12: installation differ depending on the NetBSD release. The examples from this
   13: chapter were created with NetBSD 8.0.
   14: 
   15: ### Note
   16: 
   17: The following install screens are just examples. Do not simply copy them, as
   18: your hardware and configuration details may be different!
   19: 
   20: ## The installation process
   21: 
   22: The installation process is divided logically in two parts. In the first part
   23: you create a partition for NetBSD and write the disklabel for that partition. In
   24: the second part you decide which distribution sets (subsets of the operating
   25: system) you want to install and then extract the files into the newly created
   26: partition(s).
   27: 
   28: ## Keyboard layout
   29: 
   30: The NetBSD install program sysinst allows you to change the keyboard layout
   31: during the installation. If for some reason this does not work for you, you can
   32: use the map in the following table.
   33: 
   34: [[!table data="""
   35: US | IT | DE | FR
   36: `-` | `'` | `ß` | `)`
   37: `/` | `-` | `-` | `!`
   38: `=` | `ì` | `'` | `-`
   39: `:` | `ç` | `Ö` | `M`
   40: `;` | `ò` | `ö` | `m`
   41: `#` | `£` | `§` | `3`
   42: `"` | `°` | `Ä` | `%`
   43: `*` | `(` | `(` | `8`
   44: `(` | `)` | `)` | `9`
   45: `)` | `=` | `=` | `0`
   46: `'` | `à` | `ä` | `ù`
   47: `` ` `` | `\` | `^` | `@`
   48: `\` | `ù` | `#` | `` ` ``
   49: """]]
   50: 
   51: ## Starting the installation
   52: 
   53: To start the installation of NetBSD, insert your chosen boot media (CD/DVD, USB
   54: drive, floppy, etc.) and reboot the computer. The kernel on the installation
   55: medium will be booted and it will start displaying a lot of messages on the
   56: screen about hardware being detected.
   57: 
   58: ![Selecting the language](/guide/images/exinst_language.png)  
   59: **Selecting the language**
   60: 
   61: When the kernel has booted you will find yourself in the NetBSD installation
   62: program, sysinst, shown in the previous figure. From here on you should follow
   63: the instructions displayed on the screen, using the `INSTALL` document as a
   64: companion reference. You will find the INSTALL document in various formats in
   65: the root directory of the NetBSD release. The sysinst screens all have more or
   66: less the same layout: the upper part of the screen shows a short description of
   67: the current operation or a short help message, and the rest of the screen is
   68: made up of interactive menus and prompts. To make a choice, use the cursor keys,
   69: the `Ctrl+N` (next) and `Ctrl+P` (previous) keys, or press one of the letters
   70: displayed left of each choice. Confirm your choice by pressing the Return (also
   71: known as "Enter") key.
   72: 
   73: Start by selecting the language you prefer to use for the installation process.
   74: 
   75: The next screen will allow you to select a suitable keyboard type:
   76: 
   77: ![Selecting a keyboard type](/guide/images/exinst_keyboard.png)  
   78: **Selecting a keyboard type**
   79: 
   80: This will bring you to the main menu of the installation program:
   81: 
   82: ![The sysinst main menu](/guide/images/exinst_main.png)  
   83: **The sysinst main menu**
   84: 
   85: Choosing the *Install NetBSD to hard disk* option brings you to the next screen
   86: , where you need to confirm that you want to continue the installation:
   87: 
   88: ![Confirming to install NetBSD](/guide/images/exinst_confirm.png)  
   89: **Confirming to install NetBSD**
   90: 
   91: After choosing *Yes* to continue, sysinst displays a list of one or more disks
   92: and asks which one you want to install NetBSD on. In the example given in the
   93: following figure, there are two disks, and NetBSD will be installed on `wd0`,
   94: the first SATA or IDE disk found. If you use SCSI or external USB disks, the first will
   95: be named `sd0`, the second `sd1` and so on.
   96: 
   97: ![Choosing a hard disk](/guide/images/exinst_select_disk.png)  
   98: **Choosing a hard disk**
   99: 
  100: Then installer will ask to confirm the detected disk geometry from the
  101: information provided by the BIOS. It gives almost always the right values. Choose
  102: "This is the correct geometry", unless you know that the information provided by
  103: your BIOS is reportedly incorrect.
