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    1: **Contents**
    2: 
    3: [[!toc levels=3]]
    4: 
    5: # Example installation
    6: 
    7: ## Introduction
    8: 
    9: This chapter will guide you through the installation process. The concepts 
   10: presented here apply to all installation methods. The only difference is in the 
   11: way the distribution sets are fetched by the installer. Some details of the 
   12: installation differ depending on the NetBSD release: The examples from this 
   13: chapter were created with NetBSD 5.0.
   14: 
   15: ### Note
   16: 
   17: The following install screens are just examples. Do not simply copy them, as 
   18: your hardware and configuration details may be different!
   19: 
   20: ## The installation process
   21: 
   22: The installation process is divided logically in two parts. In the first part 
   23: you create a partition for NetBSD and write the disklabel for that partition. In 
   24: the second part you decide which distribution sets (subsets of the operating 
   25: system) you want to install and then extract the files into the newly created 
   26: partition(s).
   27: 
   28: ## Keyboard layout
   29: 
   30: [[!table data="""
   31: US | IT | DE | FR
   32: `-` | `'` | `ß` | `)`
   33: `/` | `-` | `-` | `!`
   34: `=` | `ì` | `'` | `-`
   35: `:` | `ç` | `Ö` | `M`
   36: `;` | `ò` | `ö` | `m`
   37: `#` | `£` | `§` | `3`
   38: `"` | `°` | `Ä` | `%`
   39: `*` | `(` | `(` | `8`
   40: `(` | `)` | `)` | `9`
   41: `)` | `=` | `=` | `0`
   42: `'` | `à` | `ä` | `ù`
   43: `` ` `` | `\` | `^` | `@`
   44: `\` | `ù` | `#` | `` ` ``
   45: """]]
   46: 
   47: The NetBSD install program sysinst allows you to change the keyboard layout 
   48: during the installation. If for some reason this does not work for you, you can 
   49: use the map in the following table.
   50: 
   51: ## Starting the installation
   52: 
   53: To start the installation of NetBSD, insert your chosen boot media (CD/DVD, USB 
   54: drive, floppy, etc.) and reboot the computer. The kernel on the installation 
   55: medium will be booted and start displaying a lot of messages on the screen about 
   56: hardware being detected.
   57: 
   58: ![Selecting the language](/guide/images/exinst_language.png)  
   59: **Selecting the language**
   60: 
   61: When the kernel has booted you will find yourself in the NetBSD installation 
   62: program, sysinst, shown in the previous figure. From here on you should follow 
   63: the instructions displayed on the screen, using the `INSTALL` document as a 
   64: companion reference. You will find the INSTALL document in various formats in 
   65: the root directory of the NetBSD release. The sysinst screens all have more or 
   66: less the same layout: the upper part of the screen shows a short description of 
   67: the current operation or a short help message, and the rest of the screen is 
   68: made up of interactive menus and prompts. To make a choice, use the cursor keys, 
   69: the `Ctrl+N` (next) and `Ctrl+P` (previous) keys, or press one of the letters 
   70: displayed left of each choice. Confirm your choice by pressing the Return key.
   71: 
   72: Start by selecting the language you prefer to use for the installation process.
   73: 
   74: The next screen will allow you to select a suitable keyboard type:
   75: 
   76: ![Selecting a keyboard type](/guide/images/exinst_keyboard.png)  
   77: **Selecting a keyboard type**
   78: 
   79: This will bring you to the main menu of the installation program:
   80: 
   81: ![The sysinst main menu](/guide/images/exinst_main.png)  
   82: **The sysinst main menu**
   83: 
   84: Choosing the *Install NetBSD to hard disk* option brings you to the next screen 
   85: , where you need to confirm that you want to continue the installation:
   86: 
   87: ![Confirming to install NetBSD](/guide/images/exinst_confirm.png)  
   88: **Confirming to install NetBSD**
   89: 
   90: After choosing *Yes* to continue, sysinst displays a list of one or more disks 
   91: and asks which one you want to install NetBSD on. In the example given in the 
   92: following figure, there are two disks, and NetBSD will be installed on `wd0`, 
   93: the first IDE disk found. If you use SCSI or external USB disks, the first will 
   94: be named `sd0`, the second `sd1` and so on.