  104: 
  105: ![Disk geometry](/guide/images/exinst_disk-geometry.png)
  106: **Disk geometry**
  107: 
  108: ## MBR partitions
  109: 
  110: The first important step of the installation has come: the partitioning of the
  111: hard disk. First, you need to specify whether NetBSD will use a partition
  112: (suggested choice) or the whole disk. In the former case it is still possible to
  113: create a partition that uses the whole hard disk (see below) so we recommend
  114: that you select this option as it keeps the BIOS partition table in a format
  115: which is compatible with other operating systems.
  116: 
  117: ![Choosing the partitioning scheme](/guide/images/exinst_mbr.png)  
  118: **Choosing the partitioning scheme**
  119: 
  120: The next screen shows the current state of the MBR partition table on the hard
  121: disk before the installation of NetBSD. There are four primary partitions, and
  122: as you can see, this example disk is currently empty. If you do have other
  123: partitions you can leave them around and install NetBSD on a partition that is
  124: currently unused, or you can overwrite a partition to use it for NetBSD.
  125: 
  126: ![fdisk](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk.png)  
  127: **fdisk**
  128: 
  129: Deleting a partition is simple: after selecting the partition, a menu with
  130: options for that partition will appear (see below). Change the partition kind to
  131: *Delete partition* to remove the partition. Of course, if you want to use the
  132: partition for NetBSD you can set the partition kind to *NetBSD*.
  133: 
  134: You can create a partition for NetBSD by selecting the partition you want to
  135: install NetBSD to. The partition names `a` to `d` correspond to the four primary
  136: partitions on other operating systems. After selecting a partition, a menu with
  137: options for that partition will appear, as shown here:
  138: 
  139: ![Partition options](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk-type.png)  
  140: **Partition options**
  141: 
  142: To create a new partition, the following information must be supplied:
  143: 
  144:  * the type (kind) of the new partition
  145:  * the first (start) sector of the new partition
  146:  * the size of the new partition
  147: 
  148: Choose the partition type *NetBSD* for the new partition (using the `type`
  149: option). The installation program will try to guess the *start* position based
  150: on the end of the preceding partition. Change this value if necessary. The same
  151: thing applies to the `size` option; the installation program will try to fill in
  152: the space that is available until the next partition or the end of the disk
  153: (depending on which comes first). You can change this value if it is incorrect,
  154: or if you do not want NetBSD to use the suggested amount of space.
  155: 
  156: After you have chosen the partition type, start position, and size, it is a good
  157: idea to set the name that should be used in the boot menu. You can do this by
  158: selecting the *bootmenu* option and providing a label, e.g., `NetBSD`.
  159: Repeat this step for other bootable partitions so you can boot both
  160: NetBSD and a Windows system (or other operating systems) using the NetBSD
  161: bootselector. You can also choose one of the labelled partitions as default for
  162: the boot menu. If you are satisfied with the partition options, confirm your
  163: choice by selecting *Partition OK*. Choose *Partition table OK* to leave the MBR
  164: partition table editor.
  165: 
  166: If you have made an error in partitioning (for example you have created
  167: overlapping partitions) sysinst will display a message and suggest to go
  168: back to the MBR partition editor (but you are also allowed to continue). If the
  169: data is correct but the NetBSD partition lies outside the range of sectors which
  170: is bootable by the BIOS, sysinst will warn you and ask if you want to proceed
  171: anyway. Doing so may lead to problems on older PCs.
  172: 
  173: *Note*: This is not a limitation of NetBSD. Some old BIOSes cannot boot a
  174: partition which lies outside the first 1024 cylinders. To fully understand the
  175: problem you should study the different type of BIOSes and the many addressing
  176: schemes that they use (*physical CHS*, *logical CHS*, *LBA*, ...). These topics
  177: are not described in this guide.
  178: 
  179: On modern computers (those with support for *int13 extensions*), it is possible
  180: to install NetBSD in partitions that live outside the first 8 GB of the hard
  181: disk, provided that the NetBSD boot selector is installed.