   95: 
   96: ![Choosing a hard disk](/guide/images/exinst_select_disk.png)  
   97: **Choosing a hard disk**
   98: 
   99: The installer will then ask whether you want to do a full, minimal or custom 
  100: installation. NetBSD is broken into a collection of distributions sets. *Full 
  101: installation* is the default and will install all sets; *Minimal installation* 
  102: will only install a small core set, the minimum of what is needed for a working 
  103: system. If you select *Custom installation* you can select which sets you would 
  104: like to have installed. This step is shown here:
  105: 
  106: ![Full or custom installation](/guide/images/exinst_install-type.png)  
  107: **Full or custom installation**
  108: 
  109: If you choose to do a custom installation, sysinst will allow you to choose 
  110: which distribution sets to install, as shown in the following figure. At a 
  111: minimum, you must select a kernel and the *Base* and *System (/etc)* sets.
  112: 
  113: ![Selecting distribution sets](/guide/images/exinst_sets.png)  
  114: **Selecting distribution sets**
  115: 
  116: ## MBR partitions
  117: 
  118: The first important step of the installation has come: the partitioning of the 
  119: hard disk. First, you need to specify whether NetBSD will use a partition 
  120: (suggested choice) or the whole disk. In the former case it is still possible to 
  121: create a partition that uses the whole hard disk (see below) so we recommend 
  122: that you select this option as it keeps the BIOS partition table in a format 
  123: which is compatible with other operating systems.
  124: 
  125: ![Choosing the partitioning scheme](/guide/images/exinst_mbr.png)  
  126: **Choosing the partitioning scheme**
  127: 
  128: The next screen shows the current state of the MBR partition table on the hard 
  129: disk before the installation of NetBSD. There are four primary partitions, and 
  130: as you can see, this example disk is currently empty. If you do have other 
  131: partitions you can leave them around and install NetBSD on a partition that is 
  132: currently unused, or you can overwrite a partition to use it for NetBSD.
  133: 
  134: ![fdisk](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk.png)  
  135: **fdisk**
  136: 
  137: Deleting a partition is simple: after selecting the partition, a menu with 
  138: options for that partition will appear (see below). Change the partition kind to 
  139: *Delete partition* to remove the partition. Of course, if you want to use the 
  140: partition for NetBSD you can set the partition kind to *NetBSD*.
  141: 
  142: You can create a partition for NetBSD by selecting the partition you want to 
  143: install NetBSD to. The partition names `a` to `d` correspond to the four primary 
  144: partitions on other operating systems. After selecting a partition, a menu with 
  145: options for that partition will appear, as shown here:
  146: 
  147: ![Partition options](/guide/images/exinst_fdisk-type.png)  
  148: **Partition options**
  149: 
  150: To create a new partition, the following information must be supplied:
  151: 
  152:  * the type (kind) of the new partition
  153:  * the first (start) sector of the new partition
  154:  * the size of the new partition
  155: 
  156: Choose the partition type *NetBSD* for the new partition (using the `type` 
  157: option). The installation program will try to guess the *start* position based 
  158: on the end of the preceding partition. Change this value if necessary. The same 
  159: thing applies to the `size` option; the installation program will try to fill in 
  160: the space that is available until the next partition or the end of the disk 
  161: (depending on which comes first). You can change this value if it is incorrect, 
  162: or if you do not want NetBSD to use the suggested amount of space.
  163: 
  164: After you have chosen the partition type, start position, and size, it is a good 
  165: idea to set the name that should be used in the boot menu. You can do this by 
  166: selecting the *bootmenu* option and providing a label, e.g., `NetBSD`. It is a 
  167: good idea to repeat this step for other bootable partitions so you can boot both 
  168: NetBSD and a Windows system (or other operating systems) using the NetBSD 
  169: bootselector. If you are satisfied with the partition options, confirm your 
  170: choice by selecting *Partition OK*. Choose *Partition table OK* to leave the MBR 
  171: partition table editor.