  182: 
  183: Next, sysinst will offer to install a boot selector on the hard disk. This
  184: screen is shown here:
  185: 
  186: ![Installing the boot selector](/guide/images/exinst_bootselect.png)  
  187: **Installing the boot selector**
  188: 
  189: At this point, the *BIOS partitions* (called *slices* on BSD systems) have been
  190: created. They are also called *PC BIOS partitions*, *MBR partitions* or *fdisk
  191: partitions*.
  192: 
  193: *Note*: Do not confuse the *slices* or *BIOS partitions* with the *BSD
  194: partitions*, which are different things.
  195: 
  196: ## Disklabel partitions
  197: 
  198: Some platforms, like PC systems (amd64 and i386), use DOS-style MBR partitions
  199: to separate file systems. The MBR partition you created earlier in the
  200: installation process is necessary to make sure that other operating systems do
  201: not overwrite the diskspace that you allocated to NetBSD.
  202: 
  203: NetBSD uses its own partition scheme, called a *disklabel*, which is stored at
  204: the start of the MBR partition. In the next few steps you will create a
  205: [[!template id=man name="disklabel" section="5"]]
  206: and set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions, or use existing partition sizes, as
  207: shown here:
  208: 
  209: ![Edit partitions?](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel.png)  
  210: **Edit partitions?**
  211: 
  212: When you choose to set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions you can define the
  213: partitions you would like to create. The installation program will generate a
  214: disklabel based on these settings. This installation screen is shown here:
  215: 
  216: ![Setting partition sizes](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-change.png)  
  217: **Setting partition sizes**
  218: 
  219: The default partition scheme of just using a big `/` (root) file system (plus
  220: swap) works fine with NetBSD, and there is little need to change this. The
  221: previous figure shows how to change the size of the swap partition to 4096 MB.
  222: Note also that partition / is marked with a "+", so it will occupy all the remaining free space (not located for any other partition).
  223: Changing `/tmp` to reside on a *RAM disk*
  224: ([[!template id=man name="mount_tmpfs" section="8"]] or [[!template id=man name="mfs" section="8"]]) for
  225: extra speed may be a good idea. Other partition schemes may use separate
  226: partitions for `/var`, `/usr` and/or `/home`, but you should use your own
  227: experience to decide if you need this. When you completed the definition of all the desired partitions, choose *Accept partition sizes*.
  228: 
  229: The next step is to create the disklabel and edit its partitions, if necessary,
  230: using the disklabel editor (see below). If you predefined the partition sizes in
  231: the previous step, the resulting disklabel will probably fit your wishes. In
  232: that case you can complete the process immediately by selecting *Partition sizes
  233: ok*.
  234: 
  235: ![The disklabel editor](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partitions.png)  
  236: **The disklabel editor**
  237: 
  238: In the amd64 port, there are two reserved partitions, `c`, representing the NetBSD partition, and
  239: `d`, representing the whole disk. You can edit all other partitions by using the
  240: cursor keys and pressing the return key or using the corresponding letters. You can add a partition by selecting an
  241: unused slot and setting parameters for that partition. The partition editing
  242: screen is shown below. When you are satisfied with all the values, choose *Partition sizes ok".
  243: 
  244: ![Disklabel partition editing](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partition-editor.png)  
  245: **Disklabel partition editing**
  246: 
  247: ## Setting the disk name
  248: 
  249: After defining the partitions in the new disklabel, the last item is to enter a
  250: name for the NetBSD disk as shown below. This can be used later to distinguish
  251: between disklabels of otherwise identical disks.
  252: 
  253: ![Naming the NetBSD disk](/guide/images/exinst_diskname.png)  
  254: **Naming the NetBSD disk**
  255: 
  256: ## Last chance!
  257: 
  258: The installer now has all the data it needs to prepare the disk. Nothing has
  259: been written to the disk at this point, and now is your last chance to abort the
  260: installation process before actually writing data to the disk. Choose *no* to
  261: abort the installation process and return to the main menu, or continue by
  262: selecting *yes*.