  172: 
  173: If you have made an error in partitioning (for example you have created 
  174: overlapping partitions) sysinst will display a message and suggest that you go 
  175: back to the MBR partition editor (but you are also allowed to continue). If the 
  176: data is correct but the NetBSD partition lies outside the range of sectors which 
  177: is bootable by the BIOS, sysinst will warn you and ask if you want to proceed 
  178: anyway. Doing so may lead to problems on older PCs.
  179: 
  180: *Note*: This is not a limitation of NetBSD. Some old BIOSes cannot boot a 
  181: partition which lies outside the first 1024 cylinders. To fully understand the 
  182: problem you should study the different type of BIOSes and the many addressing 
  183: schemes that they use (*physical CHS*, *logical CHS*, *LBA*, ...). These topics 
  184: are not described in this guide.
  185: 
  186: On modern computers (those with support for *int13 extensions*), it is possible 
  187: to install NetBSD in partitions that live outside the first 8 GB of the hard 
  188: disk, provided that the NetBSD boot selector is installed.
  189: 
  190: Next, sysinst will offer to install a boot selector on the hard disk. This 
  191: screen is shown here:
  192: 
  193: ![Installing the boot selector](/guide/images/exinst_bootselect.png)  
  194: **Installing the boot selector**
  195: 
  196: At this point, the *BIOS partitions* (called *slices* on BSD systems) have been 
  197: created. They are also called *PC BIOS partitions*, *MBR partitions* or *fdisk 
  198: partitions*.
  199: 
  200: *Note*: Do not confuse the *slices* or *BIOS partitions* with the *BSD 
  201: partitions*, which are different things.
  202: 
  203: ## Disklabel partitions
  204: 
  205: Some platforms, like PC systems (amd64 and i386), use DOS-style MBR partitions 
  206: to separate file systems. The MBR partition you created earlier in the 
  207: installation process is necessary to make sure that other operating systems do 
  208: not overwrite the diskspace that you allocated to NetBSD.
  209: 
  210: NetBSD uses its own partition scheme, called a *disklabel*, which is stored at 
  211: the start of the MBR partition. In the next few steps you will create a 
  212: [disklabel(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+5+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) 
  213: and set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions, or use existing partition sizes, as 
  214: shown here:
  215: 
  216: ![Edit partitions?](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel.png)  
  217: **Edit partitions?**
  218: 
  219: When you choose to set the sizes of the NetBSD partitions you can define the 
  220: partitions you would like to create. The installation program will generate a 
  221: disklabel based on these settings. This installation screen is shown here:
  222: 
  223: ![Setting partition sizes](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-change.png)  
  224: **Setting partition sizes**
  225: 
  226: The default partition scheme of just using a big `/` (root) file system (plus 
  227: swap) works fine with NetBSD, and there is little need to change this. The 
  228: previous figure shows how to change the size of the swap partition to 600 MB. 
  229: Changing `/tmp` to reside on a *RAM disk* 
  230: ([mfs(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?mfs+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)) for 
  231: extra speed may be a good idea. Other partition schemes may use separate 
  232: partitions for `/var`, `/usr` and/or `/home`, but you should use your own 
  233: experience to decide if you need this.
  234: 
  235: The next step is to create the disklabel and edit its partitions, if necessary, 
  236: using the disklabel editor (see below). If you predefined the partition sizes in 
  237: the previous step, the resulting disklabel will probably fit your wishes. In 
  238: that case you can complete the process immediately by selecting *Partition sizes 
  239: ok*.