  263: 
  264: ![Last chance to abort](/guide/images/exinst_last-chance.png)  
  265: **Last chance to abort**
  266: 
  267: ## The disk preparation process
  268: 
  269: After confirming that sysinst should prepare the disk, it will run
  270: [[!template id=man name="disklabel" section="8"]]
  271: to create the NetBSD partition layout and
  272: [[!template id=man name="newfs" section="8"]] to
  273: create the file systems on the disk.
  274: 
  275: After preparing the NetBSD partitions and their filesystems, the next question
  276: (shown in the next figure) is which *bootblocks* to install. Usually you will
  277: choose the default of *BIOS console*, i.e., show boot messages on your
  278: computer's display.
  279: 
  280: If you run a farm of machines without monitor, it may be more convenient to use
  281: a serial console running on one of the serial ports. The menu also allows
  282: changing the serial port's baud rate from the default of 9600 baud, 8 data bits,
  283: no parity and one stopbit.
  284: 
  285: ![Selecting bootblocks](/guide/images/exinst_bootblocks.png)  
  286: **Selecting bootblocks**
  287: 
  288: ## Installation type
  289: 
  290: The installer will then ask whether you want to do a full, minimal or custom
  291: installation. NetBSD is broken into a collection of distributions sets. *Full
  292: installation* is the default and will install all sets; *Minimal installation*
  293: will only install a small core set, the minimum of what is needed for a working
  294: system. If you select *Custom installation* you can select which sets you would
  295: like to have installed. This step is shown here:
  296: 
  297: ![Full or custom installation](/guide/images/exinst_install-type.png)  
  298: **Full or custom installation**
  299: 
  300: If you choose to do a custom installation, sysinst will allow you to choose
  301: which distribution sets to install, as shown in the following figure. At a
  302: minimum, you must select a kernel and the *Base* and *System (/etc)* sets.
  303: 
  304: ## Choosing the installation media
  305: 
  306: At this point, you have finished the first and most difficult part of the
  307: installation!
  308: 
  309: The second half of the installation process consists of populating the file
  310: systems by extracting the distribution sets that you selected earlier (base,
  311: compiler tools, games, etc). Now sysinst needs to find the NetBSD sets and you
  312: must tell it where to find them: it can be the same medium where sysinst
  313: resides, or a different one, according to your preferences. The menu offers
  314: several choices, as shown below. The options are explained in detail in the
  315: `INSTALL` documents.
  316: 
  317: ![Installation media](/guide/images/exinst_medium.png)  
  318: **Installation media**
  319: 
  320: ### Installing from CD-ROM / DVD / install image media
  321: 
  322: Choose this option if you want to install NetBSD from either an optic medium
  323: ("CD-ROM / DVD") or another medium, such as an USB drive. If the running sysinst
  324: itself has been loaded from there, the corresponding device will be
  325: automatically selected and the extraction of the distribution sets will begin.
  326: 
  327: ### The CD-ROM/DVD or other device name
  328: 
  329: If sysinst is not able to detect the CD-ROM/DVD or the USB flash device, you can
  330: gather more information about the hardware configuration as follows:
  331: 
  332:  1. Press Ctrl-Z to pause sysinst and go to the shell prompt.
  333: 
  334:  2. Type the command:
  335: 
  336:         # dmesg
  337: 
  338:     This will show the kernel startup messages, including the name of the CD-ROM device, for example *cd0*.
  339: 
  340:  3. If the display scrolls too quickly, you can also use **more**:
  341: 
  342:         # dmesg | more
  343: 
  344:    This will show the kernel startup messages, including information about not
  345:  detected or not configured devices. When the first CD-ROM or DVD drive in the
  346:  system is properly working, it is usually named `cd0`, regardless of whether it is
  347:  IDE or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire). The first USB flash drive is named sd0
  348:  when it is correctly configured.
  349: 
  350:  4. As instructed, you can return to the NetBSD installation by typing either
  351:  `exit` or `^D` (`Ctrl+D`).
  352: 
  353: ### Installing from an unmounted file system
  354: 
  355: The next figure shows the menu to install NetBSD from an unmounted file system.