  240: 
  241: ![The disklabel editor](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partitions.png)  
  242: **The disklabel editor**
  243: 
  244: There are two reserved partitions, `c`, representing the NetBSD partition, and 
  245: `d`, representing the whole disk. You can edit all other partitions by using the 
  246: cursor keys and pressing the return key. You can add a partition by selecting an 
  247: unused slot and setting parameters for that partition. The partition editing 
  248: screen is shown below:
  249: 
  250: ![Disklabel partition editing](/guide/images/exinst_disklabel-partition-editor.png)  
  251: **Disklabel partition editing**
  252: 
  253: ## Setting the disk name
  254: 
  255: After defining the partitions in the new disklabel, the last item is to enter a 
  256: name for the NetBSD disk as shown bwlow. This can be used later to distinguish 
  257: between disklabels of otherwise identical disks.
  258: 
  259: ![Naming the NetBSD disk](/guide/images/exinst_diskname.png)  
  260: **Naming the NetBSD disk**
  261: 
  262: ## Last chance!
  263: 
  264: The installer now has all the data it needs to prepare the disk. Nothing has 
  265: been written to the disk at this point, and now is your last chance to abort the 
  266: installation process before actually writing data to the disk. Choose *no* to 
  267: abort the installation process and return to the main menu, or continue by 
  268: selecting *yes*.
  269: 
  270: ![Last chance to abort](/guide/images/exinst_last-chance.png)  
  271: **Last chance to abort**
  272: 
  273: ## The disk preparation process
  274: 
  275: After confirming that sysinst should prepare the disk, it will run 
  276: [disklabel(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?disklabel+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) 
  277: to create the NetBSD partition layout and 
  278: [newfs(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?newfs+8+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) to 
  279: create the file systems on the disk.
  280: 
  281: After preparing the NetBSD partitions and their filesystems, the next question 
  282: (shown in the next figure) is which *bootblocks* to install. Usually you will 
  283: choose the default of *BIOS console*, i.e., show boot messages on your 
  284: computer's display.
  285: 
  286: If you run a farm of machines without monitor, it may be more convenient to use 
  287: a serial console running on one of the serial ports. The menu also allows 
  288: changing the serial port's baud rate from the default of 9600 baud, 8 data bits, 
  289: no parity and one stopbit.
  290: 
  291: ![Selecting bootblocks](/guide/images/exinst_bootblocks.png)  
  292: **Selecting bootblocks**
  293: 
  294: ## Choosing the installation media
  295: 
  296: At this point, you have finished the first and most difficult part of the 
  297: installation!
  298: 
  299: The second half of the installation process consists of populating the file 
  300: systems by extracting the distribution sets that you selected earlier (base, 
  301: compiler tools, games, etc). Before unpacking the sets, sysinst asks what 
  302: information you would like to see during that process, as shown below. You can 
  303: choose between a progress bar, a display of the name of each extracted file, or 
  304: nothing.
  305: 
  306: ![Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process](/guide/images/exinst_verbosity.png)  
  307: **Choosing the verbosity of the extraction process**
  308: 
  309: Now sysinst needs to find the NetBSD sets and you must tell it where to find 
  310: them. The menu offers several choices, as shown below. The options are explained 
  311: in detail in the `INSTALL` documents.
  312: 
  313: ![Installation media](/guide/images/exinst_medium.png)  
  314: **Installation media**
  315: 
  316: ### Installing from CD-ROM or DVD
  317: 
  318: When selecting *CD-ROM / DVD*, sysinst asks the name of the CD-ROM or DVD device 
  319: and the directory in which the set files are stored, see below. The device is 
  320: usually `cd0` for the first CD-ROM or DVD drive, regardless of whether it is IDE 
  321: or SCSI (or even USB or FireWire).
  322: 
  323: ![CD-ROM/DVD installation](/guide/images/exinst_cdrom.png)  
  324: **CD-ROM/DVD installation**
  325: 
  326: ### The CD-ROM/DVD device name
  327: 
  328: If you don't know the name of the CD-ROM/DVD device, you can find by doing the 
  329: following:
  330: 
  331:  1. Press Ctrl-Z to pause sysinst and go to the shell prompt.
  332: 
  333:  2. Type the command:
  334: 
  335:         # dmesg
  336: 
  337:     This will show the kernel startup messages, including the name of the CD-ROM device, for example *cd0*.
  338: 
  339:  3. If the display scrolls too quickly, you can also use **more**:
  340: 
  341:         # dmesg | more
  342: 
  343:  4. Go back to the installation program with the command:
  344: 
  345:         # fg
  346: 
  347: ### Installing from an unmounted file system
  348: 
  349: The next figure shows the menu to install NetBSD from an unmounted file system. 
  350: It is necessary to specify the device (*Device*), the file system of the device 
  351: (*File system*) and the path to the install sets (*Set directory*). The setting 
  352: for the *Base directory* is optional and can be kept blank.
  353: 
  354: In the following example the install sets are stored on a *MSDOS* file system, 
  355: on partition `e` on the device `sd0`.
  356: 
  357: ![Mounting a file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount.png)  
  358: **Mounting a file system**
  359: 
  360: It is usually necessary to specify the device name and the partition. The 
  361: following figure shows how to specify device `sd0` with partition `e`.
  362: 
  363: ![Mounting a partition](/guide/images/exinst_mount-partition.png)  
  364: **Mounting a partition**
  365: 
  366: In the next figure, the file system type is specified. It is `msdos` but it 
  367: could also be the NetBSD file system `ffs` or `ext2fs`, a Linux file system. The 
  368: *Base directory item is left blank and the binary sets are stored under `/sets`. 
  369: Choosing *Continue* will start the extraction of the sets.
  370: *
  371: 
  372: ![Accessing a MSDOS file system](/guide/images/exinst_mount-msdos.png)  
  373: **Accessing a MSDOS file system**
  374: 
  375: ### Installing via FTP
  376: 
  377: If you choose to install from a local network or the Internet via FTP, sysinst 
  378: will configure the system's network connection, download the selected set files 
  379: to a temporary directory, and then extract them.
  380: 
  381: NetBSD currently supports installation via ethernet, USB ethernet or wireless, 
  382: and wireless LAN. Installation via DSL (PPP over Ethernet) is not supported 
  383: during installation.
  384: 
  385: The first step shown in the next figure further below consists of selecting 
  386: which network card to configure. sysinst will determine a list of available 
  387: network interfaces, present them and ask which one to use.
  388: 
  389: *Note*: The exact names of your network interfaces depend on the hardware you 
  390: use. Example interfaces are `wm` for Intel Gigabit interfaces, `ne` for NE2000 
  391: and compatible ethernet cards, and `ath` for Atheros based wireless cards. This 
  392: list is by no means complete, and NetBSD supports many more network devices.
  393: 
  394: To get a list of network interfaces available on your system, interrupt the 
  395: installation process by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter
  396: 
  397:     # ifconfig -a
  398:     ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
  399:             address: 00:06:0d:c6:73:d5
  400:             media: Ethernet autoselect 10baseT full-duplex
  401:             status: active
  402:             inet 0.0.0.0 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 0.0.0.0
  403:             inet6 fe80::206:dff:fec6:73d5%ne2 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
  404:     lo0: flags=8009<UP,LOOPBACK,MULTICAST> mtu 33196
  405:             inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000
  406:             inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128
  407:             inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x2
  408:     ppp0: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
  409:     ppp1: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
  410:     sl0: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
  411:     sl1: flags=c010<POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST> mtu 296
  412:     strip0: flags=0 mtu 1100
  413:     strip1: flags=0 mtu 1100 
  414: 
  415: To get more information about all the devices found during system startup, 
  416: including network devices, type
  417: 
  418:     # dmesg | more
  419: 
  420: You can return to the NetBSD installation by typing
  421: 
  422:     # fg
  423: 
  424: ![Which network interface to configure](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-if.png)  
  425: **Which network interface to configure**
  426: 
  427: Next, you have a chance to set your network medium.