  356: It is necessary to specify the device (*Device*), its file system type
  357: (*File system*) and a root directory inside it (*Base directory*). The binary
  358: sets and source sets are `.tgz` files. The default mountpoint in `mnt` in
  359: amd64. The path is formed as follows:
  360: 
  361: 	/<default mountpoint>/<Base directory>/<Binary set directory> or <Source set directory>/set.tgz
  362: 
  363: Choose a combination of *Base directory* and *Binary set directory* (or *Source set directory*) that generates a valid path in your unmounted filesystem. If more than one consecutive `/` appear, only the first `/` will actually be considered. You need to specify a *Source set directory* only if you previously chose to install some sources. Source sets are usually not included in the installation images.
  364: 
  365: In the following example the install sets are stored on a *MSDOS* file system,
  366: on partition `e` on the device `sd0`.
  367: 
  368: ![Mounting a file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount.png)  
  369: **Mounting a file system**
  370: 
  371: Specify the device name and the partition. The
  372: following figure shows how to specify device `sd0` with partition `e`.
  373: 
  374: ![Mounting a partition](/guide/images/exinst_mount-partition.png)  
  375: **Mounting a partition**
  376: 
  377: In the next figure, the file system type specified is `msdos`. This value is
  378: used to form the command `mount_<File system>` to mount the volume. Any string
  379: (representing a "File system" type) which forms a valid command is accepted: for
  380: example, the NetBSD file system "ffs" or "ext2fs", a Linux file system.
  381: In this example, the *Base directory* item is left blank and the binary sets are
  382: stored under `/sets`, so that the path becomes:
  383: 
  384: 	/mnt///sets
  385: 
  386: Ignoring the multiple /, this is equivalent to /mnt/sets and it is a valid one.
  387: Choosing *Continue* will start the extraction of the sets.
  388: 
  389: ![Accessing a MSDOS file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount-msdos.png)  
  390: **Accessing a MSDOS file system**
  391: 
  392: ### Installing via FTP and Network configuration
  393: 
  394: If you choose to install from a local network or the Internet via FTP, sysinst
  395: must be instructed to properly get the distribution sets, as shown below.
  396: 
  397: The defaults work most of the time. You also need to configure your network
  398: connection, before proceeding: go to the corresponding menu item, pressing
  399: letter *j*.
  400: 
  401: NetBSD currently supports installation via ethernet, USB ethernet or wireless,
  402: and wireless LAN. Installation via DSL (PPP over Ethernet) is not supported
  403: during installation.
  404: 
  405: The first step shown in the next figure further below consists of selecting
  406: which network card to configure. sysinst will determine a list of available
  407: network interfaces, present them and ask which one to use.
  408: 
  409: *Note*: The exact names of your network interfaces depend on the hardware you
  410: use. Example interfaces are `wm` for Intel Gigabit interfaces, `ne` for NE2000
  411: and compatible ethernet cards, and `ath` for Atheros based wireless cards. This
  412: list is by no means complete, and NetBSD supports many more network devices.
  413: 
  414: To get a list of network interfaces available on your system, interrupt the
  415: installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter
  416: 
  417:     # ifconfig -a
  418:     wm0: flags=0x8802<BROADCAST,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
  419:             capabilities=2bf80<TSO4,IP4CSUM_Rx,IP4CSUM_Tx,TCP4CSUM_Rx>
  420:             capabilities=2bf80<TCP4CSUM_Tx,UDP4CSUM_Rx,UDP4CSUM_Tx,TCP6CSUM_Tx>
  421:             capabilities=2bf80<UDP6CSUM_Tx>
  422:             enabled=0
  423:             ec_capabilities=7<VLAN_MTU,VLAN_HWTAGGING,JUMBO_MTU>
  424:             ec_enabled=0
  425:             address: 08:00:27:7e:85:d7
  426:             media: Ethernet autoselect (1000baseT full-duplex)
  427:             status: active
  428:     lo0: flags=0x8048<LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 33624
  429: 
  430: If the desired interface has not been shown, get more information about all the
  431: devices found during system boot. Type:
  432: 
  433:     # dmesg | more
  434: 
  435: As instructed, you can return to the NetBSD installation by typing either `exit`
  436: or `^D` (`Ctrl+D`).