  428: 
  429: *Note*: It is unlikely that you will need to enter anything other than the 
  430: default here. If you experience problems like very slow transfers or timeouts, 
  431: you may, for example, force different duplex settings for ethernet cards. To get 
  432: a list of supported media and media options for a given network device (ne2, for 
  433: example), escape from sysinst by pressing `Ctrl+Z`, then enter:
  434: 
  435:     # ifconfig -m ne2
  436:     ne2: flags=8822<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
  437:             address: 00:03:0d:c6:73:d5
  438:             media: Ethernet 10baseT full-duplex
  439:             status: active
  440:             supported Ethernet media:
  441:                     media 10baseT
  442:                     media 10baseT mediaopt full-duplex
  443:                     media 10base2
  444:                     media autoselect
  445: 
  446: The various values printed after `media` may be of interest here, including 
  447: keywords like `autoselect` but also including any `mediaopt` settings.
  448: 
  449: Return to the installation by typing:
  450: 
  451:     # fg
  452: 
  453: The next question will be whether you want to perform DHCP autoconfiguration as 
  454: shown in the figure below. Answer *Yes* if you have a DHCP *Dynamic Host 
  455: Configuration Protocol* (DHCP) running somewhere on your network, and sysinst 
  456: will fetch a number of defaults from it. Answer *No* to enter all the values 
  457: manually.
  458: 
  459: We will assume you answered *No* and go into all the questions asked in detail.
  460: 
  461: ![Using DHCP for network configuration](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-dhcp.png)  
  462: **Using DHCP for network configuration**
  463: 
  464: The image below shows the questions asked for the network configuration. The 
  465: values to be entered are:
  466: 
  467:  * *Your DNS Domain:* -- This is the name of the domain you are in.
  468:  * *Your hostname:* -- The name by which other machines can usually address your 
  469:    computer. Not used during installation.
  470:  * *Your IPv4 number:* -- Enter your numerical Internet Protocol address in 
  471:    *dotted quad* notation here, for example, 192.168.1.3
  472:  * *IPv4 Netmask:* -- The netmask for your network, either given as a hex value 
  473:    (`0xffffff00`) or in dotted-quad notation (`255.255.255.0`).
  474:  * *IPv4 gateway:* -- Your router's (or default gateway's) IP address. Do not 
  475:    use a hostname here!
  476:  * *IPv4 name server:* -- Your (first) DNS server's IP address. Again, don't use 
  477:    a hostname.
  478: 
  479: ![Entering and configuring network data](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfg.png)  
  480: **Entering and configuring network data**
  481: 
  482: After answering all of your network configuration info, it will be displayed, 
  483: and you will have a chance to go back and make changes.
  484: 
  485: ![Confirming network parameters](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-cfgok.png)  
  486: **Confirming network parameters**
  487: 
  488: sysinst will now run a few commands (not displayed in detail here) to configure 
  489: the network: flushing the routing table, setting the default route, and testing 
  490: if the network connection is operational.
  491: 
  492: Now that you have a functional network connection, you must tell the installer 
  493: how to get the distribution sets, as shown in the next figure.
  494: 
  495: When you are satisfied with your settings (the defaults work most of the time), 
  496: choose *Get Distribution* to continue.
  497: 
  498: ![Defining the FTP settings](/guide/images/exinst_ftp-src.png)  
  499: **Defining the FTP settings**
  500: 
  501: ### Installing via NFS
  502: 
  503: If you want to install NetBSD from a server in your local network, NFS is an 
  504: alternative to FTP.
  505: 
  506: *Note*: Using this installation method requires the ability to set up an NFS 
  507: server, a topic which is not discussed here.
  508: 
  509: As shown below, you must specify the IP address of the NFS server with "Host", 
  510: the "Base directory" that is *exported* by the NFS server, and the "Set 
  511: directory", which contains the install sets.