  437: 
  438: Next, you have a chance to set your network medium. Press *Enter* to choose the
  439: default.
  440: 
  441: *Note*: It is unlikely that you will need anything other than the default here.
  442: If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts, you may, for
  443: example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get a list of
  444: supported media and media options for a given network device ("wm0", for
  445: example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:
  446: 
  447:     # ifconfig -m wm0
  448:     wm0: flags=0x8802<BROADCAST,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
  449:             capabilities=2bf80<TSO4,IP4CSUM_Rx,IP4CSUM_Tx,TCP4CSUM_Rx>
  450:             capabilities=2bf80<TCP4CSUM_Tx,UDP4CSUM_Rx,UDP4CSUM_Tx,TCP6CSUM_Tx>
  451:             capabilities=2bf80<UDP6CSUM_Tx>
  452:             enabled=0
  453:             ec_capabilities=7<VLAN_MTU,VLAN_HWTAGGING,JUMBO_MTU>
  454:             ec_enabled=0
  455:             address: 08:00:27:7e:85:d7
  456:             media: Ethernet autoselect (1000baseT full-duplex)
  457:             status: active
  458:             supported Ethernet media:
  459:                     media none
  460:                     media 10baseT
  461:                     media 10baseT mediaopt full-duplex
  462:                     media 100baseTX
  463:                     media 100baseTX mediaopt full-duplex
  464:                     media autoselect
  465: 
  466: The several values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including
  467: keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.
  468: 
  469: Return to the installation by typing `exit` or `^D` (`Ctrl+D`).
  470: 
  471: ![Which network interface to configure](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-if.png)  
  472: **Which network interface to configure**
  473: 
  474: Next, you have a chance to set your network medium.
  475: 
  476: *Note*: It is unlikely that you will need to enter anything other than the
  477: default here. If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts,
  478: you may, for example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get
  479: a list of supported media and media options for a given network device (ne2, for
  480: example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:
  481: 
  482:     # ifconfig -m ne2
  483:     ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
  484:             address: 00:03:0d:c6:73:d5
  485:             media: Ethernet 10baseT full-duplex
  486:             status: active
  487:             supported Ethernet media:
  488:                     media 10baseT
  489:                     media 10baseT mediaopt full-duplex
  490:                     media 10base2
  491:                     media autoselect
  492: 
  493: The various values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including
  494: keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.
  495: 
  496: Return to the installation by typing:
  497: 
  498:     # fg
  499: 
  500: The next question will be whether you want to perform DHCP autoconfiguration as
  501: shown in the figure below. Answer *Yes* if you have a DHCP *Dynamic Host
  502: Configuration Protocol* (DHCP) running somewhere on your network, and sysinst
  503: will fetch a number of defaults from it. Answer *No* to enter all the values
  504: manually.
  505: 
  506: We will assume you answered *No* and go into all the questions asked in detail.
  507: 
  508: ![Using DHCP for network configuration](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-dhcp.png)  
  509: **Using DHCP for network configuration**
  510: 
  511: The image below shows the questions asked for the network configuration. The
  512: values to be entered are:
  513: 
  514:  * *Your DNS Domain:* -- This is the name of the domain you are in.
  515:  * *Your hostname:* -- The name by which other machines can usually address your
  516:    computer. Not used during installation.
  517:  * *Your IPv4 number:* -- Enter your numerical Internet Protocol address in
  518:    *dotted quad* notation here, for example, 192.168.1.3
  519:  * *IPv4 Netmask:* -- The netmask for your network, either given as a hex value
  520:    (`0xffffff00`) or in dotted-quad notation (`255.255.255.0`).
  521:  * *IPv4 gateway:* -- Your router's (or default gateway's) IP address. Do not
  522:    use a hostname here!
  523:  * *IPv4 name server:* -- Your (first) DNS server's IP address. Again, don't use
  524:    a hostname.
  525: 
  526: ![Entering and configuring network data](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfg.png)  
  527: **Entering and configuring network data**
  528: 
  529: After answering all of your network configuration info, it will be displayed,
  530: and you will have a chance to go back and make changes.
  531: 
  532: ![Confirming network parameters](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfgok.png)  
  533: **Confirming network parameters**
  534: 
  535: sysinst will now run a few commands (not displayed in detail here) to configure
  536: the network: flushing the routing table, setting the default route, and testing
  537: if the network connection is operational.
  538: 
  539: Now that you have a functional network connection, you must tell the installer
  540: how to get the distribution sets, as shown in the next figure.
  541: 
  542: When you are satisfied with your settings (the defaults work most of the time),
  543: choose *Get Distribution* to continue.
  544: 
  545: ![Defining the FTP settings](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-src.png)  
  546: **Defining the FTP settings**
  547: 
  548: ### Installing via NFS
  549: 
  550: If you want to install NetBSD from a server in your local network, NFS is an
  551: alternative to FTP.
  552: 
  553: *Note*: Using this installation method requires the ability to set up an NFS
  554: server, a topic which is not discussed here.
  555: 
  556: As shown below, you must specify the IP address of the NFS server with "Host",
  557: the "Base directory" that is *exported* by the NFS server, and the "Set
  558: directory", which contains the install sets.
  559: 
  560: ![NFS install screen](/guide/images/exinst_nfs.png)  
  561: **NFS install screen**
  562: 
  563: The following image shows an example: Host `192.168.1.50` is the NFS server that
  564: provides the directory `/home/username/Downloads` The NetBSD install sets are
  565: stored in the directory `/home/username/Downloads/sets` on the NFS server.
  566: Choose *Continue* to start the installation of the distribution sets.
  567: 
  568: ![NFS example](/guide/images/exinst_nfs-example.png)  
  569: **NFS example**
  570: 
  571: ## Extracting sets
  572: 
  573: After the method for obtaining distribution sets has been chosen, and (if
  574: applicable) after those sets have been transferred, they will be extracted into
  575: the new NetBSD file system.
  576: 
  577: After extracting all selected sets, sysinst will create device nodes in the
  578: `/dev` directory and then display a message saying that everything went well.
  579: 
  580: Another message will let you know that the set extraction is now completed, and
  581: that you will have an opportunity to configure some essential things before
  582: finishing the NetBSD installation:
  583: 
  584: ![Extraction of sets completed](/guide/images/exinst_extraction-complete.png)  
  585: **Extraction of sets completed**
  586: 
  587: ## System configuration
  588: 
  589: Having reached this point of the installation you will see the configuration
  590: menu:
  591: 
  592: ![Configuration menu](/guide/images/exinst_configuration_menu.png)  
  593: **Configuration menu**
  594: 
  595: Here, you can do the following:
  596: 
  597:  * *Configure network* -- make changes to the network settings on the installed
  598:    system, i.e. either configure it or if you already did, write that
  599:    configuration to disk.
  600: 
  601:  * *Timezone* -- set your time zone.
  602: 
  603:  * *Root shell* -- this potion allows you to choose which command line
  604:    interpreter, also known as *shell*, will be used for the root account.
  605: 
  606:  * *Change root password* -- set the password you will use to login in as root.
  607: 
  608:  * *Enable installation of binary packages* -- this option enables the
  609:    installation of binary packages (3rd party software).
  610: 
  611:  * *Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source* -- install the pkgsrc
  612:    tree for installing third-party software from source.
  613: 
  614:  * *Enable sshd* -- enable the secure shell daemon sshd(8) to allow users to
  615:    login over an insecure network.
  616: 
  617:  * *Enable ntpd* -- ntpd(8) is the daemon to keep the system time accurate.
  618: 
  619:  * *Run ntpdate at boot* -- sets the local date and time.
  620: 
  621:  * *Enable mdnsd* -- a daemon invoked at boot time to implement Multicast DNS
  622:    and DNS Service Discovery.
  623: 
  624: #### Configure network
  625: 
  626: The process was already described previously, you can just call it again and
  627: have the results directly written to disk.
  628: 
  629: #### Timezone
  630: 
  631: The timezone is Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) by default, and you can use the
  632: two-level menu of continents/countries and cities shown in the figure below to
  633: select your timezone with the Return Key.