  512: 
  513: ![NFS install screen](/guide/images/exinst_nfs.png)  
  514: **NFS install screen**
  515: 
  516: The following image shows an example: Host `192.168.1.50` is the NFS server that 
  517: provides the directory `/home/username/Downloads` The NetBSD install sets are 
  518: stored in the directory `/home/username/Downloads/sets` on the NFS server. 
  519: Choose *Continue* to start the installation of the distribution sets.
  520: 
  521: ![NFS example](/guide/images/exinst_nfs-example.png)  
  522: **NFS example**
  523: 
  524: ## Extracting sets
  525: 
  526: After the method for obtaining distribution sets has been chosen, and (if 
  527: applicable) after those sets have been transferred, they will be extracted into 
  528: the new NetBSD file system.
  529: 
  530: After extracting all selected sets, sysinst will create device nodes in the 
  531: `/dev` directory and then display a message saying that everything went well.
  532: 
  533: Another message will let you know that the set extraction is now completed, and 
  534: that you will have an opportunity to configure some essential things before 
  535: finishing the NetBSD installation:
  536: 
  537: ![Extraction of sets completed](/guide/images/exinst_extraction-complete.png)  
  538: **Extraction of sets completed**
  539: 
  540: ## System configuration
  541: 
  542: The first thing you can configure is your timezone. It is *Universal Time 
  543: Coordinated* (UTC) by default, and you can use the two-level menu of 
  544: continents/countries and cities shown below to select your timezone with the 
  545: Return key. Next, press `x` followed by Return to exit timezone selection.
  546: 
  547: ![Selecting the system's time zone](/guide/images/exinst_timezone.png)  
  548: **Selecting the system's time zone**
  549: 
  550: At this point, you are given the option to choose a password encryption scheme. 
  551: While *DES* is the standard algorithm used on most Unix systems, *MD5*, 
  552: *Blowfish*, and *SHA1* allow longer passwords than DES, which only uses the 
  553: first eight characters of the password that is entered. DES is still useful for 
  554: interoperability with other operating systems.
  555: 
  556: ![Selecting a password encryption scheme](/guide/images/exinst_cipher.png)  
  557: **Selecting a password encryption scheme**
  558: 
  559: After choosing the password cipher you are asked if you want to set the root 
  560: password. It is recommended to set a root password at this point for security 
  561: reasons.
  562: 
  563: ![Set a root password?](/guide/images/exinst_passwd.png)  
  564: **Set a root password?**
  565: 
  566: When you agree to set a root password, sysinst will run the 
  567: [passwd(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?passwd+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386) 
  568: utility for you. Please note that the password is not echoed.
  569: 
  570: ![Setting root password](/guide/images/exinst_passwd2.png)  
  571: **Setting root password**
  572: 
  573: The next menu allows you to choose which command line interpreter - also known 
  574: as a `shell` - will be used for the root account. The default is the classic 
  575: *Bourne shell*, 
  576: [sh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?sh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386). Other 
  577: choices are the *Korn shell* 
  578: ([ksh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?ksh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)) and the 
  579: *C shell* 
  580: ([csh(1)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?csh+1+NetBSD-5.0.1+i386)). If, 
  581: upon reading this, you don't have some idea of which shell you prefer, simply 
  582: use the default, as this is a highly subjective decision. Should you later 
  583: change your mind, root's shell can always be changed.
  584: 
  585: ![Choosing a shell](/guide/images/exinst_shell.png)  
  586: **Choosing a shell**
  587: 
  588: ## Finishing the installation
  589: 
  590: At this point the installation is finished.
  591: 
  592: ![Installation completed](/guide/images/exinst_completed.png)  
  593: **Installation completed**
  594: 
  595: After passing the dialog that confirms the installation, sysinst will return to 
  596: the main menu. Remove any installation media (CD, floppy, etc.) and choose 
  597: *Reboot the computer* to boot your new NetBSD installation.
  598: 
  599: ![Reboot to finish installation](/guide/images/exinst_reboot.png)  
  600: **Reboot to finish installation**
  601: 

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