  634: 
  635: ![Timezone selection](/guide/images/exinst_timezone.png)  
  636: **Selecting the system's time zone**
  637: 
  638: #### Root Shell
  639: 
  640: The default is the classic Bourne shell, sh(1). Other choices are the Korn shell
  641: (ksh(1)) and the C shell(csh(1)). If, upon reading this, you don't have some
  642: idea of which shell you prefer, simply use the default, as this is a highly
  643: subjective decision. Should you later change your mind, root's shell can always
  644: be changed with the chsh(1) command or by directly editing master.passwd(5).
  645: 
  646: ![Root Shell](/guide/images/exinst_rootshell.png)  
  647: **Root Shell**
  648: 
  649: #### Change root password
  650: 
  651: Perhaps one of the things that you would want to configurate is your root
  652: password. If you don't, it is unset, i.e. you can login as root just by entering
  653: the login name without a password.
  654: 
  655: ![Change root password](/guide/images/exinst_change_root_password.png)  
  656: **Change root password**
  657: 
  658: When you agree to set a root password, sysinst will run the passwd(1) utility
  659: for you. Please note that the password is not echoed:
  660: 
  661: ![Entering root password](/guide/images/exinst_entering_root_password.png)  
  662: **Entering the root password**
  663: 
  664: #### Enable installation of binary packages
  665: 
  666: This option installs pkgin(1) and initialises its database. This will feel
  667: familiar to users of other package tools, such as apt-get, pkg or yum.
  668: 
  669: Note that installing pkgin will need a network connection. If you didn't set it
  670: up yet, this option will call the configuration for you.
  671: 
  672: ![Enable installation of binary packages](/guide/images/exinst_pkgin.png)  
  673: **Enable installation of binary packages**
  674: 
  675: When the installation is finished, a short help is provided, and you can return
  676: to the main menu:
  677: 
  678: ![After enabling installation of binary packages](/guide/images/exinst_pkgin_after.png)  
  679: **After enabling installation of binary packages**
  680: 
  681: #### Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source.
  682: 
  683: Use this option to download the [pkgsrc](http://pkgsrc.org) tree to install
  684: additional packages by source. Note that this method in many cases conflicts
  685: with binary packages, so you should decide for either one of them or use
  686: different directories for installing packages.
  687: 
  688: This will require a network connection set up, otherwise, it will ask for it
  689: itself.
  690: 
  691: ![Fetch and unpack pkgsrc](/guide/images/exinst_fetch_and_unpack_pkgsrc.png)  
  692: **Fetch and unpack pkgsrc for building from source**
  693: 
  694: This step will take a while, as pkgsrc consists of many small files which have
  695: to be unpacked on your hard disk, and several 10MB have to be downloaded.
  696: 
  697: #### Enabling daemons
  698: 
  699: Finally, you can enable some daemons such as sshd(8), ntpd(8) or mdnsd(8) and
  700: choose whether you want to run ntpdate(8) at boot, which will set the time no
  701: matter how large the gap between "real" time and you computer's time is. ntpd
  702: will not set the time when the time skew is too large.
  703: 
  704: *Note*: You can change these settings any time you want after the installation.
  705: You can either do this by directly editing the configuration files, or by
  706: running sysinst(8) again (either from the running system, or from an
  707: installation CD).
  708: 
  709: *Note*: When you run this menu when you already installed NetBSD, but want to
  710: configure the running system, you have to choose the hard disk NetBSD is
  711: installed on. When sysinst doesn't find an NetBSD installation, it will fail,
  712: and you have to choose another disk.
  713: 
  714: ## Finishing the installation
  715: 
  716: At this point the installation is finished.
  717: 
  718: ![Installation completed](/guide/images/exinst_completed.png)  
  719: **Installation completed**
  720: 
  721: After passing the dialog that confirms the installation, sysinst will return to
  722: the main menu. Remove any installation media (CD, floppy, etc.) and choose
  723: *Reboot the computer* to boot your new NetBSD installation.
  724: 
  725: ![Reboot to finish installation](/guide/images/exinst_reboot.png)  
  726: **Reboot to finish installation**
  727: 

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